Read by QxMD icon Read

Reward based learning

Caitlin B O'Hara, Alexandra Keyes, Bethany Renwick, Katrin E Giel, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
In anorexia nervosa (AN), motivational salience is attributed to illness-compatible cues (e.g., underweight and active female bodies) and this is hypothesised to involve dopaminergic reward circuitry. We investigated the effects of reducing dopamine (DA) transmission on the motivational processing of AN-compatible cues in women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). This involved the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) procedure and a startle eye-blink modulation (SEM) task...
2016: PloS One
Wang Kezhu, Xu Pan, Lu Cong, Dong Liming, Zhang Beiyue, Lu Jingwei, Yang Yanyan, Liu Xinmin
Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jonathan M Highsmith, Karl L Wuensch, Tuan Tran, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables...
April 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
Weijian Li, Haojie Ji, Fengying Li, Ping Li, Yuchi Zhang, Xinyu Li
BACKGROUND: Like adults, children need to allocate study time and endeavour optimally in order to enhance learning effectiveness. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the development of shifting from habitual to agenda-based processes on study decisions. SAMPLE: The participants were 309 children in the second, fourth, and sixth grades. METHODS: We adopted the research paradigm proposed by Ariel and Dunlosky (, Mem...
October 14, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Christopher J Burke, Michelle Baddeley, Philippe N Tobler, Wolfram Schultz
UNLABELLED: Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Barbara J Knowlton, Tara K Patterson
Data from experimental animals and human subjects has provided convergent evidence for the key role of the striatum in the formation of stimulus-response habits. Habits can be distinguished from associative memories that support goal-directed actions based on their insensitivity to reward devaluation and contingency degradation. Behavior on many instrumental learning tasks can be supported by both declarative knowledge and habits, and these contributions shift with the amount of training. This shift appears to be accompanied by the involvement of different cortico-striatal loops in controlling behavior...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Alekhya Mandali, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Everyday, we encounter situations where available choices are nearly equally rewarding (high conflict) calling for some tough decision making. Experimental recordings showed that the activity of Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) increases during such situations providing the extra time needed to make the right decision, teasing apart the most rewarding choice from the runner up closely trailing behind. This prolonged deliberation necessary for decision making under high conflict was absent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery of STN...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Voot Tangkaratt, Jun Morimoto, Masashi Sugiyama
The goal of reinforcement learning is to learn an optimal policy which controls an agent to acquire the maximum cumulative reward. The model-based reinforcement learning approach learns a transition model of the environment from data, and then derives the optimal policy using the transition model. However, learning an accurate transition model in high-dimensional environments requires a large amount of data which is difficult to obtain. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, we propose to combine model-based reinforcement learning with the recently developed least-squares conditional entropy (LSCE) method, which simultaneously performs transition model estimation and dimension reduction...
August 24, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Mayuka Kowaguchi, Nirali P Patel, Megan E Bunnell, Jerald D Kralik
The brain has evolved different approaches to solve problems, but the mechanisms that determine which approach to take remain unclear. One possibility is that control progresses from simpler processes, such as associative learning, to more complex ones, such as relational reasoning, when the simpler ones prove inadequate. Alternatively, control could be based on competition between the processes. To test between these possibilities, we posed the support problem to rhesus monkeys using a tool-use paradigm, in which subjects could pull an object (the tool) toward themselves to obtain an otherwise out-of-reach goal item...
September 15, 2016: Cognition
Nicole R Karcher, Bruce D Bartholow, Elizabeth A Martin, John G Kerns
Both positive psychotic symptoms and anhedonia are associated with striatal functioning, but few studies have linked risk for psychotic disorders to a neural measure evoked during a striatal dopamine-related reward and punishment-based learning task, such as a reversal learning task (RLT; Cools et al, 2009). The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a neural response that in part reflects striatal dopamine functioning. We recorded EEG during the RLT in three groups: (a) people with psychotic experiences (PE; n=20) at increased risk for psychotic disorders; (b) people with extremely elevated social anhedonia (SocAnh; n=22); and (c) controls (n=20)...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rebecca Boehme, Robert C Lorenz, Tobias Gleich, Lydia Romund, Patricia Pelz, Sabrina Golde, Eva Flemming, Andrew Wold, Lorenz Deserno, Joachim Behr, Diana Raufelder, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
Adolescence is a critical maturation period for human cognitive control and executive function. In this study, a large sample of adolescents (n = 85) performed a reversal learning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed behavioral data using a reinforcement learning model to provide individually fitted parameters and imaging data with regard to reward prediction errors (PE). Following a model-based approach, we formed two groups depending on whether individuals tended to update expectations predominantly for the chosen stimulus or also for the unchosen one...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ben Seymour, Michael Barbe, Peter Dayan, Tamara Shiner, Ray Dolan, Gereon R Fink
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease is known to cause a subtle but important adverse impact on behaviour, with impulsivity its most widely reported manifestation. However, precisely which computational components of the decision process are modulated is not fully understood. Here we probe a number of distinct subprocesses, including temporal discount, outcome utility, instrumental learning rate, instrumental outcome sensitivity, reward-loss trade-offs, and perseveration...
2016: Scientific Reports
David Kellen, Thorsten Pachur, Ralph Hertwig
Decisions under risk have been shown to differ depending on whether information on outcomes and probabilities is gleaned from symbolic descriptions or gathered through experience. To some extent, this description-experience gap is due to sampling error in experience-based choice. Analyses with cumulative prospect theory (CPT), investigating to what extent the gap is also driven by differences in people's subjective representations of outcome and probability information (taking into account sampling error), have produced mixed results...
September 9, 2016: Cognition
Zdeňa A Op de Macks, Silvia A Bunge, Orly N Bell, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andrew S Kayser, Ronald E Dahl
The onset of adolescence is associated with a developmental shift toward peers that contributes to increased prioritization for learning about and achieving social status, and an increased tendency to engage in risky behaviors. There is relatively little understanding about the specific links between these adolescent-typical phenomena, particularly regarding their neural underpinnings. Based on existing models that suggest the role of puberty in promoting adolescent status-seeking and risk-taking tendencies, we investigated the relation of pubertal hormones with behavioral and neural responses to status-relevant social information in the context of risk taking...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Peter Railton
What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior...
September 3, 2016: Cognition
Dennis Garlick, Stephen B Fountain, Aaron P Blaisdell
Extensive research has documented evidence for rule learning in sequential behavior tasks in both rats and humans. We adapted the 2-choice serial multiple choice (SMC) task developed for use with rats (Fountain & Rowan, 1995a) to study sequence behavior in pigeons. Pigeons were presented with 8 disks arranged in a circular array on a touchscreen, and pecking to an illuminated disk could lead to reward. Correct responding consisted of serial patterns involving "run" chunks of 3 elements (123 234, etc.). Some pigeons experienced a violation of the chunk rule in the final chunk...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Huiyun Du, Wei Deng, James B Aimone, Minyan Ge, Sarah Parylak, Keenan Walch, Wei Zhang, Jonathan Cook, Huina Song, Liping Wang, Fred H Gage, Yangling Mu
Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Louise K Refsgaard, Kia Haubro, Darryl S Pickering, Sarah A Stuart, Emma S J Robinson, Jesper T Andreasen
RATIONALE: Affective biases seemingly play a crucial role for the onset and development of depression. Acute treatment with monoamine-based antidepressants positively influences emotional processing, and an early correction of biases likely results in repeated positive experiences that ultimately lead to improved mood. OBJECTIVES: Using two conventional antidepressants, sertraline and duloxetine, we aimed to forward the characterization of a newly developed affective bias test (ABT) for rats...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
The aetiology of eating disorders (EDs) is unclear, but many hypotheses implicate alterations in behavioural control. Specifically and because of its relevance to symptomatology, there has been much interest in inhibitory control, i.e., the ability to inhibit inappropriate/unwanted behaviours. This has been studied in relation to reactive motor inhibition (withholding a response in reaction to a signal), reward-based inhibition (e.g., temporal discounting paradigms) and to reversal learning (e.g., set shifting tasks assessing cognitive flexibility and compulsivity)...
August 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"