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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#1
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629382/community-first-responders-and-responder-schemes-in-the-united-kingdom-systematic-scoping-review
#2
Viet-Hai Phung, Ian Trueman, Fiona Togher, Roderick Orner, A Niroshan Siriwardena
BACKGROUND: Community First Responder (CFR) schemes support lay people to respond to medical emergencies, working closely with ambulance services. They operate widely in the UK. There has been no previous review of UK literature on these schemes. This is the first systematic scoping review of UK literature on CFR schemes, which identifies the reasons for becoming a CFR, requirements for training and feedback and confusion between the CFR role and that of ambulance service staff. This study also reveals gaps in the evidence base for CFR schemes...
June 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628005/emergence-of-visually-evoked-reward-expectation-signals-in-dopamine-neurons-via-the-superior-colliculus-in-v1-lesioned-monkeys
#3
Norihiro Takakuwa, Rikako Kato, Peter Redgrave, Tadashi Isa
Responses of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons reflecting expected reward from sensory cues are critical for reward-based associative learning. However, critical pathways by which reward-related visual information is relayed to DA neurons remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated Pavlovian conditioning in macaque monkeys with unilateral primary visual cortex (V1) lesions (an animal model of 'blindsight'). Anticipatory licking responses to obtain juice drops were elicited in response to visual conditioned stimuli (CS) in the affected visual field...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626011/effects-of-ventral-striatum-lesions-on-stimulus-versus-action-based-reinforcement-learning
#4
Kathryn M Rothenhoefer, Vincent D Costa, Ramón Bartolo, Raquel Vicario-Feliciano, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated ventral striatum (VS) lesioned macaques' performance on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus based and action based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared to controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#5
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609483/histone-posttranslational-modifications-predict-specific-alternative-exon-subtypes-in-mammalian-brain
#6
Qiwen Hu, Eun Ji Kim, Jian Feng, Gregory R Grant, Elizabeth A Heller
A compelling body of literature, based on next generation chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing of reward brain regions indicates that the regulation of the epigenetic landscape likely underlies chronic drug abuse and addition. It is now critical to develop highly innovative computational strategies to reveal the relevant regulatory transcriptional mechanisms that may underlie neuropsychiatric disease. We have analyzed chromatin regulation of alternative splicing, which is implicated in cocaine exposure in mice...
June 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607840/stress-profile-influences-learning-approach-in-a-marine-fish
#7
Vincent Raoult, Larissa Trompf, Jane E Williamson, Culum Brown
The spatial learning skills of high and low stress juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were tested in a dichotomous choice apparatus. Groups of fish were formed based on background blood cortisol levels and required to learn the location of a food reward hidden in one of two compartments. Low stress fish characterised by low background levels of the stress hormone cortisol had higher activity levels and entered both rewarded and unrewarded rooms frequently. Within the first week of exposure, however, their preference for the rewarded room increased, indicative of learning...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604818/cacna1c-gene-regulates-behavioral-strategies-in-operant-rule-learning
#8
Georgia Koppe, Anne Stephanie Mallien, Stefan Berger, Dusan Bartsch, Peter Gass, Barbara Vollmayr, Daniel Durstewitz
Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593190/nucleus-accumbens-shell-dopamine-preferentially-tracks-information-related-to-outcome-value-of-reward
#9
Deirdre A Sackett, Michael P Saddoris, Regina M Carelli
Effective decision-making requires organisms to predict reward values and bias behavior toward the best available option. The mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, is involved in this process. Although studies support a role of the shell and core in specific aspects of decision-making (e.g., risk, effort, delay), no studies have directly compared dopamine release dynamics in these subregions to cues exclusively signaling the availability of different reward magnitudes...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581478/reinstated-episodic-context-guides-sampling-based-decisions-for-reward
#10
Aaron M Bornstein, Kenneth A Norman
How does experience inform decisions? In episodic sampling, decisions are guided by a few episodic memories of past choices. This process can yield choice patterns similar to model-free reinforcement learning; however, samples can vary from trial to trial, causing decisions to vary. Here we show that context retrieved during episodic sampling can cause choice behavior to deviate sharply from the predictions of reinforcement learning. Specifically, we show that, when a given memory is sampled, choices (in the present) are influenced by the properties of other decisions made in the same context as the sampled event...
June 5, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575424/association-between-habenula-dysfunction-and-motivational-symptoms-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Wen-Hua Liu, Vincent Valton, Ling-Zhi Wang, Yu-Hua Zhu, Jonathan P Roiser
The lateral habenula plays a central role in reward and punishment processing and has been suggested to drive the cardinal symptom of anhedonia in depression. This hypothesis is largely based on observations of habenula hypermetabolism in animal models of depression, but the activity of habenula and its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with depression remains unclear. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modelling were used to investigate the activity of the habenula during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task with rewarding and punishing outcomes in 21 unmedicated patients with major depression and 17 healthy participants...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572059/linking-dopaminergic-reward-signals-to-the-development-of-attentional-bias-a-positron-emission-tomographic-study
#12
Brian A Anderson, Hiroto Kuwabara, Dean F Wong, Joshua Roberts, Arman Rahmim, James R Brašić, Susan M Courtney
The attention system is shaped by reward history, such that learned reward cues involuntarily draw attention. Recent research has begun to uncover the neural mechanisms by which learned reward cues compete for attention, implicating dopamine (DA) signaling within the dorsal striatum. How these elevated priority signals develop in the brain during the course of learning is less well understood, as is the relationship between value-based attention and the experience of reward during learning. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the striatal DA response to reward during learning contributes to the development of a learned attentional bias towards the cue that predicted it, and examined this hypothesis using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride...
May 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569527/pseudocontingencies-and-choice-behavior-in-probabilistic-environments-with-context-dependent-outcomes
#13
Thorsten Meiser, Jan Rummel, Hanna Fleig
Pseudocontingencies are inferences about correlations in the environment that are formed on the basis of statistical regularities like skewed base rates or varying base rates across environmental contexts. Previous research has demonstrated that pseudocontingencies provide a pervasive mechanism of inductive inference in numerous social judgment tasks (Fiedler, Freytag, & Meiser, 2009). The present research extended the analysis of pseudocontingencies from social judgment to actual choice behavior in a decision scenario of personal relevance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559955/a-plausible-neural-circuit-for-decision-making-and-its-formation-based-on-reinforcement-learning
#14
Hui Wei, Dawei Dai, Yijie Bu
A human's, or lower insects', behavior is dominated by its nervous system. Each stable behavior has its own inner steps and control rules, and is regulated by a neural circuit. Understanding how the brain influences perception, thought, and behavior is a central mandate of neuroscience. The phototactic flight of insects is a widely observed deterministic behavior. Since its movement is not stochastic, the behavior should be dominated by a neural circuit. Based on the basic firing characteristics of biological neurons and the neural circuit's constitution, we designed a plausible neural circuit for this phototactic behavior from logic perspective...
June 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559954/route-searching-based-on-neural-networks-and-heuristic-reinforcement-learning
#15
Fengyun Zhang, Shukai Duan, Lidan Wang
In this paper, an improved and much stronger RNH-QL method based on RBF network and heuristic Q-learning was put forward for route searching in a larger state space. Firstly, it solves the problem of inefficiency of reinforcement learning if a given problem's state space is increased and there is a lack of prior information on the environment. Secondly, RBF network as weight updating rule, reward shaping can give an additional feedback to the agent in some intermediate states, which will help to guide the agent towards the goal state in a more controlled fashion...
June 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559801/parsing-heterogeneous-striatal-activity
#16
REVIEW
Kae Nakamura, Long Ding
The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559307/cortical-neurons-multiplex-reward-related-signals-along-with-sensory-and-motor-information
#17
Arjun Ramakrishnan, Yoon Woo Byun, Kyle Rand, Christian E Pedersen, Mikhail A Lebedev, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Rewards are known to influence neural activity associated with both motor preparation and execution. This influence can be exerted directly upon the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortical areas via the projections from reward-sensitive dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain ventral tegmental areas. However, the neurophysiological manifestation of reward-related signals in M1 and S1 are not well understood. Particularly, it is unclear how the neurons in these cortical areas multiplex their traditional functions related to the control of spatial and temporal characteristics of movements with the representation of rewards...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559224/uptake-of-an-incentive-based-mhealth-app-process-evaluation-of-the-carrot-rewards-app
#18
Marc Mitchell, Lauren White, Paul Oh, David Alter, Tricia Leahey, Matthew Kwan, Guy Faulkner
BACKGROUND: Behavioral economics has stimulated renewed interest in financial health incentives worldwide. The Carrot Rewards app was developed as part of a public-private partnership to reward Canadians with loyalty points (eg, movies and groceries) for downloading the app, referring friends, and completing an average of 1 to 2 educational health quizzes per week ("micro-learning"), with long-term objectives of increasing health knowledge and encouraging healthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate uptake of a loyalty points-based mHealth app during the exclusive 3-month launch period in British Columbia (BC), Canada...
May 30, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555096/role-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-instrumental-learning-blockade-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-suppresses-overt-but-not-covert-learning
#19
Mayada Aly-Mahmoud, Pascal Carlier, Sherine A Salam, Mariam Houari Selmani, Marie Z Moftah, Monique Esclapez, Driss Boussaoud
HIGHLIGHTS Blockade of dopamine D1 receptors in ACC suppressed instrumental learning when overt responding was required.Covert learning through observation was not impaired.After treatment with a dopamine antagonist, instrumental learning recovered but not the rat's pretreatment level of effort tolerance.ACC dopamine is not necessary for acquisition of task-relevant cues during learning, but regulates energy expenditure and effort based decision. Dopamine activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, including learning and effort based decision making...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#20
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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