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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#1
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#2
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504638/catecholaminergic-challenge-uncovers-distinct-pavlovian-and-instrumental-mechanisms-of-motivated-in-action
#3
Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk Em Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke Em den Ouden
Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#4
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#5
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484375/mechanistic-resolution-required-to-mediate-operant-learned-behaviors-insights-from-neuronal-ensemble-specific-inactivation
#6
Brandon L Warren, Nobuyoshi Suto, Bruce T Hope
Many learned behaviors are directed by complex sets of highly specific stimuli or cues. The neural mechanisms mediating learned associations in these behaviors must be capable of storing complex cue information and distinguishing among different learned associations-we call this general concept "mechanistic resolution". For many years, our understanding of the circuitry of these learned behaviors has been based primarily on inactivation of specific cell types or whole brain areas regardless of which neurons were activated during the cue-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481915/stimulus-discriminability-may-bias-value-based-probabilistic-learning
#7
Iris Schutte, Heleen A Slagter, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, J Leon Kenemans
Reinforcement learning tasks are often used to assess participants' tendency to learn more from the positive or more from the negative consequences of one's action. However, this assessment often requires comparison in learning performance across different task conditions, which may differ in the relative salience or discriminability of the stimuli associated with more and less rewarding outcomes, respectively. To address this issue, in a first set of studies, participants were subjected to two versions of a common probabilistic learning task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475063/training-an-actor-critic-reinforcement-learning-controller-for-arm-movement-using-human-generated-rewards
#8
Kathleen Jagodnik, Philip Thomas, Antonie van den Bogert, Michael Branicky, Robert Kirsch
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) employs neuroprostheses to apply electrical current to the nerves and muscles of individuals paralyzed by spinal cord injury (SCI) to restore voluntary movement. Neuroprosthesis controllers calculate stimulation patterns to produce desired actions. To date, no existing controller is able to efficiently adapt its control strategy to the wide range of possible physiological arm characteristics, reaching movements, and user preferences that vary over time. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a control strategy that can incorporate human reward signals as inputs to allow human users to shape controller behavior...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#9
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446523/evaluation-of-the-coping-parent-online-universal-programme-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Dawn Adele Owen, Nia Griffith, Judy Hutchings
TRIAL SPONSOR: Bangor University, Brigantia Building, College Road, Bangor, LL57 2AS, UK INTRODUCTION: The COPING parent online universal programme is a web-based parenting intervention for parents of children aged 3-8 years with an interest in positive parenting. The programme focuses on strengthening parent-child relationships and encouraging positive child behaviour. This trial will evaluate whether the intervention is effective in increasing the use of positive parenting strategies outlined in the programme using parent report and blind observation measures...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443814/neural-networks-subtract-and-conquer
#11
Guillaume Hennequin
Two theoretical studies reveal how networks of neurons may behave during reward-based learning.
April 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442362/blockade-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-blocks-the-acquisition-of-reward-related-learning
#12
E Galaj, R Nisanov, R Ranaldi
In the present study we investigated whether stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role in the acquisition of food-based conditioned approach learning. Rats were exposed to 3 (in Experiment 1) or 7 (in Experiment 2) conditioning sessions in which 30, randomly presented light (CS) presentations were paired with delivery of food pellets (US), followed by one session with no light or food and finally one CS-only test session with only light stimulus presentations...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#13
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436832/ventral-striatal-activity-links-adversity-and-reward-processing-in-children
#14
Niki H Kamkar, Daniel J Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J Bruce Morton
Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427996/no-evidence-that-environmental-enrichment-during-rearing-protects-against-cocaine-behavioral-effects-but-as-an-intervention-reduces-an-already-established-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#15
E Galaj, A Shukur, M Manuszak, K Newman, R Ranaldi
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. METHODS: In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426971/metaplasticity-as-a-neural-substrate-for-adaptive-learning-and-choice-under-uncertainty
#16
Shiva Farashahi, Christopher H Donahue, Peyman Khorsand, Hyojung Seo, Daeyeol Lee, Alireza Soltani
Value-based decision making often involves integration of reward outcomes over time, but this becomes considerably more challenging if reward assignments on alternative options are probabilistic and non-stationary. Despite the existence of various models for optimally integrating reward under uncertainty, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here we propose that reward-dependent metaplasticity (RDMP) can provide a plausible mechanism for both integration of reward under uncertainty and estimation of uncertainty itself...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421669/misfortune-may-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-fairness-perception-and-emotion-modulate-decision-making
#17
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#18
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#19
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389249/it-wasn-t-me-it-was-my-brain-obesity-associated-characteristics-of-brain-circuits-governing-decision-making
#20
REVIEW
Annette Horstmann
Over the past years, evidence has accumulated that obesity is intimately linked to the integrity of the fronto-striatal system of the human brain. However, the nature and causality of this relationship remains elusive. The fronto-striatal system is responsible for higher order cognitive functions such as learning, working memory, decision-making and cognitive control. Further, it determines the individual propensity to actively seek out rewards in the environment or to avoid possibly punishing situations. One of the major neurotransmitters of this system is dopamine...
April 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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