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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344152/trait-based-food-cravings-are-encoded-by-regional-homogeneity-in-the-parahippocampal-gyrus
#1
Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#2
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335809/poor-uptake-of-an-online-intervention-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-online-diabetes-education-for-rural-general-practitioners
#3
Christine L Paul, Leon Piterman, Jonathan E Shaw, Catherine Kirby, Kristy L Forshaw, Jennifer Robinson, Isaraporn Thepwongsa, Robert W Sanson-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In Australia, rural and remote communities have high rates of diabetes-related death and hospitalisation. General practitioners (GPs) play a major role in diabetes detection and management. Education of GPs could optimise diabetes management and improve patient outcomes at a population level. The study aimed to describe the uptake of a continuing medical education intervention for rural GPs and its impact on the viability of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effects of continuing medical education on whole-town diabetes monitoring and control...
March 23, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334611/somatosensory-cortex-plays-an-essential-role-in-forelimb-motor-adaptation-in-mice
#4
Mackenzie Weygandt Mathis, Alexander Mathis, Naoshige Uchida
Our motor outputs are constantly re-calibrated to adapt to systematic perturbations. This motor adaptation is thought to depend on the ability to form a memory of a systematic perturbation, often called an internal model. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation, storage, and expression of such models remain unknown. Here, we developed a mouse model to study forelimb adaptation to force field perturbations. We found that temporally precise photoinhibition of somatosensory cortex (S1) applied concurrently with the force field abolished the ability to update subsequent motor commands needed to reduce motor errors...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333486/transitive-inference-in-humans-homo-sapiens-and-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-after-massed-training-of-the-last-two-list-items
#5
Greg Jensen, Yelda Alkan, Fabian Muñoz, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326050/what-to-choose-next-a-paradigm-for-testing-human-sequential-decision-making
#6
Elisa M Tartaglia, Aaron M Clarke, Michael H Herzog
Many of the decisions we make in our everyday lives are sequential and entail sparse rewards. While sequential decision-making has been extensively investigated in theory (e.g., by reinforcement learning models) there is no systematic experimental paradigm to test it. Here, we developed such a paradigm and investigated key components of reinforcement learning models: the eligibility trace (i.e., the memory trace of previous decision steps), the external reward, and the ability to exploit the statistics of the environment's structure (model-free vs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#7
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320846/working-memory-load-strengthens-reward-prediction-errors
#8
Anne G E Collins, Brittany Ciullo, Michael J Frank, David Badre
Reinforcement learning in simple instrumental tasks is usually modeled as a monolithic process in which reward prediction errors are used to update expected values of choice options. This modeling ignores the different contributions of different memory and decision-making systems thought to contribute even to simple learning. In an fMRI experiment, we asked how working memory and incremental reinforcement learning processes interact to guide human learning. Working memory load was manipulated by varying the number of stimuli to be learned across blocks...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#9
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315693/central-glp-1-receptor-activation-modulates-cocaine-evoked-phasic-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#10
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303097/language-learning-enhanced-by-massive-multiple-online-role-playing-games-mmorpgs-and-the-underlying-behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Yongjun Zhang, Hongwen Song, Xiaoming Liu, Dinghong Tang, Yue-E Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298263/a-proof-of-principle-simulation-for-closed-loop-control-based-on-preexisting-experimental-thalamic-dbs-enhanced-instrumental-learning
#12
Ching-Fu Wang, Shih-Hung Yang, Sheng-Huang Lin, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Han-Chi Pan, Hsin-Yi Lai, Lun-De Liao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsu-Yan Chen, Wei-Chen Huang, Wun-Jhu Huang, You-Yin Chen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption...
February 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292629/the-5-clinical-pillars-of-value-for-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-a-bundled-payment-paradigm
#13
Kelvin Kim, Richard Iorio
BACKGROUND: Our large, urban, tertiary, university-based institution reflects on its 4-year experience with Bundled Payments for Care Improvement. We will describe the importance of 5 clinical pillars that have contributed to the early success of our bundled payment initiative. We are convinced that value-based care delivered through bundled payment initiatives is the best method to optimize patient outcomes while rewarding surgeons and hospitals for adapting to the evolving healthcare reforms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281665/valuation-in-major-depression-is-intact-and-stable-in-a-non-learning-environment
#14
Dongil Chung, Kelly Kadlec, Jason A Aimone, Katherine McCurry, Brooks King-Casas, Pearl H Chiu
The clinical diagnosis and symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) have been closely associated with impairments in reward processing. In particular, various studies have shown blunted neural and behavioral responses to the experience of reward in depression. However, little is known about whether depression affects individuals' valuation of potential rewards during decision-making, independent from reward experience. To address this question, we used a gambling task and a model-based analytic approach to measure two types of individual sensitivity to reward values in participants with MDD: 'risk preference,' indicating how objective values are subjectively perceived, and 'inverse temperature,' determining the degree to which subjective value differences between options influence participants' choices...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281378/faculty-experience-and-engagement-in-a-longitudinal-integrated-clerkship
#15
Sarah C Snow, Jennifer Gong, Jennifer E Adams
The authors sought to understand rewards and challenges of teaching third-year medical students in the University of Colorado School of Medicine (CUSOM) Denver Health Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (DH-LIC) compared to teaching in rotation-based clerkships (RBCs). The authors considered implications for the recruitment and retention of faculty in clinical educational programs. Preceptors completed surveys at baseline and year-end. Of eligible faculty, 28 of 40 completed both baseline and year-end surveys...
March 10, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268958/reward-value-is-encoded-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-can-be-decoded-from-neural-activity-during-performance-of-a-psychophysical-task
#17
David B McNiel, John S Choi, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis
Encoding of reward valence has been shown in various brain regions, including deep structures such as the substantia nigra as well as cortical structures such as the orbitofrontal cortex. While the correlation between these signals and reward valence have been shown in aggregated data comprised of many trials, little work has been done investigating the feasibility of decoding reward valence on a single trial basis. Towards this goal, one non-human primate (macaca radiata) was trained to grip and hold a target level of force in order to earn zero, one, two, or three juice rewards...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268267/reward-gain-model-describes-cortical-use-dependent-plasticity
#18
Firas Mawase, Nicholas Wymbs, Shintaro Uehara, Pablo Celnik
Consistent repetitions of an action lead to plastic change in the motor cortex and cause shift in the direction of future movements. This process is known as use-dependent plasticity (UDP), one of the basic forms of the motor memory. We have recently demonstrated in a physiological study that success-related reinforcement signals could modulate the strength of UDP. We tested this idea by developing a computational approach that modeled the shift in the direction of future action as a change in preferred direction of population activity of neurons in the primary motor cortex...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263301/dopamine-reward-prediction-errors-reflect-hidden-state-inference-across-time
#19
Clara Kwon Starkweather, Benedicte M Babayan, Naoshige Uchida, Samuel J Gershman
Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a 'belief state')...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261137/low-cognitive-impulsivity-is-associated-with-better-gain-and-loss-learning-in-a-probabilistic-decision-making-task
#20
Pablo Cáceres, René San Martín
Many advances have been made over the last decades in describing, on the one hand, the link between reward-based learning and decision-making, and on the other hand, the link between impulsivity and decision-making. However, the association between reward-based learning and impulsivity remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the association between individual differences in loss-minimizing and gain-maximizing behavior in a learning-based probabilistic decision-making task and individual differences in cognitive impulsivity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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