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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940395/delay-discounting-as-impaired-valuation-delayed-rewards-in-an-animal-obesity-model
#1
David P Jarmolowicz, Jennifer L Hudnall, Luanne Hale, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis
Obesity is a major public health problem, which, like many forms of addiction, is associated with an elevated tendency to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards, a response pattern often referred to as excessive delay discounting. Although some accounts of delay discounting conceptualize this process as impulsivity (placing the emphasis on overvaluing the smaller immediate reward), others have conceptualized delay discounting as an executive function (placing the emphasis on delayed rewards failing to retain their value)...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939388/elderly-adults-show-higher-ventral-striatal-activation-in-response-to-motor-performance-related-rewards-than-young-adults
#2
Mario Widmer, Samara Stulz, Andreas R Luft, Kai Lutz
Feedback on motor performance activates the striatum and boosting ventral striatum activation with rewarding feedback during motor training supports the consolidation of the learned skill. Aging is associated with changes of the reward system, including striatal and extrastriatal loss of dopamine receptors. How these changes interact with the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response is, however, not yet fully understood. While it is known that reward prediction and reward-based decision-making differ between young and elderly healthy adults, the influence of age on the processing of rewarding feedback on motor performance have not been investigated so far...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922835/rewards-and-cognitive-control-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Sandrine Duverne, Etienne Koechlin
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control, that is, the ability to form behavioral strategies that coordinate actions and thoughts in relation to internal goals. Cognitive control involves the medial and lateral PFC but we still poorly understand how these regions guide strategy selection according to expected rewards. We addressed this issue using neuroimaging, computational modeling and model-based analyses of information flows between medial and lateral PFC. We show here that the (dorsal) medial PFC encodes and conveys to lateral PFC reward expectations driving strategy selection, while strategy selection originates in lateral PFC and propagates backward to medial PFC...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#4
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918312/-reinforcement-learning-to-forage-optimally
#5
REVIEW
Nils Kolling, Thomas Akam
Foraging effectively is critical to the survival of all animals and this imperative is thought to have profoundly shaped brain evolution. Decisions made by foraging animals often approximate optimal strategies, but the learning and decision mechanisms generating these choices remain poorly understood. Recent work with laboratory foraging tasks in humans suggest their behaviour is poorly explained by model-free reinforcement learning, with simple heuristic strategies better describing behaviour in some tasks, and in others evidence of prospective prediction of the future state of the environment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#6
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894463/joint-extraction-of-entities-and-relations-using-reinforcement-learning-and-deep-learning
#7
Yuntian Feng, Hongjun Zhang, Wenning Hao, Gang Chen
We use both reinforcement learning and deep learning to simultaneously extract entities and relations from unstructured texts. For reinforcement learning, we model the task as a two-step decision process. Deep learning is used to automatically capture the most important information from unstructured texts, which represent the state in the decision process. By designing the reward function per step, our proposed method can pass the information of entity extraction to relation extraction and obtain feedback in order to extract entities and relations simultaneously...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887898/beta-band-oscillations-during-passive-listening-to-metronome-sounds-reflect-improved-timing-representation-after-short-term-musical-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with aging, musical experts are less affected. The present study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880120/reward-related-limbic-memory-and-stimulation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-an-upgrade-in-value-attribution
#9
Anna Brancato, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
While a lot is known about the mechanisms promoting aversive learning, the impact of rewarding factors on memory has received comparatively less attention. This research investigates reward-related explicit memory in male rats, by taking advantage of the emotional-object recognition test. This is based on the prior association, during conditioned learning, between a rewarding experience (the encounter with a receptive female rat) and an object; afterwards rat discrimination and recognition of the 'emotional object' is recorded in the presence of a novel object, as a measure of positive limbic memory formation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876993/curricular-revision-and-reform-the-process-what-was-important-and-lessons-learned
#10
Jan E Ilkiw, Richard W Nelson, Johanna L Watson, Alan J Conley, Helen E Raybould, Munashe Chigerwe, Karen Boudreaux
Beginning in 2005, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of California underwent major curricular review and reform. To provide information for others that follow, we have documented our process and commented on factors that were critical to success, as well as factors we found surprising, difficult, or problematic. The review and reform were initiated by the Executive Committee, who led the process and commissioned the committees. The planning stage took 6 years and involved four faculty committees, while the implementation stage took 5 years and was led by the Curriculum Committee...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854072/acclimating-to-the-increase-in-statin-use-in-accountable-care-organizations-based-on-changes-in-quality-measures-a-report-from-the-accountable-care-organization-research-network-services-and-education
#11
Leah Bensimon, Genevieve Hale
The Accountable Care Organization Research Network, Services, and Education (ACORN SEED), founded by faculty members at Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, is a group of pharmacists that provides unique pharmacy services to accountable care organizations (ACOs), patient-centered medical homes, and management services organizations to help maximize shared savings and target medication-related issues, while promoting the pharmacy profession and unique learning experiences for pharmacy students within these settings...
September 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846001/slope-based-and-geometric-encoding-of-a-goal-location-by-the-terrestrial-toad-rhinella-arenarum
#12
María Inés Sotelo, Verner P Bingman, Rubén N Muzio
The current study was designed to test for the ability of terrestrial toads, Rhinella arenarum, to use slope as source of spatial information to locate a goal, and investigate the relative importance of slope and geometric information for goal localization. Toads were trained to locate a single, water-reward goal location in a corner of a rectangular arena placed on an incline. Once the toads learned the task, 3 types of probe trials were carried out to determine the relative use of slope and geometric information for goal localization...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841471/teaching-caring-and-competence-student-transformation-during-an-older-adult-focused-service-learning-course
#13
Karen M Brown, Leslie M Bright
Innovative teaching strategies develop nurses' knowledge, skills, and attitudes while simultaneously integrating the art of caring and transforming attitudes toward adults over age 65. The study's purpose was to explore students' experiences and attitudes toward older adults with cognitive and/or physical limitations as well as the effects on students' knowledge and skills during a baccalaureate nursing, course which included a service-learning experience. Service-learning synthesizes meaningful community service, academic instruction, and reflection...
August 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831072/working-memory-accuracy-for-multiple-targets-is-driven-by-reward-expectation-and-stimulus-contrast-with-different-time-courses
#14
P Christiaan Klink, Danique Jeurissen, Jan Theeuwes, Damiaan Denys, Pieter R Roelfsema
The richness of sensory input dictates that the brain must prioritize and select information for further processing and storage in working memory. Stimulus salience and reward expectations influence this prioritization but their relative contributions and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the quality of working memory for multiple stimuli is determined by priority during encoding and later memory phases. Selective attention could, for instance, act as the primary gating mechanism when stimuli are still visible...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#15
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
September 3, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813815/how-do-strength-and-coordination-recovery-interact-after-stroke-a-computational-model-for-informing-robotic-training
#16
Sumner L Norman, Joan Lobo-Prat, David J Reinkensmeyer
Robotic devices can train strength, coordination, or a combination of both. If a robotic device focuses on coordination, what happens to strength recovery, and vice versa? Understanding this interaction could help optimize robotic training. We developed a computational neurorehabilitation model to gain insight into the interaction between strength and coordination recovery after stroke. In the model, the motor system recovers by optimizing the activity of residual corticospinal cells (focally connected, excitatory and inhibitory) and reticulospinal cells (diffusely connected and excitatory) to achieve a motor task...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801372/multi-variant-genetic-panel-for-genetic-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#17
Keri Donaldson, Laurence Demers, Kirk Taylor, Joe Lopez, Sherman Chang
Over 116 million people worldwide have chronic pain and prescription dependence. In the US, opioids account for the majority of overdose deaths, and in 2014, almost 2 million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids. Genetic factors may play a key role in opioid prescription addiction. Herein, we describe genetic variations between opioid addicted and non-addicted populations and derive a predictive model determining risk of opioid addiction. This case cohort study compares the frequency of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the brain reward pathways in patients with and without opioid addiction...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798918/learning-and-judgment-can-be-affected-by-predisposed-fearfulness-in-laying-hens
#18
Elske N de Haas, Caroline Lee, T Bas Rodenburg
High fearfulness could disrupt learning and likely affects judgment in animals, especially when it is part of an animals' personality, i.e., trait anxiety. Here, we tested whether high fearfulness affects discrimination learning and judgment bias (JB) in laying hens. Based on the response to an open field at 5 weeks of age, birds were categorized as fearful (FC) by showing no walking or vocalizing or non-fearful (NFC) by showing walking and vocalizing. At adult age, birds (n = 24) were trained in a go-go task to discriminate two cues (white or black) with a small or large reward...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797600/the-rat-retrosplenial-cortex-as-a-link-for-frontal-functions-a-lesion-analysis
#19
Anna L Powell, Andrew J D Nelson, Emma Hindley, Moira Davies, John P Aggleton, Seralynne D Vann
Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning...
September 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792570/-the-global-model-of-public-mental-health-and-recovery-mentors
#20
Jean-François Pelletier, Émilie Auclair
Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
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