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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289795/deconstructing-the-human-algorithms-for-exploration
#1
Samuel J Gershman
The dilemma between information gathering (exploration) and reward seeking (exploitation) is a fundamental problem for reinforcement learning agents. How humans resolve this dilemma is still an open question, because experiments have provided equivocal evidence about the underlying algorithms used by humans. We show that two families of algorithms can be distinguished in terms of how uncertainty affects exploration. Algorithms based on uncertainty bonuses predict a change in response bias as a function of uncertainty, whereas algorithms based on sampling predict a change in response slope...
December 28, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285721/altered-monetary-loss-processing-and-reinforcement-based-learning-in-individuals-with-obesity
#2
Jana Kube, David Mathar, Annette Horstmann, Sonja A Kotz, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Individuals with obesity are often characterized by alterations in reward processing. This may affect how new information is used to update stimulus values during reinforcement-based learning. Here, we investigated obesity-related changes in non-food reinforcement processing, their impact on learning performance as well as the neural underpinnings of reinforcement-based learning in obesity. Nineteen individuals with obesity (BMI > = 30 kg/m2, 10 female) and 23 lean control participants (BMI 18.5-24...
December 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282154/using-incentives-to-recruit-physicians-into-behavioral-trials-lessons-learned-from-four-studies
#3
Deepika Mohan, Matthew R Rosengart, Baruch Fischhoff, Derek C Angus, David J Wallace, Coreen Farris, Donald M Yealy, Amber E Barnato
OBJECTIVE: To describe lessons learned from the use of different strategies for recruiting physicians responsible for trauma triage, we summarize recruitment data from four behavioral trials run in the United States between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: We ran a series of behavioral trials with the primary objective of understanding the influence of heuristics on physician decision making in trauma triage. Three studies were observational; one tested an intervention. The trials used different methods of recruitment (in-person vs...
December 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281676/can-mixed-assessment-methods-make-biology-classes-more-equitable
#4
Sehoya Cotner, Cissy J Ballen
Many factors have been proposed to explain the attrition of women in science, technology, engineering and math fields, among them the lower performance of women in introductory courses resulting from deficits in incoming preparation. We focus on the impact of mixed methods of assessment, which minimizes the impact of high-stakes exams and rewards other methods of assessment such as group participation, low-stakes quizzes and assignments, and in-class activities. We hypothesized that these mixed methods would benefit individuals who otherwise underperform on high-stakes tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251534/the-organizational-climate-in-collegiate-athletics-an-athletic-trainer-s-perspective
#5
Stephanie M Mazerolle, Christianne M Eason
CONTEXT:   An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate. OBJECTIVE:   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249287/reward-based-learning-drives-rapid-sensory-signals-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsal-hippocampus-necessary-for-goal-directed-behavior
#6
Pierre Le Merre, Vahid Esmaeili, Eloïse Charrière, Katia Galan, Paul-A Salin, Carl C H Petersen, Sylvain Crochet
The neural circuits underlying learning and execution of goal-directed behaviors remain to be determined. Here, through electrophysiological recordings, we investigated fast sensory processing across multiple cortical areas as mice learned to lick a reward spout in response to a brief deflection of a single whisker. Sensory-evoked signals were absent from medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus in naive mice, but developed with task learning and correlated with behavioral performance in mice trained in the detection task...
December 12, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#7
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242555/intrinsic-interactive-reinforcement-learning-using-error-related-potentials-for-real-world-human-robot-interaction
#8
Su Kyoung Kim, Elsa Andrea Kirchner, Arne Stefes, Frank Kirchner
Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225449/action-centered-contextual-bandits
#9
Kristjan Greenewald, Ambuj Tewari, Predrag Klasnja, Susan Murphy
Contextual bandits have become popular as they offer a middle ground between very simple approaches based on multi-armed bandits and very complex approaches using the full power of reinforcement learning. They have demonstrated success in web applications and have a rich body of associated theoretical guarantees. Linear models are well understood theoretically and preferred by practitioners because they are not only easily interpretable but also simple to implement and debug. Furthermore, if the linear model is true, we get very strong performance guarantees...
December 2017: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209058/learning-the-value-of-information-and-reward-over-time-when-solving-exploration-exploitation-problems
#10
Irene Cogliati Dezza, Angela J Yu, Axel Cleeremans, William Alexander
To flexibly adapt to the demands of their environment, animals are constantly exposed to the conflict resulting from having to choose between predictably rewarding familiar options (exploitation) and risky novel options, the value of which essentially consists of obtaining new information about the space of possible rewards (exploration). Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that subtend the manner in which animals solve this exploitation-exploration dilemma are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate human decision-making in a gambling task in which the informational value of each trial and the reward potential were separately manipulated...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188399/the-alcoholic-brain-neural-bases-of-impaired-reward-based-decision-making-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#11
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Stefano Cappa, Nicola Canessa
Neuroeconomics is providing insights into the neural bases of decision-making in normal and pathological conditions. In the neuropsychiatric domain, this discipline investigates how abnormal functioning of neural systems associated with reward processing and cognitive control promotes different disorders, and whether such evidence may inform treatments. This endeavor is crucial when studying different types of addiction, which share a core promoting mechanism in the imbalance between impulsive subcortical neural signals associated with immediate pleasurable outcomes and inhibitory signals mediated by a prefrontal reflective system...
November 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#12
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177509/repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-are-linked-to-imbalance-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-a-functional-connectivity-mri-study
#13
Angela E Abbott, Annika Linke, Aarti Nair, Afrooz Jahedi, Laura A Alba, Christopher L Keown, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
The neural underpinnings of repetitive behaviors (RBs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), ranging from cognitive to motor characteristics, remain unknown. We assessed RB symptomatology in 50 ASD and 52 typically developing (TD) children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years), examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of corticostriatal circuitry, which is important for reward-based learning and integration of emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, and considered impaired in ASDs. Connectivity analyses were performed for three functionally distinct striatal seeds (limbic, frontoparietal, motor)...
November 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173141/too-tasty-to-be-ignored
#14
Sebastian Dummel, Ronald Hübner
Recent research has shown that even non-salient stimuli (colored circles) can gain attentional weight, when they have been loaded with some value through previous reward learning. The present study examined such value-based attentional weighting with intrinsically rewarding food stimuli. Different snacks were assumed to have different values for people due to individual food preferences. Participants indicated their preferences toward various snacks and then performed a flanker task with these snacks: they had to categorize a target snack as either sweet or salty; irrelevant flanker snacks were either compatible or incompatible with the target category...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170381/feature-based-learning-improves-adaptability-without-compromising-precision
#15
Shiva Farashahi, Katherine Rowe, Zohra Aslami, Daeyeol Lee, Alireza Soltani
Learning from reward feedback is essential for survival but can become extremely challenging with myriad choice options. Here, we propose that learning reward values of individual features can provide a heuristic for estimating reward values of choice options in dynamic, multi-dimensional environments. We hypothesize that this feature-based learning occurs not just because it can reduce dimensionality, but more importantly because it can increase adaptability without compromising precision of learning. We experimentally test this hypothesis and find that in dynamic environments, human subjects adopt feature-based learning even when this approach does not reduce dimensionality...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167430/short-term-reward-experience-biases-inference-despite-dissociable-neural-correlates
#16
Adrian G Fischer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Markus Ullsperger
Optimal decision-making employs short-term rewards and abstract long-term information based on which of these is deemed relevant. Employing short- vs. long-term information is associated with different learning mechanisms, yet neural evidence showing that these two are dissociable is lacking. Here we demonstrate that long-term, inference-based beliefs are biased by short-term reward experiences and that dissociable brain regions facilitate both types of learning. Long-term inferences are associated with dorsal striatal and frontopolar cortex activity, while short-term rewards engage the ventral striatum...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164143/valence-of-facial-cues-influences-sheep-learning-in-a-visual-discrimination-task
#17
Lucille G A Bellegarde, Hans W Erhard, Alexander Weiss, Alain Boissy, Marie J Haskell
Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen) or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163113/changes-of-attention-during-value-based-reversal-learning-are-tracked-by-n2pc-and-feedback-related-negativity
#18
Mariann Oemisch, Marcus R Watson, Thilo Womelsdorf, Anna Schubö
Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163004/cardiac-concomitants-of-feedback-and-prediction-error-processing-in-reinforcement-learning
#19
Lucas Kastner, Jana Kube, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
Successful learning hinges on the evaluation of positive and negative feedback. We assessed differential learning from reward and punishment in a monetary reinforcement learning paradigm, together with cardiac concomitants of positive and negative feedback processing. On the behavioral level, learning from reward resulted in more advantageous behavior than learning from punishment, suggesting a differential impact of reward and punishment on successful feedback-based learning. On the autonomic level, learning and feedback processing were closely mirrored by phasic cardiac responses on a trial-by-trial basis: (1) Negative feedback was accompanied by faster and prolonged heart rate deceleration compared to positive feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140258/do-effort-and-reward-at-work-predict-changes-in-cognitive-function-first-longitudinal-results-from-the-representative-german-socio-economic-panel
#20
Natalie Riedel, Johannes Siegrist, Natalia Wege, Adrian Loerbroks, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
It has been suggested that work characteristics, such as mental demands, job control, and occupational complexity, are prospectively related to cognitive function. However, current evidence on links between psychosocial working conditions and cognitive change over time is inconsistent. In this study, we applied the effort-reward imbalance model that allows to build on previous research on mental demands and to introduce reward-based learning as a principle with beneficial effect on cognitive function. We aimed to investigate whether high effort, high reward, and low over-commitment in 2006 were associated with positive changes in cognitive function in terms of perceptual speed and word fluency (2006-2012), and whether the co-manifestation of high effort and high reward would yield the strongest association...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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