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Reward based learning

Chisato Mine, Jun Saiki
Feature-reward association elicits value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) regardless of the task relevance of associated features. What are the necessary conditions for feature-reward associations in VDAC? Recent studies claim that VDAC is based on Pavlovian conditioning. In this study, we manipulated the temporal relationships among feature, response, and reward in reward learning to elucidate the necessary components of VDAC. We presented reward-associated features in a variety of locations in a flanker task to form a color-reward association (training phase) and then tested VDAC in a subsequent visual search task (test phase)...
March 14, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Peter James Holland, Olivier Codol, Joseph M Galea
Despite increasing interest in the role of reward in motor learning, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. In particular, the contribution of explicit processes to reward-based motor learning is unclear. To address this, we examined subject's (n=30) ability to learn to compensate for a gradually introduced 25⁰ visuomotor rotation with only reward-based feedback (binary success/failure). Only two-thirds of subjects (n=20) were successful at the maximum angle. The remaining subjects initially followed the rotation but after a variable number of trials began to reach at an insufficiently large angle and subsequently returned to near baseline performance (n=10)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mantas Mikaitis, Garibaldi Pineda García, James C Knight, Steve B Furber
SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity-believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Eran Lottem, Dhruba Banerjee, Pietro Vertechi, Dario Sarra, Matthijs Oude Lohuis, Zachary F Mainen
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a variety of functions that involve patience or impulse control. Many of these effects are consistent with a long-standing theory that 5-HT promotes behavioral inhibition, a motivational bias favoring passive over active behaviors. To further test this idea, we studied the impact of 5-HT in a probabilistic foraging task, in which mice must learn the statistics of the environment and infer when to leave a depleted foraging site for the next. Critically, mice were required to actively nose-poke in order to exploit a given site...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Katinka van der Kooij, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, Tessa Rigterink, Krista E Overvliet, Joeren B J Smeets
The brain rapidly adapts reaching movements to changing circumstances by using visual feedback about errors. Providing reward in addition to error feedback facilitates the adaptation but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether the proportion of trials rewarded (the 'reward abundance') influences how much participants adapt to their errors. We used a 3D multi-target pointing task in which reward alone is insufficient for motor adaptation. Participants (N = 423) performed the pointing task with feedback based on a shifted hand-position...
2018: PloS One
P Maxwell Courtney, Michael E West, William J Hozack
BACKGROUND: With recent healthcare reform efforts focusing on rewarding value instead of volume, it has become important for orthopedic surgeons to partner and align with their hospitals. We report our experience in aligning clinical and financial incentives with 6 health systems in our geographic area. METHODS: By managing the entire episode-of-care continuum for total hip and total knee arthroplasty patients, our standardized, evidence-based protocols have improved the quality of care for our joint arthroplasty patients...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Ayad Masry, Anthony R Clarke, J Paul Cunningham
Compared with the extensive body of research on the olfactory behavior of parasitoids of leaf-feeding insects, less is known about the fine-tuning of olfactory behavior in parasitoids that use fruit-feeding insects as hosts. We investigated whether a tephritid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), could discriminate between odors of fruits infested by larvae of a host species, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), compared to fruits infested by non-host larvae, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ekrem Dere, Anja Ronnenberg, Björn Tampe, Sahab Arinrad, Manuela Schmidt, Elisabeth Zeisberg, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Based on the intellicage paradigm, we have developed a novel cognitive, emotional and social phenotyping battery that permits comprehensive standardized behavioral characterization of mice in an experimenter-independent social setting. Evaluation of this battery in a large number of male and female C57BL/6 wildtype mice, tested in >20 independent cohorts, revealed high reproducibility of the behavioral readouts and may serve as future reference tool. We noticed robust sex-specific differences in general activity, cognitive and emotional behavior, but not regarding preference for social pheromones...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Michael A Grubb, Yuxuan Li
Despite being physically nonsalient and task-irrelevant, objects rendered in a color that once signaled monetary reward reflexively capture attention during visual search, a phenomenon known as value-driven attentional capture (VDAC). However, it remains a subject of empirical controversy whether learned reward associations are necessary to driving subsequent attentional capture: VDAC-like effects have been observed when accuracy-based feedback alone was used during the VDAC training phase, resulting in attentional capture by objects that were never associated with monetary reward; perplexingly, the presence of these VDAC-like effects in the literature conflicts with those of a number of control studies in which no such capture has been observed, leaving the issue currently unresolved...
February 21, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sarah J Anderson, Kent G Hecker, Olave E Krigolson, Heather A Jamniczky
In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessica Benady-Chorney, Yvonne Yau, Yashar Zeighami, Veronique D Bohbot, Greg L West
Action video game players (aVGPs) display increased performance in attention-based tasks and enhanced procedural motor learning. In parallel, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is centrally implicated in specific types of reward-based learning and attentional control, the execution or inhibition of motor commands, and error detection. These processes are hypothesized to support aVGP in-game performance and enhanced learning though in-game feedback. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that habitual aVGPs would display increased cortical thickness compared with nonvideo game players (nonVGPs)...
February 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, David A Leopold, Okihide Hikosaka
Remembering and discriminating objects based on their previously learned values are essential for goal-directed behaviors. While the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to object recognition, surprisingly little is known about its role in retaining long-term object-value associations. To address this question, we trained macaques to arbitrarily associate small or large rewards with many random fractal objects (>100) and then used fMRI to study the long-term retention of value-based response selectivity across the brain...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dennis Sasikumar, Erik Emeric, Veit Stuphorn, Charles E Connor
Real-world value often depends on subtle, continuously variable visual cues specific to particular object categories, like the tailoring of a suit, the condition of an automobile, or the construction of a house. Here, we used microelectrode recording in behaving monkeys to test two possible mechanisms for category-specific value-cue processing: (1) previous findings suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) identifies object categories, and based on category identity, PFC could use top-down attentional modulation to enhance visual processing of category-specific value cues, providing signals to PFC for calculating value, and (2) a faster mechanism would be first-pass visual processing of category-specific value cues, immediately providing the necessary visual information to PFC...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Clarissa M Liu, Scott E Kanoski
Understanding the neurobiological controls of feeding behavior is critical in light of the growing obesity pandemic, a phenomenon largely based on excessive caloric consumption. Feeding behavior and its underlying biological substrates are frequently divided in the literature into two separate categories: [1] homeostatic processes involving energy intake based on caloric and other metabolic deficits, and [2] non-homeostatic processes that involve feeding driven by environmental and cognitive factors. The present review summarizes both historic and recent research examining the homeostatic regulation of feeding with specific emphasis on hypothalamic and hindbrain circuitry that monitor and regulate various metabolic signals...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Nigel S Bamford, R Mark Wightman, David Sulzer
Many learned responses depend on the coordinated activation and inhibition of synaptic pathways in the striatum. Local dopamine neurotransmission acts in concert with a variety of neurotransmitters to regulate cortical, thalamic, and limbic excitatory inputs to drive the direct and indirect striatal spiny projection neuron outputs that determine the activity, sequence, and timing of learned behaviors. We review recent advances in the characterization of stereotyped neuronal and operant responses that predict and then obtain rewards...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Raúl Tudela, Xavier López-Gil, Guadalupe Soria
BACKGROUND: Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present...
February 7, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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