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Reward based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723943/stress-enhances-model-free-reinforcement-learning-only-after-negative-outcome
#1
Heyeon Park, Daeyeol Lee, Jeanyung Chey
Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717900/elements-of-program-design-in-medicare-s-value-based-and-alternative-payment-models-a-narrative-review
#2
Karen E Joynt Maddox, Aditi P Sen, Lok Wong Samson, Rachael B Zuckerman, Nancy DeLew, Arnold M Epstein
Increasing emphasis on value in health care has spurred the development of value-based and alternative payment models. Inherent in these models are choices around program scope (broad vs. narrow); selecting absolute or relative performance targets; rewarding improvement, achievement, or both; and offering penalties, rewards, or both. We examined and classified current Medicare payment models-the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program (HVBP), Hospital-Acquired Conditions Reduction Program (HACRP), Medicare Advantage Quality Star Rating program, Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier (VM) and its successor, the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS), and the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) on these elements of program design and reviewed the literature to place findings in context...
July 17, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716096/optimizing-reproducibility-of-operant-testing-through-reinforcer-standardization-identification-of-key-nutritional-constituents-determining-reward-strength-in-touchscreens
#3
Eun Woo Kim, Benjamin U Phillips, Christopher J Heath, So Yeon Cho, Hyunjeong Kim, Jemeen Sreedharan, Ho-Taek Song, Jong Eun Lee, Timothy J Bussey, Chul Hoon Kim, Eosu Kim, Lisa M Saksida
Reliable and reproducible assessment of animal learning and behavior is a central aim of basic and translational neuroscience research. Recent developments in automated operant chamber technology have led to the possibility of universal standard protocols, in addition to increased translational potential, reliability and accuracy. However, the impact of regional and national differences in the supplies of available reinforcers in this system on behavioural performance and inter-laboratory variability is an unknown and at present uncontrolled variable...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715475/free-ranging-dogs-show-age-related-plasticity-in-their-ability-to-follow-human-pointing
#4
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Nikhil Dev N, Shreya Gupta, Shubhra Sau, Rohan Sarkar, Arpita Biswas, Arunita Banerjee, Daisy Babu, Diksha Mehta, Anindita Bhadra
Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#5
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713145/reciprocal-relationships-something-for-everyone
#6
Nina Tumosa
Reciprocal relationships based on mutual goals, respect and trust are key to maintaining working relationships and getting reliable research results. Yet relationship building is not a concept taught in academia. These skills are often learned the hard way, with singular solutions found for case-by-case scenarios. Several journeys to identify the components, barriers and rewards of reciprocal relationships are discussed.
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710363/neural-correlates-of-altered-feedback-learning-in-women-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa
#7
Franziska Ritschel, Daniel Geisler, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Richard Vettermann, Ronald Biemann, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with exaggerated self-control and altered reward-based decision making, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Consistent with the notion of excessive cognitive control, we recently found increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation in acutely ill patients (acAN) on lose-shift trials in a probabilistic reversal learning (PRL) task. However, undernutrition may modulate brain function. In attempt to disentangle trait from state factors, the current fMRI study investigated cognitive control in recovered patients (recAN)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707389/methamphetamine-promotes-habitual-action-and-alters-the-density-of-striatal-glutamate-receptor-and-vesicular-proteins-in-dorsal-striatum
#8
Teri M Furlong, Laura H Corbit, Robert A Brown, Bernard W Balleine
Goal-directed actions are controlled by the value of the consequences they produce and so increase when what they produce is valuable and decrease when it is not. With continued invariant practice, however, goal-directed actions can become habits, controlled not by their consequences but by antecedent, reward-related states and stimuli. Here, we show that pre-exposure to methamphetamine (METH) caused abnormally rapid development of habitual control. Furthermore, these drug-induced habits differed strikingly from conventional habits; we found that they were insensitive both to changes in reward value and to the effects of negative feedback...
July 14, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691903/sequential-neuromodulation-of-hebbian-plasticity-offers-mechanism-for-effective-reward-based-navigation
#9
Zuzanna Brzosko, Sara Zannone, Wolfram Schultz, Claudia Clopath, Ole Paulsen
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is under neuromodulatory control, which is correlated with distinct behavioral states. Previously we reported that dopamine, a reward signal, broadens the time window for synaptic potentiation and modulates the outcome of hippocampal STDP even when applied after the plasticity induction protocol (Brzosko et al., 2015). Here we demonstrate that sequential neuromodulation of STDP by acetylcholine and dopamine offers an efficacious model of reward-based navigation. Specifically, our experimental data in mouse hippocampal slices show that acetylcholine biases STDP towards synaptic depression, whilst subsequent application of dopamine converts this depression into potentiation...
July 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682238/complementary-contributions-of-basolateral-amygdala-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-to-value-learning-under-uncertainty
#10
Alexandra Stolyarova, Alicia Izquierdo
We make choices based on the values of expected outcomes, informed by previous experience in similar settings. When the outcomes of our decisions consistently violate expectations, new learning is needed to maximize rewards. Yet not every surprising event indicates a meaningful change in the environment. Even when conditions are stable overall, outcomes of a single experience can still be unpredictable due to small fluctuations (i.e., expected uncertainty) in reward or costs. In the present work, we investigate causal contributions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in rats to learning under expected outcome uncertainty in a novel delay-based task that incorporates both predictable fluctuations and directional shifts in outcome values...
July 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680395/a-biologically-plausible-architecture-of-the-striatum-to-solve-context-dependent-reinforcement-learning-tasks
#11
Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Basal ganglia circuit is an important subcortical system of the brain thought to be responsible for reward-based learning. Striatum, the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia, serves as an input port that maps cortical information. Microanatomical studies show that the striatum is a mosaic of specialized input-output structures called striosomes and regions of the surrounding matrix called the matrisomes. We have developed a computational model of the striatum using layered self-organizing maps to capture the center-surround structure seen experimentally and explain its functional significance...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678984/association-of-neural-and-emotional-impacts-of-reward-prediction-errors-with-major-depression
#12
Robb B Rutledge, Michael Moutoussis, Peter Smittenaar, Peter Zeidman, Tanja Taylor, Louise Hrynkiewicz, Jordan Lam, Nikolina Skandali, Jenifer Z Siegel, Olga T Ousdal, Gita Prabhu, Peter Dayan, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in representing reward prediction errors (RPEs), which are the difference between experienced and predicted reward. Reward prediction errors underlie learning of values in reinforcement learning models, are represented by phasic dopamine release, and are known to affect momentary mood. Objective: To combine functional neuroimaging, computational modeling, and smartphone-based large-scale data collection to test, in the absence of learning-related concerns, the hypothesis that depression attenuates the impact of RPEs...
July 5, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664927/low-striatal-dopamine-d2-type-receptor-availability-is-linked-to-simulated-drug-choice-in-methamphetamine-users
#13
Scott J Moeller, Kyoji Okita, Chelsea L Robertson, Michael E Ballard, Anna B Konova, Rita Z Goldstein, Mark A Mandelkern, Edythe D London
Individuals with drug use disorders seek drugs over other rewarding activities, and exhibit neurochemical deficits related to dopamine, which is involved in value-based learning and decision-making. Thus, a dopaminergic disturbance may underpin drug-biased choice in addiction. Classical drug-choice assessments, which offer drug-consumption opportunities, are inappropriate for addicted individuals seeking treatment or abstaining. Fifteen recently abstinent methamphetamine users and 15 healthy controls completed two laboratory paradigms of 'simulated' drug choice (choice for drug-related versus affectively pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images), and underwent positron emission tomography measurements of dopamine D2-type receptor availability, indicated by binding potential (BPND) for [(18)F]fallypride...
June 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664926/memory-retention-involves-the-ventrolateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-comparison-with-the-basolateral-amygdala
#14
K S Zimmermann, C Li, D G Rainnie, K J Ressler, S L Gourley
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to link stimuli and actions with anticipated outcomes in order to sustain flexible behavior in an ever-changing environment. How it retains these associations to guide future behavior is less well-defined. Here we focused on one subregion of this heterogeneous structure, the ventrolateral OFC (VLO). CaMKII-driven inhibitory Gi-coupled Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were infused and subsequently activated by their ligand Clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) in conjunction with fear extinction training (a form of aversive conditioning) and response-outcome conditioning (a form of appetitive conditioning)...
June 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663005/music-based-interventions-in-neurological-rehabilitation
#15
REVIEW
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Teppo Särkämö, Vera Leo, Mari Tervaniemi, Eckart Altenmüller, Seppo Soinila
During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis...
June 23, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661177/attending-globally-or-locally-incidental-learning-of-optimal-visual-attention-allocation
#16
Melissa R Beck, Rebecca R Goldstein, Amanda E van Lamsweerde, Justin M Ericson
Attention allocation determines the information that is encoded into memory. Can participants learn to optimally allocate attention based on what types of information are most likely to change? The current study examined whether participants could incidentally learn that changes to either high spatial frequency (HSF) or low spatial frequency (LSF) Gabor patches were more probable and to use this incidentally learned probability information to bias attention during encoding. Participants detected changes in orientation in arrays of 6 Gabor patches: 3 HSF and 3 LSF...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657480/brain-activity-regional-gray-matter-loss-and-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Martin Weygandt, Katharina Wakonig, Janina Behrens, Lil Meyer-Arndt, Eveline Söder, Alexander U Brandt, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Stefan M Gold, John-Dylan Haynes, Friedemann Paul
BACKGROUND: Decision-making (DM) abilities deteriorate with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression which impairs everyday life and is thus clinically important. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying neurocognitive processes and their relation to regional gray matter (GM) loss induced by MS. METHODS: We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Iowa Gambling Task to measure DM-related brain activity in 36 MS patients and 21 healthy controls (HC)...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651789/interactions-among-working-memory-reinforcement-learning-and-effort-in-value-based-choice-a-new-paradigm-and-selective-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#18
Anne G E Collins, Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James M Gold, Michael J Frank
BACKGROUND: When studying learning, researchers directly observe only the participants' choices, which are often assumed to arise from a unitary learning process. However, a number of separable systems, such as working memory (WM) and reinforcement learning (RL), contribute simultaneously to human learning. Identifying each system's contributions is essential for mapping the neural substrates contributing in parallel to behavior; computational modeling can help to design tasks that allow such a separable identification of processes and infer their contributions in individuals...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#19
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629382/community-first-responders-and-responder-schemes-in-the-united-kingdom-systematic-scoping-review
#20
Viet-Hai Phung, Ian Trueman, Fiona Togher, Roderick Orner, A Niroshan Siriwardena
BACKGROUND: Community First Responder (CFR) schemes support lay people to respond to medical emergencies, working closely with ambulance services. They operate widely in the UK. There has been no previous review of UK literature on these schemes. This is the first systematic scoping review of UK literature on CFR schemes, which identifies the reasons for becoming a CFR, requirements for training and feedback and confusion between the CFR role and that of ambulance service staff. This study also reveals gaps in the evidence base for CFR schemes...
June 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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