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Neuroimaging and memory

Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Jiang Qiu, Zicheng Hu, Hongtao Ruan, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Xiaodong Zhang, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Gustavo Deco, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional connectivity reflects correlations in the activity between brain areas, whereas effective connectivity between different brain areas measures directed influences of brain regions on each other. Using the latter approach, we compare effective connectivity results in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and control subjects. METHODS: We used a new approach to the measurement of effective connectivity, in which each brain area has a simple dynamical model, and known anatomical connectivity is used to provide constraints...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
John C Hobbins, Lawrence D Platt, Joshua A Copel, Anna G Euser, Yalda Afshar, Roxanna A Irani, Deborah Levine, Magda Sanz Cortes, Alfred Abuhamad, Stephanie L Gaw, Karen Harris, Mauricio Herrera, Lauren Lynch, Adriana Melo, Lisa Noguchi, Renato Aguiar, Jeanne S Sheffield, Katherine K Minton
At a think tank bringing together experts on fetal neuroimaging, obstetric infectious diseases, and public health, we discussed trends in all of these areas for Zika virus. There is a wide variety of imaging findings in affected fetuses, influenced by timing of infection and probably host factors. The resources for diagnosis and interventions also vary by location with the hardest hit areas often having the fewest resources. We identified potential areas for both research and clinical collaboration as the Zika virus epidemic continues to evolve...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Susanne G Mueller, Paul A Yushkevich, Sandhitsu Das, Lei Wang, Koen Van Leemput, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Kate Alpert, Adam Mezher, Peter Ng, Katrina Paz, Michael W Weiner
Objective: Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods: The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains, e.g. memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are domain-specific. Here we directly investigated this issue by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Zhaowen Liu, Jie Zhang, Xiaohua Xie, Edmund T Rolls, Jiangzhou Sun, Kai Zhang, Zeyu Jiao, Qunlin Chen, Junying Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Jianfeng Feng
Creative thinking plays a vital role in almost all aspects of human life. However, little is known about the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying creative thinking. Based on a cross-validation based predictive framework, we searched from the whole-brain connectome (34,716 functional connectivities) and whole genome data (309,996 SNPs) in two datasets (all collected by Southwest University, Chongqing) consisting of altogether 236 subjects, for a better understanding of the brain and genetic underpinning of creativity...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Dominik A Moser, Gaelle E Doucet, Won Hee Lee, Alexander Rasgon, Hannah Krinsky, Evan Leibu, Alex Ing, Gunter Schumann, Natalie Rasgon, Sophia Frangou
Importance: Alterations in multiple neuroimaging phenotypes have been reported in psychotic disorders. However, neuroimaging measures can be influenced by factors that are not directly related to psychosis and may confound the interpretation of case-control differences. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the contribution of these factors to neuroimaging phenotypes in psychosis is warranted. Objective: To quantify the association between neuroimaging measures and behavioral, health, and demographic variables in psychosis using an integrated multivariate approach...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Xiaofen Ma, Guihua Jiang, Shishun Fu, Jin Fang, Yunfan Wu, Mengchen Liu, Guang Xu, Tianyue Wang
Accumulating evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that primary insomnia (PI) affects interregional neural coordination of multiple interacting functional brain networks. However, a complete understanding of the whole-brain network organization from a system-level perspective in PI is still lacking. To this end, we investigated in topological organization changes in brain functional networks in PI. 36 PI patients and 38 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants underwent a series of neuropsychological assessments and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vanessa Scarapicchia, Erin L Mazerolle, John D Fisk, Lesley J Ritchie, Jodie R Gawryluk
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Rotem Monsa, Michael Peer, Shahar Arzy
BACKGROUND: Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurological disorder, is manifested as a neurological disturbance that is not macroscopically visible in clinical structural neuroimaging, and is instead ascribed to underlying psychological stress. Known for many years in neuropsychiatry, a comprehensive explanation to the way by which psychological stress leads to a neurological deficit of a structural-like origin is still a mystery. METHODS: We applied whole-brain network-based data-driven analyses on resting-state functional MRI, recorded in seven CD patients with unilateral paresis and hypoesthesia as compared to 15 age-matched healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Dulcie A Vousden, Elizabeth Cox, Rylan Allemang-Grand, Christine Laliberté, Lily R Qiu, Zsuzsa Lindenmaier, Brian J Nieman, Jason P Lerch
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a widely used technique in rodent neuroimaging studies. Traditionally, Mn2+ is delivered to animals via a systemic injection; however, this can lead to toxic effects at high doses. Recent studies have shown that subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps can be used to continuously deliver manganese chloride (MnCl2 ), and that they produce satisfactory contrast while circumventing many of the toxic side effects. However, neither the time-course of signal enhancement nor the effect of continuous Mn2+ delivery on behaviour, particularly learning and memory, have been well-characterized...
March 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Donghuan Lu, Karteek Popuri, Gavin Weiguang Ding, Rakesh Balachandar, Mirza Faisal Beg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a commonly seen prodromal mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase where memory loss is the main complaint progressively worsening with behavior issues and poor self-care. However, not all individuals clinically diagnosed with MCI progress to AD. A fraction of subjects with MCI either progress to non-AD dementia or remain stable at the MCI stage without progressing to dementia. Although a curative treatment of AD is currently unavailable, it is extremely important to correctly identify the individuals in the MCI phase that will go on to develop AD so that they may benefit from a curative treatment when one becomes available in the near future...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Ana Knezovic, Jelena Osmanovic Barilar, Ana Babic, Robert Bagaric, Vladimir Farkas, Peter Riederer, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic
Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in the brain are considered to be the pathophysiological core of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). In line with that fact, nutrients that could have therapeutic effects at this level have been investigated as possible targets in AD therapy. Galactose, an epimer of glucose, may serve as an alternative source of energy, and given orally may stimulate secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our preliminary research indicated that oral galactose might prevent development of memory impairment in a rat model of sAD generated by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ-icv)...
February 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, You Lv, Lin Sun, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
Diabetes mellitus is considered as an important factor for cognitive decline and dementia in recent years. However, cognitive impairment in diabetic patients is often underestimated and kept undiagnosed, leading to thousands of diabetic patients suffering from worsening memory. Available reviews in this field were limited and not comprehensive enough. Thus, the present review aimed to summarize all available clinical studies on diabetic patients with cognitive decline, and to find valuable biomarkers that might be applied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets of cognitive impairment in diabetes...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Anupa A Vijayakumari, Bejoy Thomas, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Functional MRI (fMRI) has provided much insight into the changes in the neuronal activity on the basis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) phenomenon. The dynamic changes in the metabolites can be detected using functional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-fMRS). The strategy of combining fMRI and H-fMRS would facilitate the understanding of the neurochemical interpretation of the BOLD signal. The dorsolateral prefrontal region is critically involved in the processing of working memory (WM), as demonstrated by the studies involving the neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological experiments...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
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