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Neuroimaging and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343470/cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-state-of-the-field-and-priorities-for-the-future
#1
REVIEW
James F Sumowski, Ralph Benedict, Christian Enzinger, Massimo Filippi, Jeroen J Geurts, Paivi Hamalainen, Hanneke Hulst, Matilde Inglese, Victoria M Leavitt, Maria A Rocca, Eija M Rosti-Otajarvi, Stephen Rao
Cognitive decline is recognized as a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially deficits in episodic memory and processing speed. The field aims to (1) incorporate cognitive assessment into standard clinical care and clinical trials, (2) utilize state-of-the-art neuroimaging to more thoroughly understand neural bases of cognitive deficits, and (3) develop effective, evidence-based, clinically feasible interventions to prevent or treat cognitive dysfunction, which are lacking. There are obstacles to these goals...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341386/at-the-core-of-reasoning-dissociating-deductive-and-non-deductive-load
#2
John P Coetzee, Martin M Monti
In recent years, neuroimaging methods have been used to investigate how the human mind carries out deductive reasoning. According to some, the neural substrate of language is integral to deductive reasoning. According to others, deductive reasoning is supported by a language-independent distributed network including left frontopolar and frontomedial cortices. However, it has been suggested that activity in these frontal regions might instead reflect non-deductive factors such as working memory load and general cognitive difficulty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#3
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341303/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-enhanced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#4
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334834/mild-jugular-compression-collar-ameliorated-changes-in-brain-activation-of-working-memory-after-one-soccer-season-in-female-high-school-athletes
#5
Weihong Yuan, Jonathan Dudley, Kim Barber-Foss, Jonathan D Ellis, Staci Thomas, Ryan T Galloway, Christopher DiCesare, James Leach, Janet Adams, Thomas Maloney, Brooke Gadd, David Smith, Jeff Epstein, Dustin R Grooms, Kelsey Logan, David R Howell, Mekibib Altaye, Gregory D Myer
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that repetitive sub-concussive head impacts, even after only one sport season, may lead to pre- to post-season structural and functional alterations in male high school football athletes. However, data on female atheletes is limited. In the current investigation, we aimed to (1) assess the longitudinal pre- to post-season changes in fMRI of working memory and working memory performance, (2) quantify the association between the pre- to post-season change in fMRI of working memory and the exposure to head impact and working memory performance, and (3) assess whether wearing a neck collar designed to reduce intracranial slosh via mild compression of the jugular veins can ameliorate the changes in fMRI brain activation observed in the non-collar group after a full soccer season...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332567/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-nop-receptor-modulators-an-update-in-structure-activity-relationships
#6
Carlo Mustazza, Stefano Pieretti, Francesca Marzoli
Nociceptin /Orphanin FQ Peptide" receptor (NOPr) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) as endogenous agonist. It is expressed in the nervous system as well as in some non-neural tissues. Its activation has pronociceptive effect at the supraspinal level, whereas at the spinal level it produces nociceptive effects at low doses and antinociceptive effects at higher doses. NOPr is also involved in mood and blood pressure regulation, immunoregulation, airway constriction, feeding, urination, bowel motility, learning and memory...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332038/sex-influences-the-accuracy-of-subjective-memory-complaint-reporting-in-older-adults
#7
Erin E Sundermann, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Leah H Rubin, Mark W Bondi
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are required when diagnosing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), although their relationship with objective memory performance and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. We investigated whether the sex of the patient/participant moderates these associations. Participants were 940 normal control (NC) and aMCI participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SMC were assessed via the memory scale of the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-reports and categorized into "overestimates," "comparable estimates", and "underestimates" of SMC...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330097/learning-situated-emotions
#8
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321584/the-critical-role-of-phase-difference-in-theta-oscillation-between-bilateral-parietal-cortices-for-visuospatial-working-memory
#9
Philip Tseng, Kai-Chi Iu, Chi-Hung Juan
Visual working memory (VWM) refers to people's ability to maintain and manipulate visual information on line. Its capacity varies between individuals, and neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between one's VWM capacity and theta power in the parietal cortex. However, it is unclear how the parietal cortices communicate with each other in order to support VWM processing. In two experiments we employed transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) to use frequency-specific (6 Hz) alternating current to modulate theta oscillation between the left and right parietal cortex with either in-phase (0° difference, Exp 1), anti-phase (180° difference, Exp 2), or sham sinusoidal current stimulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318489/neural-correlates-of-reappraisal-considering-working-memory-capacity-and-cognitive-flexibility
#10
Jenny Zaehringer, Rosalux Falquez, Anna-Lena Schubert, Frauke Nees, Sven Barnow
Cognitive reappraisal of emotion is strongly related to long-term mental health. Therefore, the exploration of underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms has become an essential focus of research. Considering that reappraisal and executive functions rely on a similar brain network, the question arises whether behavioral differences in executive functions modulate neural activity during reappraisal. Using functional neuroimaging, the present study aimed to analyze the role of working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive flexibility in brain activity during down-regulation of negative emotions by reappraisal in N = 20 healthy participants...
January 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317324/specifying-the-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-memory-formation
#11
Garvin Brod, Yee Lee Shing
Recent neuroimaging research suggests that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays an important role for successful memory formation that takes place in the context of activated prior knowledge. These findings led to the notion that the vmPFC integrates new information into existing knowledge structures. However, a considerable number of neuroimaging studies that have investigated memory formation in the context of prior knowledge have not found vmPFC involvement. To resolve this inconsistency, we propose a distinction between knowledge-relevance (the degree to which new information can be linked to prior knowledge) and knowledge-congruency (the perceived match between prior knowledge and the to-be-encoded information)...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317306/double-dissociation-of-structure-function-relationships-in-memory-and-fluid-intelligence-observed-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#12
Curtis L Johnson, Hillary Schwarb, Kevin M Horecka, Matthew D J McGarry, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Brain tissue mechanical properties, measured in vivo with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity. Recently, our group has reported on the positive relationship between viscoelasticity of the hippocampus and performance on a relational memory task in healthy young adults, which highlighted the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function; however, structure-function relationships outside of the hippocampus have not yet been explored...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#13
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312879/posterior-cortical-atrophy-the-value-of-neuroimaging-in-assessing-memory-loss
#14
Stefanos Ioannidis, Helam Roseman, Kenneth Chan, Stephane Duckett, Ruth Mizoguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306963/earlier-alcohol-use-onset-prospectively-predicts-changes-in-functional-connectivity
#15
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Alan N Simmons, Lindsay M Squeglia, M Alejandra Infante, Joseph P Schacht, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Half of all new alcohol initiates are between 12 and 17 years old. This is a period of intense neurodevelopment, including changes in functional connectivity patterns among higher-order function areas. It is crucial to understand how alcohol-related neurotoxicity may be influenced by drinking onset age. DESIGN: This study prospectively examined the effects of age of first drink on frontoparietal context-dependent functional connectivity (cdFC) during a visual working memory task...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305751/volumetric-comparison-of-hippocampal-subfields-extracted-from-4-minute-accelerated-vs-8-minute-high-resolution-t2-weighted-3t-mri-scans
#16
Shan Cong, Shannon L Risacher, John D West, Yu-Chien Wu, Liana G Apostolova, Eileen Tallman, Maher Rizkalla, Paul Salama, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
The hippocampus has been widely studied using neuroimaging, as it plays an important role in memory and learning. However, hippocampal subfield information is difficult to capture by standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. To facilitate morphometric study of hippocampal subfields, ADNI introduced a high resolution (0.4 mm in plane) T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence that requires 8 min. With acceleration, the protocol can be acquired in 4 min. We performed a comparative study of hippocampal subfield volumes using standard and accelerated protocols on a Siemens Prisma 3T MRI in an independent sample of older adults that included 10 cognitively normal controls, 9 individuals with subjective cognitive decline, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 6 with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
January 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301613/testing-olfactory-function-and-mapping-the-structural-olfactory-networks-in-the-brain
#17
Alexander Fjældstad
We perceive the world through our senses. The dependence on these sensory stimuli becomes obvious when we see a visually impaired individual with a guide dog or an individual using sign language. However, individuals with olfactory deficits suffer from a more concealed impairment without any opportunity for diagnostics or treatment in the Danish healthcare system. Around a fifth of the population experience olfactory deficits, of which 1-2% are functionally anosmic. The personal consequences for anosmics can be extensive, lacking not only in hedonic yield related to eating and drinking, but also the socialization during dinners can become niggling...
January 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298989/lost-in-translation-how-to-upgrade-fear-memory-research
#18
REVIEW
África Flores, Miquel À Fullana, Carles Soriano-Mas, Raül Andero
We address some of the current limitations of translational research in fear memory and suggest alternatives that might help to overcome them. Appropriate fear responses are adaptive, but disruption of healthy fear memory circuits can lead to anxiety and fear-based disorders. Stress is one of the main environmental factors that can disrupt memory circuits and constitutes as a key factor in the etiopathology of these psychiatric conditions. Current therapies for anxiety and fear-based disorders have limited success rate, revealing a clear need for an improved understanding of their neurobiological basis...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298678/the-brainfit-study-efficacy-of-cognitive-training-and-exergaming-in-pediatric-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Valentin Benzing, Noëmi Eggenberger, Janine Spitzhüttl, Valerie Siegwart, Manuela Pastore-Wapp, Claus Kiefer, Nedelina Slavova, Michael Grotzer, Theda Heinks, Mirko Schmidt, Achim Conzelmann, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts, Kurt Leibundgut
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival comes at a price: pediatric cancer survivors bear a high risk for a wide range of cognitive difficulties. Therefore, interventions targeting these difficulties are required. The aim of the present clinical trial is to extend empirical evidence about efficacy of cognitive and physical training in pediatric cancer survivors. It is hypothesized that early cognitive and physical interventions affect the remediation of pediatric cancer survivors in terms of improved executive functions (primary outcome)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288503/neurodegenerative-processes-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-clinical-pathological-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#20
X Y Tai, B Bernhardt, M Thom, P Thompson, S Baxendale, M Koepp, N Bernasconi
Cognitive decline is increasingly described as a co-morbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment are not fully understood despite examining clinical factors, such as seizure frequency, and cellular mechanisms of excitotoxicity. We review the neuropsychometry evidence for progressive cognitive decline and examine the pathology and neuroimaging evidence supporting a neurodegenerative process in hippocampal sclerosis (HS)-related TLE. Accelerated cognitive decline is described in groups of adult HS-related TLE patients...
December 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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