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Neuroimaging and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802589/ventral-lateral-parietal-cortex-and-episodic-memory-retrieval
#1
REVIEW
Michael D Rugg, Danielle R King
With the advent of functional neuroimaging it quickly became apparent that successful episodic memory retrieval was consistently associated with enhanced activity in ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC), especially the left angular gyrus. Here, we selectively review recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging evidence relevant to the question of the functional significance of this activity. We argue that the balance of the evidence suggests that the angular gyrus supports the representation of retrieved episodic information, and that this likely reflects a more general role for the region in representing multi-modal and multi-domain information...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801273/building-concepts-one-episode-at-a-time-the-hippocampus-and-concept-formation
#2
REVIEW
Michael L Mack, Bradley C Love, Alison R Preston
Concepts organize our experiences and allow for meaningful inferences in novel situations. Acquiring new concepts requires extracting regularities across multiple learning experiences, a process formalized in mathematical models of learning. These models posit a computational framework that has increasingly aligned with the expanding repertoire of functions associated with the hippocampus. Here, we propose the Episodes-to-Concepts (EpCon) theoretical model of hippocampal function in concept learning and review evidence for the hippocampal computations that support concept formation including memory integration, attentional biasing, and memory-based prediction error...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#3
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#4
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781764/neuroimaging-in-aging-brain-maintenance
#5
REVIEW
Lars Nyberg
Neuroimaging studies of the aging brain provide support that the strongest predictor of preserved memory and cognition in older age is brain maintenance, or relative lack of brain pathology. Evidence for brain maintenance comes from different levels of examination, but up to now relatively few studies have used a longitudinal design. Examining factors that promote brain maintenance in aging is a critical task for the future and may be combined with the use of new techniques for multimodal imaging.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777056/neural-representation-of-working-memory-content-is-modulated-by-visual-attentional-demand
#6
Anastasia Kiyonaga, Emma Wu Dowd, Tobias Egner
Recent theories assert that visual working memory (WM) relies on the same attentional resources and sensory substrates as visual attention to external stimuli. Behavioral studies have observed competitive tradeoffs between internal (i.e., WM) and external (i.e., visual) attentional demands, and neuroimaging studies have revealed representations of WM content as distributed patterns of activity within the same cortical regions engaged by perception of that content. Although a key function of WM is to protect memoranda from competing input, it remains unknown how neural representations of WM content are impacted by incoming sensory stimuli and concurrent attentional demands...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769858/dedifferentiation-does-not-account-for-hyperconnectivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Rachel Anne Bernier, Arnab Roy, Umesh Meyyappan Venkatesan, Emily C Grossner, Einat K Brenner, Frank Gerard Hillary
OBJECTIVE: Changes in functional network connectivity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increasing attention in recent neuroimaging literature. This study sought to understand how disrupted systems adapt to injury during resting and goal-directed brain states. Hyperconnectivity has been a common finding, and dedifferentiation (or loss of segregation of networks) is one possible explanation for this finding. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI would show dedifferentiation of networks (as noted in other clinical populations) and these effects would be associated with cognitive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769775/measuring-mental-workload-with-eeg-fnirs
#8
Haleh Aghajani, Marc Garbey, Ahmet Omurtag
We studied the capability of a Hybrid functional neuroimaging technique to quantify human mental workload (MWL). We have used electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as imaging modalities with 17 healthy subjects performing the letter n-back task, a standard experimental paradigm related to working memory (WM). The level of MWL was parametrically changed by variation of n from 0 to 3. Nineteen EEG channels were covering the whole-head and 19 fNIRS channels were located on the forehead to cover the most dominant brain region involved in WM...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763718/lifetime-ptsd-and-geriatric-depression-symptomatology-relate-to-altered-dorsomedial-frontal-and-amygdala-morphometry
#9
Lindsay K Knight, Farah Naaz, Teodora Stoica, Brendan E Depue
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects a large portion of combat deployed Veterans. Moreover, many individuals also suffer from comorbid late life depression (geriatric depression; GD). While a great deal of research has begun to characterize the morphometric features of PTSD and depression individually, few studies have investigated the interacting effect of these two disorders, specifically in a Veteran population. The current study used cortical and subcortical surface-based morphometry (SBM) in combination with psychological assessments of PTSD and GD symptom severity to examine morphometric alterations in Vietnam War Veterans...
July 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759780/neural-correlates-of-evaluating-self-and-close-other-in-physical-academic-and-prosocial-domains
#10
R van der Cruijsen, S Peters, E A Crone
Behavioral studies showed that self-concept can be distinguished into different domains, but few neuroimaging studies have investigated either domain-specific or valence-specific activity. Here, we investigated whether evaluating self- and mother-traits in three domains (physical, academic, prosocial) relies on similar or distinct brain regions. Additionally, we explored the topical discussion in the literature on whether vmPFC activity during self-evaluations is induced by valence or importance of traits. Participants evaluated themselves and their mothers on positive and negative traits in three domains...
July 28, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758145/cross-validation-of-optimized-composites-for-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Michael C Donohue, Chung-Kai Sun, Rema Raman, Philip S Insel, Paul S Aisen
INTRODUCTION: We discuss optimization and validation of composite endpoints for pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's clinical trials. Optimized composites offer hope of substantial gains in statistical power or reduction in sample size. But there is tradeoff between optimization and face validity such that optimization should only be considered if there is a convincing rationale. As with statistically derived regions of interest in neuroimaging, validation on independent datasets is essential...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755853/search-and-recovery-of-autobiographical-and-laboratory-memories-shared-and-distinct-neural-components
#12
Zachary A Monge, Erik A Wing, Jared Stokes, Roberto Cabeza
Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that there are differences in the neural correlates of episodic memory for laboratory stimuli (laboratory memory) and for events from one's own life (autobiographical memory). However, this evidence is scarce and often confounded with differences in memory testing procedures. Here, we directly compared the neural mechanisms underlying the search and recovery of autobiographical and laboratory memories while minimizing testing differences. Before scanning, participants completed a laboratory memory encoding task in which they studied four-word "chains" spread across three word pairs...
July 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752495/changing-clinical-phenotypes-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#13
Ned Sacktor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a common cause of cognitive impairment and persists in 15-55% of HIV+ individuals in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. CART is now the primary treatment for HAND, but it is effective in only a subset of patients. In the pre-CART era, HIV-associated dementia was the most common form of HAND. However, in CART-treated patients, the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia has declined substantially, and milder stages of HAND, i.e., ANI and MND predominate...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750832/functional-brain-activation-associated-with-working-memory-training-and-transfer
#14
Cameron M Clark, Linette Lawlor-Savage, Vina M Goghari
While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices)...
July 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#15
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744826/erratum-to-working-memory-reasoning-and-expertise-in-medicine-insights-into-their-relationship-using-functional-neuroimaging
#16
Pam Hruska, Olav Krigolson, Sylvain Coderre, Kevin McLaughlin, Filomeno Cortese, Christopher Doig, Tanya Beran, Bruce Wright, Kent G Hecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736521/group-level-progressive-alterations-in-brain-connectivity-patterns-revealed-by-diffusion-tensor-brain-networks-across-severity-stages-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Javier Rasero, Carmen Alonso-Montes, Ibai Diez, Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Lakhdar Remaki, Iñaki Escudero, Beatriz Mateos, Paolo Bonifazi, Manuel Fernandez, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Jesus M Cortes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease highly correlated to aging. Whether AD originates by targeting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. Here, we aim to provide an answer to this question at the group-level by looking at differences in diffusion-tensor brain networks. In particular, making use of data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), four different groups were defined (all of them matched by age, sex and education level): G1 (N1 = 36, healthy control subjects, Control), G2 (N2 = 36, early mild cognitive impairment, EMCI), G3 (N3 = 36, late mild cognitive impairment, LMCI) and G4 (N4 = 36, AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733357/a-role-for-the-left-angular-gyrus-in-episodic-simulation-and-memory
#18
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732249/evaluating-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-as-mediators-of-age-related-cognitive-decline
#19
Timothy J Hohman, Doug Tommet, Shawn Marks, Joey Contreras, Rich Jones, Dan Mungas
Age-related changes in cognition are partially mediated by the presence of neuropathology and neurodegeneration. This manuscript evaluates the degree to which biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, (AD) neuropathology and longitudinal changes in brain structure, account for age-related differences in cognition. Data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 1012) were analyzed, including individuals with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment. Parallel process mixed effects regression models characterized longitudinal trajectories of cognitive variables and time-varying changes in brain volumes...
July 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#20
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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