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Extrinsic motivation and memory

Christof Kuhbandner, Alp Aslan, Kathrin Emmerdinger, Kou Murayama
Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mónika Gergelyfi, Benvenuto Jacob, Etienne Olivier, Alexandre Zénon
Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kevin T Jones, Filiz Gözenman, Marian E Berryhill
Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions...
January 15, 2015: NeuroImage
Matthias J Gruber, Bernard D Gelman, Charan Ranganath
People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity...
October 22, 2014: Neuron
J Law, P Shaw, K Earland, M Sheldon, M Lee
A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behavior that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks...
2014: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Kou Murayama, Shinji Kitagami
Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context...
February 2014: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Oliver Schmitt, Peter Eipert, Konstanze Philipp, Richard Kettlitz, Georg Fuellen, Andreas Wree
The connectomes of nervous systems or parts there of are becoming important subjects of study as the amount of connectivity data increases. Because most tract-tracing studies are performed on the rat, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the amygdala connectome of this species resulting in a meta-study. The data were imported into the neuroVIISAS system, where regions of the connectome are organized in a controlled ontology and network analysis can be performed. A weighted digraph represents the bilateral intrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala) and extrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala to non-amygdaloid regions) connectome of the amygdala...
2012: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lucy J Robinson, Lucy H Stevens, Christopher J D Threapleton, Jurgita Vainiute, R Hamish McAllister-Williams, Peter Gallagher
It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18-35years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance...
October 2012: Acta Psychologica
Sarah McLachlan, Martin S Hagger
The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals, and between goal pursuit for intrinsically and extrinsically motivated reasons, is a central premise of self-determination theory. Proponents of the theory have proposed that the pursuit of intrinsic goals and intrinsically motivated goal striving each predict adaptive psychological and behavioral outcomes relative to the pursuit of extrinsic goals and extrinsically motivated goal striving. Despite evidence to support these predictions, research has not explored whether individuals naturally differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals...
April 2011: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Steven M Silverstein
An important development in cognitive remediation of schizophrenia is a focus on motivation. However, following a distinction between the concepts of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation, discussions of IM-based methods have downplayed or misrepresented the role that extrinsic rewards can, and actually do, serve to promote positive treatment outcomes in cognitive remediation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the rationale for using techniques incorporating extrinsic rewards into cognitive treatment of people with schizophrenia...
September 2010: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Melanie J White, Bruce R Lawford, C Phillip Morris, Ross McD Young
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism CC genotype is associated with decreased striatal binding of DRD2 and executive function and working memory impairments in healthy adults. We investigated the relationships between C957T and acute stress with behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity in 72 young adults randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Homozygotes for 957C showed increased reward responsiveness after stress induction. They were also quicker when making immediate choices on the delay discounting task when stressed, compared with homozygotes who were not stressed...
May 2009: Behavior Genetics
Susan L Ames, Jerry L Grenard, Carolien Thush, Steve Sussman, Reinout W Wiers, Alan W Stacy
In this study, the authors compared indirect measures that attempt to quantify the level of marijuana associations among adolescents. They also evaluated whether these various methods overlap or tap different aspects of associative processes that may act in concert to influence marijuana use. Automatic drug-relevant associations were assessed in 121 at-risk youth in continuation high schools in California with the use of a word association index and computer-based, reaction time measures (i.e., Implicit Association Test [IAT] and Extrinsic Affective Simon Task [EAST])...
April 2007: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
E Elvander-Tottie, T M Eriksson, J Sandin, S O Ogren
Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the medial septal/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MS/vDB) area project to the hippocampus and constitute the septohippocampal pathway, which has been implicated in learning and memory. There is also evidence for extrinsic and intrinsic glutamatergic neurons in the MS/vDB, which by regulating septohippocampal neurons can influence hippocampal functions. The potential role of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the MS/vDB for spatial and emotional learning was studied using the water maze and step-through passive avoidance (PA) tasks, which are both hippocampal-dependent...
November 3, 2006: Neuroscience
Leonard Ngaosuvan, Timo Mäntylä
People often claim that they perform better in memory performance tasks when they are more motivated. However, past research has shown minimal effects of motivation on memory performance when factors contributing to item-specific biases during encoding and retrieval are taken into account. The purpose of the present study was to examine the generality of this apparent dissociation by using more sensitive measures of experienced motivation and memory performance. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through competition instructions, and subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were obtained before and after study instructions...
August 2005: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Kristy A Nielson, Ted Bryant
Emotional and arousing treatments given shortly after learning enhance delayed memory retrieval in animal and human studies. Positive affect and reward induced prior to a variety of cognitive tasks enhance performance, but their ability to affect memory consolidation has not been investigated before. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a small, non-contingent, intrinsic or extrinsic reward on delayed memory retrieval. Participants (n=108) studied and recalled a list of 30 affectively neutral, imageable nouns...
July 2005: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
John M Hinson, Tina L Jameson, Paul Whitney
Decision making that favors short-term over long-term consequences of action, defined as impulsive or temporally myopic, may be related to individual differences in the executive functions of working memory (WM). In the first 2 experiments, participants made delay discounting (DD) judgments under different WM load conditions. In a 3rd experiment, participants high or low on standardized measures of imupulsiveness and dysexecutive function were asked to make DD judgments. A final experiment examined WM load effects on DD when monetary rewards were real rather than hypothetical...
March 2003: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
H K Strüder, H Weicker
Serotonin (5-HT), one of the evolutionary oldest central neurotransmitters, regulates the most extensive modulatory behavioral system in the brain of vertebrates. 5-HT projections are influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic impulses from different cortical brain areas, which reach Raphe nuclei over feedback loops, containing external and internal body information about planning, evaluation, motivation or excitation. Serotonergic neurotransmission adjusts neuromodulation with consecutive adequate stimulation of the neuronal network...
October 2001: International Journal of Sports Medicine
S J Curry
This paper, delivered as the 2000 Joseph W. Cullen Memorial Award Lecture, reviews smoking cessation treatment research conducted over the past 15 years at the Center for Health Studies, Group Health COOPERATIVE: The research program includes assessment, treatment, and health services research that addressed four main questions: (a) What motivates people to quit smoking? (b) Are self-help interventions effective? (c) Can health care benefits impact the utilization of smoking cessation services? and (d) Does smoking cessation impact health care utilization and costs? In the area of motivation for smoking cessation, an intrinsic-extrinsic model of type of motivation for smoking cessation was used to develop and validate a reasons for quitting scale...
April 2001: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
G Schalow, G A Zäch
The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior...
October 2000: General Physiology and Biophysics
P D Tomporowski, V F Tinsley
In two experiments, young and older adults performed 60-min cognitive vigilance tests in which memory demands were equated for individual differences in digit span. In the first experiment, the effects of monetary reward on subjects' performance were assessed. The sustained attention of young and older adults who were both paid for their participation did not differ, and it did not decline during the vigil, but young adults who were not paid for their participation evidenced a significant vigilance decrement...
1996: American Journal of Psychology
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