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Positive behaviour support

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636745/a-practical-framework-for-encouraging-and-supporting-positive-behaviour-change-in-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
L Fisher, W H Polonsky, D Hessler, M B Potter
A wide range of diabetes-directed interventions - including novel medications, devices and comprehensive education programmes - have been shown to be effective in clinical trials. But in the real world of diabetes care their efficacy is often dependent upon on how well a clinician is able to support personal engagement and motivation of the person with diabetes to use these new tools and knowledge consistently, and as directed . Although many person-centred motivational and behavioural strategies have been developed, for example, action planning, motivational interviewing and empowerment-based communication, the sheer number and apparent lack of clear differences among them have led to considerable confusion...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633689/the-relationship-between-community-nutritionists-use-of-policy-systems-and-environmental-strategies-to-prevent-obesity-and-its-determinants-depends-on-networking
#2
Angela H Lu, Katherine L Dickin, Mark A Constas, Jamie S Dollahite
OBJECTIVE: To apply the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine the relationship between the constructs of background factors and beliefs towards using policy, systems and environmental (PSE) strategies and reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity by a group of professional nutrition educators. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey. SETTING: Cooperative Extension in New York, USA. SUBJECTS: Nutrition educators (n 58); survey response rate 100 %...
June 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632983/a-descriptive-study-of-a-community-based-home-visiting-program-with-preschool-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#3
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Sayma Malik, Julia Wellwood, Karen Johnston, Holly Gammon, Kathy N Andrew, Breann Maxwell, Sally Longstaffe
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) increases the risk of insecure caregiver-child attachment and related negative child emotional-behavioural outcomes. Research also shows positive effects of attachment-focused interventions in preventing disrupted caregiver-child attachment relationships; however, such interventions have not been specifically adapted for children with FASD. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the implementation, challenges, and results of a community home-based attachment intervention, Circle of Security® (COS), with preschool children affected by PAE/FASD in Manitoba, Canada...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629470/policy-lessons-from-health-taxes-a-systematic-review-of-empirical-studies
#4
Alexandra Wright, Katherine E Smith, Mark Hellowell
BACKGROUND: Taxes on alcohol and tobacco have long been an important means of raising revenues for public spending in many countries but there is increasing interest in using taxes on these, and other unhealthy products, to achieve public health goals. We present a systematic review of the research on health taxes, and aim to generate insights into how such taxes can: (i) reduce consumption of targeted products and related harms; (ii) generate revenues for health objectives and distribute the tax burden across income groups in an efficient and equitable manner; and (iii) be made politically sustainable...
June 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629428/study-protocol-evaluation-of-an-online-father-inclusive-universal-parenting-intervention-to-reduce-child-externalising-behaviours-and-improve-parenting-practices
#5
Lucy A Tully, Patrycja J Piotrowska, Daniel A J Collins, Kathleen S Mairet, David J Hawes, Eva R Kimonis, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Caroline Moul, Vicki Anderson, Paul J Frick, Mark R Dadds
BACKGROUND: Parenting interventions that focus on enhancing the quality and consistency of parenting are effective for preventing and reducing externalising problems in children. There has been a recent shift towards online delivery of parenting interventions in order to increase their reach and impact on the population prevalence of child externalising problems. Parenting interventions have low rates of father participation yet research suggests that father involvement may be critical to the success of the intervention...
June 19, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629138/alcohol-warnings-and-moderate-drinking-patterns-among-italian-university-students-an-exploratory-study
#6
Azzurra Annunziata, Riccardo Vecchio, Angela Mariani
The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626934/thermal-phsyiology-a-new-dimension-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome
#7
C T Goulet, M B Thompson, M Michelangeli, B B M Wong, D G Chapple
1.Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2.We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is predicted that thermal physiology and behavior would covary whereby individual positioning along the thermal continuum would coincide with that of the behavioral continuum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624949/designing-more-engaging-computer-tailored-physical-activity-behaviour-change-interventions-for-breast-cancer-survivors-lessons-from-the-imove-more-for-life-study
#8
C E Short, E L James, A L Rebar, M J Duncan, K S Courneya, R C Plotnikoff, R Crutzen, N Bidargaddi, C Vandelanotte
BACKGROUND: Participating in regular physical activity is a recommended cancer recovery strategy for breast cancer survivors. However, tailored support services are not widely available and most survivors are insufficiently active to obtain health benefits. Delivering tailored programs via the Internet offers one promising approach. However, recent evaluations of such programs suggest that major improvements are needed to ensure programs meet the needs of users and are delivered in an engaging way...
June 17, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624759/gps-attitudes-beliefs-and-behaviours-regarding-exercise-for-chronic-knee-pain-a-questionnaire-survey
#9
Elizabeth Cottrell, Nadine E Foster, Mark Porcheret, Trishna Rathod, Edward Roddy
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. SETTING: Primary care GPs in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley's database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620843/the-coevolution-of-play-and-the-cortico-cerebellar-system-in-primates
#10
Max Kerney, Jeroen B Smaers, P Thomas Schoenemann, Jacob C Dunn
Primates are some of the most playful animals in the natural world, yet the reason for this remains unclear. One hypothesis posits that primates are so playful because playful activity functions to help develop the sophisticated cognitive and behavioural abilities that they are also renowned for. If this hypothesis were true, then play might be expected to have coevolved with the neural substrates underlying these abilities in primates. Here, we tested this prediction by conducting phylogenetic comparative analyses to determine whether play has coevolved with the cortico-cerebellar system, a neural system known to be involved in complex cognition and the production of complex behaviour...
June 15, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615497/excavation-and-aggregation-as-organizing-factors-in-de-novo-construction-by-mound-building-termites
#11
Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal, Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614357/risk-factors-that-may-be-driving-the-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-tuberculosis-patients-treated-in-yangon-myanmar
#12
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker
BACKGROUND: The majority of new tuberculosis cases emerging every year occur in low and middle-income countries where public health systems are often characterised by weak infrastructure and inadequate resources. This study investigates healthcare seeking behaviour, knowledge and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Myanmar-which is facing an acute drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic-and identifies factors that may increase the risk of emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: We randomly selected adult smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients diagnosed between September 2014 and March 2015 at ten public township health centres in Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610753/-i-had-a-good-time-when-i-was-young-interpreting-descriptions-of-continuity-among-older-people
#13
Mary Breheny, Zoë Griffiths
Messages describing how best to age are prominent in gerontological theory, research and the media. These prescriptions for ageing may foster positive experiences in later life; however, they may also obscure the social and situated nature of expectations for ageing well. Continuity Theory proposes ageing well is achieved through continuity of activity and stability of relationships and identity over the life course. Continuity seems adaptive, yet prioritising continuity may not match the expectations, desires and realities of older people...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608579/positive-behavioural-change-requires-clarity-objectivity-and-support
#14
Sue Cradock
The study by Byrne et al. [1] in this edition of Diabetic Medicine reports the results of an extensive survey of healthcare professionals regarding their experience of training support to help people with diabetes. The authors conclude that healthcare professionals are 'insufficiently equipped to provide diabetes self-management education including emotional and psychological aspects of diabetes'. This conclusion prompted me to reflect on how far we have, or rather have not, come in the last decade. This article is protected by copyright...
June 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606288/factors-associated-with-unwanted-sexual-experiences-of-young-australian-females-an-observational-study
#15
Asvini K Subasinghe, Yasmin L Jayasinghe, John D Wark, Alexandra Gorelik, Suzanne M Garland
Background: Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Methods: Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation...
June 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604240/the-influence-of-social-constructs-of-hegemonic-masculinity-and-sexual-behaviour-on-acceptability-of-vaginal-microbicides-in-zambia
#16
Oliver Mweemba, Rachael Dixey, Virginia Bond, Alan White
Vaginal microbicides are heralded as a woman's HIV prevention method. This study, conducted in a microbicide clinical trial setting in Zambia, explored how the social construction of masculinity and sexual behaviour influenced the acceptability of vaginal microbicides. The data were generated from 18 In-depth Interviews and 8 Focus Group Discussions. The data were analysed thematically. The study found that hegemonic masculinity influenced the use of vaginal microbicides positively and negatively, in multiple ways including: decision to initiate gel use, autonomous use of the gel, and consistent use of the gel...
June 12, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#17
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599923/silencing-of-the-rna-binding-protein-hur-attenuates-hyperalgesia-and-motor-disability-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Maria Domenica Sanna, Alessandro Quattrone, Nicoletta Galeotti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system associated with progressive neuronal loss and axonal degeneration. Neuronal lesions and dysfunction lead often to neuropathic pain, the most prevalent and difficult to treat pain syndrome observed in MS patients. Despite its widespread occurrence, the underlying neural mechanisms for MS pain are not fully understood. For a better clarification of the pathophysiology of MS-associated pain, we investigated the role of HuR, an RNA-binding protein that positively regulates the stability of many target mRNAs, including several cytokines...
June 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594300/pre-operative-experiences-and-post-operative-benefits-of-ptosis-surgery-a-qualitative-study
#19
Hollie S Richards, Elizabeth Jenkinson, Nicola Rumsey, Richard A Harrad
This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of patients who had undergone successful ptosis correction surgery. Participants were recruited from Bristol Eye Hospital. Nine participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and open ended questions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four major themes were identified from patient accounts. Patients described the psychosocial and functional difficulties they experienced living with ptosis, and the subsequent benefits of surgery...
June 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593360/strongest-families%C3%A2-managing-our-mood-mom-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-distance-intervention-for-women-with-postpartum-depression
#20
Lori Wozney, Janine Olthuis, Patricia Lingley-Pottie, Patrick J McGrath, William Chaplin, Frank Elgar, Brianna Cheney, Anna Huguet, Karen Turner, Jillian Kennedy
The present study investigated whether a distance-delivered intervention could significantly decrease mild to moderate postpartum depression (PPD) in mothers as compared to usual care. Mothers with PPD (n = 62) were randomly assigned to the intervention or standard community care. Participants receiving the intervention followed a 12-session cognitive behavioural informed handbook supplemented with telephone-based coaching support. Diagnostic status and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months postrandomization...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
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