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Positive behaviour support

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769358/resolving-the-phylogenetic-position-of-darwin-s-extinct-ground-sloth-mylodon-darwinii-using-mitogenomic-and-nuclear-exon-data
#1
Frédéric Delsuc, Melanie Kuch, Gillian C Gibb, Jonathan Hughes, Paul Szpak, John Southon, Jacob Enk, Ana T Duggan, Hendrik N Poinar
Mylodon darwinii is the extinct giant ground sloth named after Charles Darwin, who first collected its remains in South America. We have successfully obtained a high-quality mitochondrial genome at 99-fold coverage using an Illumina shotgun sequencing of a 12 880-year-old bone fragment from Mylodon Cave in Chile. Low level of DNA damage showed that this sample was exceptionally well preserved for an ancient subfossil, probably the result of the dry and cold conditions prevailing within the cave. Accordingly, taxonomic assessment of our shotgun metagenomic data showed a very high percentage of endogenous DNA with 22% of the assembled metagenomic contigs assigned to Xenarthra...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766615/barriers-and-facilitators-to-smoking-cessation-in-pregnancy-and-in-the-post-partum-period-the-health-care-professionals-perspective
#2
Felix Naughton, Sarah Hopewell, Lesley Sinclair, Dorothy McCaughan, Jennifer McKell, Linda Bauld
OBJECTIVES: Health care professionals and the health care environment play a central role in protecting pregnant and post-partum women and their infants from smoking-related harms. This study aimed to better understand the health professional's perspective on how interactions between women, health care professionals, and the environment influence how smoking is managed. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. METHODS: Data were from 48 health care staff involved in antenatal or post-partum care at two UK sites, including midwives, obstetricians, health visitors, GPs, pharmacists, service commissioners, and Stop Smoking Service (SSS) advisors and managers...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755249/the-feasibility-appropriateness-meaningfulness-and-effectiveness-of-parenting-and-family-support-programs-delivered-in-the-criminal-justice-system-a-systematic-review
#3
Victoria Troy, Kerri E McPherson, Carol Emslie, Elizabeth Gilchrist
Children whose parents are involved in the criminal justice system (CJS) are at increased risk of developing social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties and are more likely than their peers to become involved in the CJS themselves. Parenting behaviour and parent-child relationships have the potential to affect children's outcomes with positive parenting practices having the potential to moderate some of the negative outcomes associated with parental involvement in the CJS. However, many parents in the CJS may lack appropriate role models to support the development of positive parenting beliefs and practices...
2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753036/explaining-the-amount-and-consistency-of-medical-care-and-self-management-support-in-asthma-a-survey-of-primary-care-providers-in-france-and-the-united-kingdom
#4
Marijn de Bruin, Alexandra L Dima, Nathalie Texier, Eric van Ganse
BACKGROUND: The quality of asthma primary care may vary between countries, health care practices, and health care professionals (HCPs). Identifying and explaining such differences is critical for health services improvement. OBJECTIVES: To examine the quality of asthma primary care in France and United Kingdom, and identify within-country and between-country predictors amenable to intervention. METHODS: An online questionnaire to capture asthma medical care and self-management support, practice characteristics, and psychosocial determinants, was completed by 276 HCPs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752850/role-modelling-and-the-hidden-curriculum-new-graduate-nurses-professional-socialisation
#5
Kiri Hunter, Catherine Cook
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore new graduate nurses' experiences of professional socialisation by registered nurses in hospital-based practice settings, and identify strategies that support professional identity development. BACKGROUND: Professionalism is reinforced and stabilised in the clinical environment through the 'hidden curriculum', with major learning coming from practice role-models. New graduates observe attitudes, behaviours, decision-making and skills, and gain feedback from registered nurses, which they translate into their own practice...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752027/reducing-challenging-behaviour-of-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-supported-accommodation-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-setting-wide-positive-behaviour-support
#6
Peter McGill, Leah Vanono, Will Clover, Emmett Smyth, Vivien Cooper, Lisa Hopkins, Nick Barratt, Christopher Joyce, Kate Henderson, Sheila Sekasi, Susy Davis, Roy Deveau
BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of social care through the implementation of setting-wide positive behaviour support (SWPBS) may reduce and prevent challenging behaviour. METHOD: Twenty-four supported accommodation settings were randomized to experimental or control conditions. Settings in both groups had access to individualized PBS either via the organisation's Behaviour Support Team or from external professionals. Additionally, within the experimental group, social care practice was reviewed and improvement programmes set going...
May 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751804/changes-in-physiotherapy-students-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-ebp-from-first-year-to-graduation-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Maureen P McEvoy, Lucy K Lewis, Julie Luker
BACKGROUND: Dedicated Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) courses are often included in health professional education programs. It is important to understand the effectiveness of this training. This study investigated EBP outcomes in entry-level physiotherapy students from baseline to completion of all EBP training (graduation). METHODS: Mixed methods with an explanatory sequential design. Physiotherapy students completed two psychometrically-tested health professional EBP instruments at baseline and graduation...
May 11, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749665/contribution-of-parenting-to-complex-syntax-development-in-preschool-children-with-developmental-delays-or-typical-development
#8
C T Moody, B L Baker, J Blacher
BACKGROUND: Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). METHODS: Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747094/determining-the-opinions-of-the-first-year-nursing-students-about-clinical-practice-and-clinical-educators
#9
Emine Kol, Serpil İnce
The clinical experience prepares nursing students to become competent and professional practitioners. The evaluation of the clinical learning environment is important to determine if the clinical experience and clinical instructor provide essential learning opportunities as well as a supportive environment. This study aimed to determine the opinions of first-year nursing students about their instructors and clinical practice in the clinical education setting. The sample of the study consists of 227 students from Akdeniz University Nursing Faculty enrolled in the 'Nursing Basics' course...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743514/transcriptomic-integration-of-d-4-r-and-mor-signaling-in-the-rat-caudate-putamen
#10
Alejandra Valderrama-Carvajal, Haritz Irizar, Belén Gago, Haritz Jiménez-Urbieta, Kjell Fuxe, María C Rodríguez-Oroz, David Otaegui, Alicia Rivera
Morphine binding to opioid receptors, mainly to μ opioid receptor (MOR), induces alterations in intracellular pathways essential to the initial development of addiction. The activation of the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R), which is expressed in the caudate putamen (CPu), mainly counteracts morphine-induced alterations in several molecular networks. These involve transcription factors, adaptive changes of MOR signaling, activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and behavioural effects, underlining functional D4 R/MOR interactions...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743062/-we-don-t-want-our-clothes-to-smell-smoke-changing-malaria-control-practices-and-opportunities-for-integrated-community-based-management-in-baringo-kenya
#11
Jacinter A Amadi, Daniel O Olago, George O Ong'amo, Silas O Oriaso, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya...
May 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737599/an-evaluation-of-staff-training-in-positive-behavioural-support
#12
Anne MacDonald, Peter McGill, Glynis Murphy
BACKGROUND: Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) has been shown to be effective in minimizing challenging behaviour and improving the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. Training in PBS is an important factor in achieving good coverage in the use of PBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of training managers of social care services in PBS. METHOD: A year-long training programme in PBS was delivered to 50 managers of community-based services for people with challenging behaviour...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731185/quality-of-cardiac-care-in-canada-recommendations-for-building-a-sustainable-future
#13
Courtney Young, Laurie Lambert, James Abel, Blair J O'Neill
Cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to present a significant disease and economic burden in Canada. To improve the quality of care and ensure sustainability of services, a national quality improvement initiative is required. The purpose of this analysis was to review the evidence for public reporting (PR) and external benchmarking (EB) to improve patient outcomes, and to recommend a strategy to improve CV care in Canada. To incorporate recent literature, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) commissioned the Institute of Health Economics to provide a rapid update on the literature of PR and EB...
January 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730166/-i-thought-they-were-going-to-handle-me-like-a-queen-but-they-didn-t-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-quality-of-care-provided-to-women-at-the-time-of-birth
#14
Jaki Lambert, Elsie Etsane, Anne-Marie Bergh, Robert Pattinson, Nynke van den Broek
OBJECTIVE: To explore experiences of care during labour and birth from the perspectives of both the healthcare provider and women receiving care, to inform recommendations for how the quality of care can be improved and monitored, and, to identify the main aspects of care that are important to women. DESIGN: A descriptive phenomenological approach. 53 interviews and 10KII as per table 1 took place including in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) conducted with women, healthcare providers, managers and policy makers...
April 22, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728871/psychological-interventions-in-psychosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Nefeli Anagnostopoulou, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Anca Alba
BACKGROUND: Early onset psychosis (EOP), referring to psychosis with onset before the age of 18 years, is a more severe form of psychosis associated with worse prognosis. While medication is the treatment of choice, psychological interventions are also considered to have an important role in the management of symptoms and disability associated with this condition. The present review aimed to explore the effectiveness of such interventions. METHOD: An electronic search was conducted on the Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo databases for papers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) referring to psychological interventions in EOP...
May 4, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725791/population-based-system-of-parenting-support-to-reduce-the-prevalence-of-child-social-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-difference-in-differences-study
#16
Orla Doyle, Mary Hegarty, Conor Owens
The quality of parenting is recognised as an important determinant of children's mental health. Parenting interventions typically target high-risk families rather than adopting a universal approach. This study examined the population impact of the Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on the prevalence of children's social, emotional, and behavioural problems. A propensity score matching difference-in-differences method was used to compare intervention and comparison regions matched on socio-demographic characteristics in midlands Ireland...
May 3, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724054/a-targeted-and-tailored-ehealth-weight-loss-program-for-young-women-the-be-positive-be-health-e-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Melinda J Hutchesson, Robin Callister, Philip J Morgan, Ilung Pranata, Erin D Clarke, Geoff Skinner, Lee M Ashton, Megan C Whatnall, Mark Jones, Christopher Oldmeadow, Clare E Collins
Young women are gaining weight rapidly. Evidence for effective weight loss interventions targeting young women is lacking. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and acceptability of a six-month targeted and tailored eHealth weight loss program for young women (Be Positive Be Health e (BPBH)). Women aged 18⁻35 years were randomized to BPBH ( n = 29) or control ( n = 28). BPBH supported participants to modify diet and physical activity behaviours using evidenced-based strategies (e.g., self-monitoring) tailored for young women and delivered using e-health (website, social media, smartphone application, email, text messages)...
May 2, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721330/attitudes-of-people-working-in-mental-health-non-governmental-organisations-in-australia-a-comparison-with-other-mental-health-professionals
#18
Grenville Rose, Courtney von Hippel, Loren Brener, Bill von Hippel
Research suggests that stigma impacts help-seeking behaviour and health outcomes for people affected by mental illness. This study compared the attitudes of Australian non-governmental organisation support workers towards people with mental illness with those of other health professionals. Three hundred and seventy four support workers were randomly allocated to answer questions about one of the six vignettes. Results indicated that non-governmental organisation support workers held more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness than those of general practitioners, psychiatrists and psychologists measured in prior research...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707955/do-schizotypy-dimensions-reflect-the-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#19
Elizabeth Hx Thomas, Susan L Rossell, Eric J Tan, Erica Neill, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Sean P Carruthers, Philip J Sumner, Stephanie Louise, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Caroline Gurvich
OBJECTIVE: The personality characteristics and symptoms observed in schizophrenia are postulated to lie on a continuum, with non-clinical manifestations referred to as schizotypy. High schizotypy behaviours are argued to correspond with the three main clusters of symptoms in schizophrenia: positive, negative and cognitive/disorganised symptoms, yet there is limited empirical evidence to support this. This study aimed to investigate whether schizotypy dimensions significantly correlate with their respective schizophrenia symptomatology in the largest sample to date...
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707182/immunohistochemical-study-of-laminin-332-%C3%AE-2-chain-and-mmp-9-in-high-risk-of-malignant-transformation-oral-lesions-and-oscc
#20
Eline Manhães Reid Silva, Vanessa Morais Freitas, Willian Grassi Bautz, Liliana Aparecida Pimenta de Barros, Letícia Nogueira da Gama de Souza
Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is associated with alterations in basement membrane. Laminin-332 is present in basal lamina and performs multiple biologic effects by γ2 chain. Matrix metalloproteinase acts disrupting extracellular components and was related to poor prognosis in cancer. Here, molecular profile of laminin-332 γ2 chain and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was assessed in oral lesions. Material and Methods: The expression of laminin-332 γ2 chain and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 10 patients with high risk of malignant transformation oral lesions and 26 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
January 2018: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
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