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Positive behaviour support

Peter L Cummins, Babu Kannappan, Jill E Gready
The ubiquitous enzyme Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) fixes atmospheric carbon dioxide within the Calvin-Benson cycle that is utilized by most photosynthetic organisms. Despite this central role, RuBisCO's efficiency surprisingly struggles, with both a very slow turnover rate to products and also impaired substrate specificity, features that have long been an enigma as it would be assumed that its efficiency was under strong evolutionary pressure. RuBisCO's substrate specificity is compromised as it catalyzes a side-fixation reaction with atmospheric oxygen; empirical kinetic results show a trend to tradeoff between relative specificity and low catalytic turnover rate...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alexandra Henteleff, Helena Wall
INTRODUCTION: HANS KAI is a unique health promotion intervention to improve participants' health by focussing on interrelated chronic disease prevention behaviours through peer support and strengthening of social support networks. The study objective was to determine the effectiveness of HANS KAI in an urban Canadian setting. METHODS: We used a mixed methods intervention research design that involved multiple sites from November 2010 to April 2015. Data was obtained from participant surveys as well as in-person interviews at zero, 6, 12 and 24 months...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Laura Coll-Planas, Sergi Blancafort, Xavier Rojano, Marta Roqué, Rosa Monteserín
BACKGROUND: Older people living in socio-economic deprived urban areas especially suffer the effects of health inequalities but have been insufficiently targeted. Strategies promoted by local primary health care agents might influence health and social behaviours as intermediate social determinants that are modifiable and thus can potentially mitigate health inequalities. Therefore, we aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of a complex intervention based on a community programme that promotes self-management, health literacy and social capital targeting older people from urban socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in order to improve their self-perceived health as an indicator of health inequality reduction...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Hayley C Fivecoat, Steven L Sayers, Barbara Riegel
BACKGROUND: Self-care for patients with heart failure includes engaging in behaviours that maintain medical stability and manage problematic symptoms, as well as the confidence in one's ability to carry out such behaviours. Given the social context of self-care behaviours in heart failure, there has been increasing interest in social support as a predictor of self-care. AIM: The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in self-care across time for persons with heart failure...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
David J Cottrell, Alex Wright-Hughes, Michelle Collinson, Paula Boston, Ivan Eisler, Sarah Fortune, Elizabeth H Graham, Jonathan Green, Allan O House, Michael Kerfoot, David W Owens, Eirini-Christina Saloniki, Mima Simic, Sandy Tubeuf, Amanda J Farrin
BACKGROUND: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial of FT compared with TAU. Participants and therapists were aware of treatment allocation; researchers were blind to allocation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Carl Joakim Brandt, Jane Clemensen, Jesper Bo Nielsen, Jens Søndergaard
OBJECTIVES: Assisting patients in lifestyle change using collaborative e-health tools can be an efficient treatment for non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive lung disease that are caused or aggravated by unhealthy living in the form of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity or tobacco smoking. In a prospective pilot study, we tested an online collaborative e-health tool in general practice. The aim of this study was to identify drivers of importance for long-term personal lifestyle changes from a patient perspective when using a collaborative e-health tool, including the support of peers and healthcare professionals...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Joanne Rowe, Chrystal Jaye
INTRODUCTION Intentional self-harm is an international public health issue with high personal, social and financial costs to society. Poor relationship dynamics are known to have a negative influence on the psyche of people who self-harm, and this can increase anxiety and decrease self-esteem, both shown to be significant contributors to self-harm behaviours. Positive and functional social supports have been proposed as a cost-effective and constructive approach in diminishing self-harming behaviours. AIM This qualitative study investigated the aspects of professional, social, familial and romantic relationships that people who have self-harmed identified as having a positive and constructive effect on their self-harm behaviour...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate depressive symptoms and their association with sociodemographic factors, stressors and support, including childhood adversity, health status risk and behaviour in Indonesia. METHOD: In a cross-sectional national population survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 31442 adults (mean age 37.3 years, SD = 14.9, age range 15-101 years) responded to the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and various other measures...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Patrick M Newman, Molly F Franke, Jafet Arrieta, Hector Carrasco, Patrick Elliott, Hugo Flores, Alexandra Friedman, Sophia Graham, Luis Martinez, Lindsay Palazuelos, Kevin Savage, Hayley Tymeson, Daniel Palazuelos
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) contribute greatly to morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community health workers (CHWs) may improve disease control and medication adherence among patients with NCDs in LMICs, but data are lacking. We assessed the impact of a CHW-led intervention on disease control and adherence among patients with diabetes and/or hypertension in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study among adult patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, in the context of a stepped-wedge roll-out of a CHW-led intervention...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Dalena R M van Rooyen, Portia J Jordan, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Ernestina M Caka
Literature shows that successful transition of newly graduate nurses to professional nurses is imperative but does not always take place, resulting in difficulty in performance, cognizance or behaviour of a role as a nurse, affecting the quality of patient care negatively. No integrative literature review could be found to summarize available guidelines facilitating transition of final year nursing students to professional nurses. An extensive search of the literature by means of an integrative literature review was conducted in 2014 and updated in June 2017, following a five-step process...
March 3, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Åsa Norman, Gisela Nyberg, Liselotte Schäfer Elinder, Anita Berlin
BACKGROUND: A social gradient is evident in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, to the disadvantage of children with low socioeconomic status (SES). Parents have a substantial influence on their children's dietary behaviours and weight development through the way they interact with the children around food. This study aims to explore the variation of how parents with low SES influence their child's dietary behaviours. METHODS: A phenomenographic design and analysis was used on 29 sessions of motivational interviewing with mothers and fathers participating in the Healthy School Start intervention study in 2012...
March 7, 2018: Appetite
Jessica Stevenson, Allison Tong, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, Vincent W Lee
OBJECTIVE: To describe the perspectives of healthcare providers on the nutritional management of patients on haemodialysis, which may inform strategies for improving patient-centred nutritional care. DESIGN: Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation, and thematic analysis based on principles of grounded theory. SETTING: 21 haemodialysis centres across Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 42 haemodialysis clinicians (nephrologists and nephrology trainees (15), nurses (12) and dietitians (15)) were purposively sampled to obtain a range of demographic characteristics and clinical experiences...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Diana Hilda Hohl, Janina Lüscher, Jan Keller, Silke Heuse, Urte Scholz, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Nina Knoll
OBJECTIVES: In romantic relationships, partners can influence each other's health-relevant behaviour by exerting negative social control (e.g., pressuring), however, with mixed success. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined couples motivated to increase their physical activity and investigated the degree to which both partners exerted negative control on each other, their self-efficacy, reciprocal associations among the two behaviour-specific constructs, and their relationship with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Dawn Brooker, Simon Evans, Shirley Evans, Jennifer Bray, Francesca Lea Saibene, Claudia Scorolli, Dorota Szcześniak, Alessia d'Arma, Katarzyna M Urbańska, Teresa Atkinson, Elisabetta Farina, Joanna Rymaszewska, Rabih Chattat, Catherine Henderson, Amritpal Rehill, Iris Hendriks, Franka Meiland, Rose-Marie Dröes
OBJECTIVES: MEETINGDEM investigated whether the Dutch Meeting Centres Support Programme (MCSP) could be implemented in Italy, Poland, and the UK with comparable benefits. This paper reports on the impact on people living with dementia attending pilot Meeting Centres in the 3 countries. METHODS: Nine pilot Meeting Centres (MCs) participated (Italy-5, Poland-2, UK-2). Effectiveness of MCSP was compared with Usual Care (UC) on outcomes measuring behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI), depression (CSDD), and quality of life (DQoL, QOL-AD), analysed by ANCOVAs in a 6-month pre-test/post-test controlled trial...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
J Zhou, F Liu, H Zhou
AIMS: With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. METHODS: We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages)...
March 1, 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
J Matthew Harvey, Alice Sibelli, Trudie Chalder, Hazel Everitt, Rona Moss-Morris, Felicity L Bishop
OBJECTIVES: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common and adversely affects patients' quality of life. Multiple potential treatment options exist for patients (and clinicians) to choose from, with limited evidence to inform treatment selection. The aim was to explore how patients with IBS go about seeking and appraising different treatment modalities, with a view to elucidating the psychological processes involved and identifying opportunities to improve clinical practice. DESIGN: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial of therapist-delivered and web-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus treatment-as-usual for IBS...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
H Baker-Henningham, S Walker
Introduction: Based on extensive piloting work, we adapted the Incredible Years (IY) teacher-training programme to the Jamaican preschool setting and evaluated this adapted version through a cluster-randomised trial. Methods: Twenty-four community preschools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to intervention (12 schools, 37 teachers) or control (12 schools, 36 teachers). The intervention involved training teachers in classroom management through eight full-day training workshops and four individual 1-h in-class support sessions...
2018: Global Mental Health
Britt Klein, Lisa Clinnick, Jessica Chesler, Andrew Stranieri, Adam Bignold, Richard Dazeley, Suzanne McLaren, Sue Lauder, Venki Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: This regional pilot site 'end-user attitudes' study explored nurses' experiences and impressions of using the Nurses' Behavioural Assistant (NBA) (a knowledge-based, interactive ehealth system) to assist them to better respond to behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and will be reported here. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted, followed by a four-week pilot site 'end-user attitudes' trial of the NBA at a regional aged care residential facility (ACRF)...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Devon J Hensel, Casey L Bales, Julia F Taylor, J Dennis Fortenberry
Background: Studies link sexual health to lower sexual risk in adolescent women, yet no empirical literature evaluates these associations in adolescent men. Methods: Data were drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and sexual behaviour among adolescent men (n=72; 14-16 years) in the US. Participants contributed quarterly partner-specific interviews, from which sexual health information and partnered sexual behaviours were drawn. A multidimensional measure of sexual health was constructed and linked to partnered outcomes, including oral-genital, vaginal and anal sex, condom use, partner concurrency and intimate partner violence...
March 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Sara S Dias, Francisco Mbofana, Sheyla R Cassy, Sónia Dias, Gonçalo F Augusto, Victor Agadjanian, Maria R O Martins
The use of population-based survey data together with sound statistical methods can enhance better estimation of HIV risk factors and explain variations across subgroups of the population. The distribution and determinants of HIV infection in populations must be taken into consideration. We analysed data from the HIV Prevalence and Behaviour Survey in Mozambique aiming to find risk factors associated with HIV infection among Mozambican women. The paper provides a complex survey logistic regression model to explain the variation in HIV seropositivity using demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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