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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721826/clinical-uses-of-melatonin-in-neurological-diseases-and-mental-and-behavioural-disorders
#1
Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló, Noemi R Revilla, María D Mediavilla, Carmen Martínez-Cué, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716205/attitudes-towards-worm-egg-counts-and-targeted-selective-treatment-against-equine-cyathostomins
#2
H Rose Vineer, F Vande Velde, K Bull, E Claerebout, E R Morgan
Gastrointestinal nematodes present a major threat to the health and welfare of equids worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is increasingly reported and challenges effective control in horses and ponies in many regions. The use of faecal worm egg counts (FECs) to support targeted treatment (FEC-TT) and targeted selective treatment (FEC-TST) has been promoted as an effective deworming strategy that may prolong the useful life of anthelmintics and reduce the costs associated with parasite control. However, treatment applied at set intervals or on pre-determined dates remains common...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713687/group-psychological-intervention-for-maternal-depression-a-nested-qualitative-study-from-karachi-pakistan
#3
Nusrat Husain, Nasim Chaudhry, Christine Furber, Hina Fayyaz, Tayyeba Kiran, Farah Lunat, Raza Ur Rahman, Saira Farhan, Batool Fatima
AIM: To understand the experience of maternal depression, the factors implicated in accessing health, and the acceptability of the psychosocial intervention. METHODS: The participants were recruited from the paediatrics outpatient department of Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. The study started in December 2009 and completed in December 2010. Women with maternal depression, aged 18-44 years with children aged 0-30 mo who had received nutritional supplements, and participated in the intervention programme [called Learning through Play (LTP) plus] were included in the study...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713476/the-relationship-between-perceived-coaching-behaviours-motivation-and-self-efficacy-in-wrestlers
#4
İhsan Sarı, Betül Bayazıt
The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713072/link-worker-social-prescribing-to-improve-health-and-well-being-for-people-with-long-term-conditions-qualitative-study-of-service-user-perceptions
#5
Suzanne Moffatt, Mel Steer, Sarah Lawson, Linda Penn, Nicola O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experiences of patients with long-term conditions who are referred to and engage with a Link Worker social prescribing programme and identify the impact of the Link Worker programme on health and well-being. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis of the data. INTERVENTION: Link Worker social prescribing programme comprising personalised support to identify meaningful health and wellness goals, ongoing support to achieve agreed objectives and linkage into appropriate community services...
July 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712160/perspectives-on-childhood-resilience-among-the-aboriginal-community-an-interview-study
#6
Christian Young, Allison Tong, Janice Nixon, Peter Fernando, Deanna Kalucy, Simone Sherriff, Kathleen Clapham, Jonathan C Craig, Anna Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To describe Aboriginal community members' perspectives on the outcomes and origins of resilience among Aboriginal children. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 36 Aboriginal adults (15 health service professionals, 8 youth workers and 13 community members) at two urban and one regional Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in New South Wales. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: We identified six themes: withstanding risk (displaying normative development, possessing inner fortitude); adapting to adversity (necessary endurance, masking inner vulnerabilities); positive social influences (secure family environments, role modelling healthy behaviours and relationships); instilling cultural identity (investing in Aboriginal knowledge, building a strong cultural self-concept); community safeguards (offering strategic sustainable services, holistic support, shared responsibility, providing enriching opportunities); and personal empowerment (awareness of positive pathways, developing self-respect, fostering positive decision making)...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709012/de-escalation-of-aggressive-behaviour-in-healthcare-settings-concept-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Nutmeg Hallett, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: De-escalation is the recommended first-line response to potential violence and aggression in healthcare settings. Related scholarly activity has increased exponentially since the 1980s, but there is scant research about its efficacy and no guidance on what constitutes the gold standard for practice. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the concept of de-escalation of violence and aggression as described within the healthcare literature. DESIGN: Concept analysis guided by Rodgers' evolutionary approach...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707506/perception-action-coupling-in-complex-game-play-exploring-the-quiet-eye-in-contested-basketball-jump-shots
#8
André Klostermann, Derek Panchuk, Damian Farrow
The duration of the final fixation before movement initiation - a gaze strategy labelled quiet eye - has been found to explain differences in motor expertise and performance in precision tasks. To date, research only addressed this phenomenon in situations without adversarial constraints. In the present study, we compared the quiet-eye behaviour of intermediately-skilled and highly-skilled basketball players in defended vs. undefended game situations. We predicted differences in quiet-eye duration as a function of skill and performance particularly resulting from late quiet-eye offsets...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707268/-hey-we-are-the-best-ones-at-dealing-with-our-own-embedding-a-culturally-competent-program-for-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-island-children-into-a-mainstream-health-service-in-queensland-australia
#9
Lisa Vaughan, Lisa Schubert, Helen Mavoa, Nicola Fa'avale
OBJECTIVE: We present the results of one component of an external evaluation of Good Start Program (GSP), a community-based program for the prevention of chronic disease among Maori and Pacific Island (MPI) communities living in the state of Queensland, Australia. DESIGN: An evaluation of the GSP was undertaken using a mixed methods approach. This paper reports on the qualitative component where interview and focus group data was collected, using Talanoa, a culturally tailored research methodology...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703926/difficult-conversations-adults-with-diabetes-and-the-discussion-of-microvascular-complications
#10
M D Ritholz, T MacNeil, K Weinger
AIMS: To investigate the experiences among adults with diabetes of discussions of microvascular complications and provide recommendations for providers. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study in 148 adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes (56% women, 95% white, mean age 60±13 years, 65% with Type 1 diabetes, 71% with ≥1 microvascular complication). Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: At their first discussion of microvascular complications, 93% of participants (138/148) recalled providers using a preventative approach including clinical suggestions, factual information and warnings...
July 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703327/testing-the-situationism-scale-in-europe-scale-validation-self-regulation-and-regional-differences
#11
Megan E Roberts, Lisa Wagner, Saša Zorjan, Enikö Nèmeth, Désie van Toor, Michał Czaplinski
The term situationism refers to an individual's belief about the importance of a behaviour's context. This study tested whether the degree of situationism expressed by individuals in various regions of Europe was consistent with self-regulation and cross-cultural theories. The English version of a Situationism Scale (measuring beliefs about the relation between the environment and one's own behaviour) was translated into five additional languages: Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian and Slovenian. Young adults (N = 1106, MAge  = 22...
August 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703240/orr-viability-of-alumina-supported-platinum-nanocluster-exploring-oxidation-behaviour-by-dft
#12
Sandeep Nigam, Chiranjib Majumder
While alumina-supported platinum particles are versatile for several oxidation reactions, their viability as ORR catalysts has not been explored to date. Therefore, to assess the prospects of alumina-supported platinum nanoclusters in ORRs, a systematic DFT study has been carried out to explore the oxidation behavior of a Ptn@Al2O3 (n = 1-7, 10) cluster. The results are compared with the oxidation behavior of the corresponding gas phase platinum cluster and that of an extended Pt(111) slab. Both supported and unsupported clusters activate adsorbed oxygen molecules and energetically favor dissociative chemisorption of oxygen, leading to stable oxide formation with Pt-O-Pt linkages...
July 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700754/promotion-of-physical-activity-interventions-for-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#13
Ania Zubala, Stephen MacGillivray, Helen Frost, Thilo Kroll, Dawn A Skelton, Anna Gavine, Nicola M Gray, Madalina Toma, Jacqui Morris
OBJECTIVES: While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA) brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695628/the-views-of-carers-about-support-for-their-family-member-with-an-intellectual-disability-with-a-focus-on-positive-behavioural-approaches
#14
Karen McKenzie, Claire Mayer, Kathryn J Whelan, Anne McNall, Steve Noone, Jill Chaplin
This qualitative study explored the views of family carers about the support that their adult children with an intellectual disability had received in relation to their behaviour that challenged. There was a particular focus on positive behavioural support (PBS), although some participants spoke more generally in terms of positive approaches. Semi-structured interviews with eight family carers were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four key themes were identified. Good support, of which PBS was an example, was seen as both having reduced behaviours that challenged and having a wider positive impact on the quality of life of the individual and their families...
July 10, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695416/sources-of-variability-in-physical-activity-among-inactive-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Marcin K Uszynski, Matthew P Herring, Blathin Casey, Sara Hayes, Stephen Gallagher, Robert W Motl, Susan Coote
PURPOSE: Evidence supports that physical activity (PA) improves symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although application of principles from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) may facilitate positive changes in PA behaviour among people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), the constructs often explain limited variance in PA. This study investigated the extent to which MS symptoms, including fatigue, depression, and walking limitations combined with the SCT constructs, explained more variance in PA than SCT constructs alone among pwMS...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694437/integrated-behavioural-and-stable-isotope-data-reveal-altered-diet-linked-to-low-breeding-success-in-urban-dwelling-blue-tits-cyanistes-caeruleus
#16
Christopher J Pollock, Pablo Capilla-Lasheras, Rona A R McGill, Barbara Helm, Davide M Dominoni
Animals often show reduced reproductive success in urban compared to adjacent natural areas. The lower availability and quality of natural food in cities is suggested as one key limiting factor. However, only few studies have provided conclusive support by simultaneously assessing food availability, diet and fitness. We consolidate this evidence by taking a holistic approach, comparing blue tits breeding in forest, suburban and urban areas. We (a) assessed arthropod availability, (b) investigated parental provisioning behaviour, (c) inferred diet through stable isotope analysis, and (d) measured reproductive success...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693621/increasing-utilisation-of-skilled-facility-based-maternal-healthcare-services-in-rural-zambia-the-role-of-safe-motherhood-action-groups
#17
Cephas Sialubanje, Karlijn Massar, Larah Horstkotte, Davidson H Hamer, Robert A C Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Community-centred health interventions, such as Safe Motherhood Action groups (SMAGs), have potential to lead to desired health behavioural change and favourable health outcomes. SMAGs are community-based volunteer groups that aim to reduce critical delays that occur at household level with regard to decision-making about seeking life-saving maternal care at health facilities. The aim of this study was to explore perspectives, roles, achievements and challenges of the SMAG programme in Kalomo, Zambia...
July 10, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691148/entomotoxicology-in-burnt-bodies-a-case-of-maternal-filicide-suicide-by-fire
#18
V Bugelli, L Papi, S Fornaro, F Stefanelli, S Chericoni, M Giusiani, S Vanin, C P Campobasso
One of the most common methods of maternal filicide is by fire. In this case study, a 40-year-old female and her children were found completely burned in a burnt out car. All bodies showed a degree of destruction by fire consisting to a level 3 of the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) and early stage of insect activity. Toxicological analyses were performed on soft tissues and body fluids still available. The results were positive for diazepam and its metabolites only for children with blood concentrations consistent with therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines...
July 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686935/effectiveness-of-an-individually-tailored-computerised-cbt-programme-deprexis-for-depression-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Conal Twomey, Gary O'Reilly, Björn Meyer
Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) programmes differ widely but have rarely been evaluated separately through meta-analysis. Through a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, we investigated the effectiveness of 'Deprexis', an unconventional and individually-tailored cCBT programme for depression. Comparisons from eight studies (N = 2402) demonstrated the effectiveness of Deprexis for depressive symptoms at post-intervention, with a medium effect size (g = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.39-0.69). Analogous results arose when study quality, screening, and randomisation procedure were taken into account...
June 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685926/living-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-patient-engagement-perspective
#20
Davide Mazzoni, Alain Cornet, Bernadette van Leeuw, Kirsi Myllys, Elvira Cicognani
Patient engagement is recognized as a crucial component of high-quality healthcare services. Among rheumatic diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) appears particularly challenging for the engagement of patients in their own care. According to the patient health engagement (PHE) model, patient engagement is a dynamic phenomenon that proceeds through four experiential positions (blackout, arousal, adhesion and eudaimonic project). The aim of the present study was to describe the engagement process from the point of view and the experiences of SLE patients...
July 7, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
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