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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332173/is-the-use-of-emergency-departments-socially-patterned
#1
Hélène Colineaux, Fanny Le Querrec, Laure Pourcel, Jean-Christophe Gallart, Olivier Azéma, Thierry Lang, Michelle Kelly-Irving, Sandrine Charpentier, Sébastien Lamy
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the association between patients' socioeconomic position (SEP) and the use of emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: This population-based study included all visits to ED in 2012 by inhabitants of the French Midi-Pyrénées region, recorded by the Regional Emergency Departments Observatory. We compared ED visit rates and the proportion of non-severe visits according to the patients' SEP as assessed by the European Deprivation Index. RESULTS: We analysed 496,388 visits...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331756/-you-re-repulsive-limits-to-acceptable-drunken-comportment-for-young-adults
#2
Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Researchers have described a 'culture of intoxication' among young people. Yet drunkenness remains a socially risky practice with potential to evoke emotions of irritation and even disgust. We consider intoxicated practices that young adults in Melbourne, Australia, described as distasteful, to identify contemporary cultural forces that constrain intoxication and limit how it is enacted. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 60 participants in Melbourne, Australia, each with recent drinking experience...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330173/seasonal-variations-in-tuberculosis-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-southern-africa-analysis-of-cohort-studies-at-antiretroviral-treatment-programmes
#3
Marie Ballif, Kathrin Zürcher, Stewart E Reid, Andrew Boulle, Matthew P Fox, Hans W Prozesky, Cleophas Chimbetete, Marcel Zwahlen, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
OBJECTIVES: Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. SETTING: Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325468/does-enhanced-support-for-offenders-effectively-reduce-custodial-violence-and-disruption-an-evaluation-of-the-enhanced-support-service-pilot
#4
Jake Camp, Kerry Joy, Mark Freestone
This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of The Enhanced Support Service (ESS) pilot in reducing custodial violence and disruption, and the associated costs, by observing the behavioural change of the 35 service users who participated in ESS intervention within its first 22 months of operation. Frequencies of recorded incidents of aggressive behaviours, self-harming behaviours, noncompliance, and positive behaviours were counted from routine administrative systems using a coding structure developed in previous studies...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322574/effects-of-sleep-on-the-realization-of-complex-plans
#5
Christine Barner, Mareike Altgassen, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep consolidates newly encoded memories, particularly those memories that are relevant for future behaviour. This study explored whether sleep facilitates the successful execution of relatively complex plans in the future. We applied the Dresden Breakfast Task, in which subjects are instructed to prepare a virtual breakfast comprising several tasks (e.g. table-setting, preparing eggs). After forming a detailed plan how to realize these tasks, the sleep group (n = 17) spent a night of sleep at home, monitored by polysomnography, and the wake group (n = 19) spent a normal day awake, monitored by actigraphy...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317925/supporting-shared-decision-making-and-people-s-understanding-of-medicines-an-exploration-of-the-acceptability-and-comprehensibility-of-patient-information
#6
Katie Gibson Smith, Jill L Booth, Derek Stewart, Sharon Pfleger, Laura Mciver, Kathrine Maclure
Background: Patient information may assist in promoting shared decision-making, however it is imperative that the information presented is comprehensible and acceptable to the target audience. Objective: This study sought to explore the acceptability and comprehensibility of the ' Medicines in Scotland: What's the right treatment for you?' factsheet to the general public. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with members of the public...
October 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317901/attitudes-and-barriers-towards-hiv-screening-a-qualitative-study-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-plwha-in-malaysia
#7
Syed Imran Ahmed, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Kaeshaelya Thiruchelvam, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Christopher Kc Lee
Background: Understanding patients' perspective towards HIV screening in Malaysia is pivotal to explore challenges faced by these individuals. This would be beneficial for developing local plans to improve the health-seeking behaviours among population at risk of HIV/AIDS. Methods: A qualitative research methodology was adopted to explore HIV/AIDS patients' views about disease screening. A semi-structured interview guide was used for in-depth patient interviews...
September 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310619/valuing-breastfeeding-a-qualitative-study-of-women-s-experiences-of-a-financial-incentive-scheme-for-breastfeeding
#8
Maxine Johnson, Barbara Whelan, Clare Relton, Kate Thomas, Mark Strong, Elaine Scott, Mary J Renfrew
BACKGROUND: A cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for breastfeeding conducted in areas with low breastfeeding rates in the UK reported a statistically significant increase in breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. In this paper we report an analysis of interviews with women eligible for the scheme, exploring their experiences and perceptions of the scheme and its impact on breastfeeding to support the interpretation of the results of the trial. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 35 women eligible for the scheme during the feasibility and trial stages...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310603/characteristics-of-positive-interaction-parenting-style-among-primiparous-teenage-optimal-age-and-advanced-age-mothers-in-canada
#9
Theresa H M Kim, Jennifer A Connolly, Michael Rotondi, Hala Tamim
BACKGROUND: Positive-interaction parenting early in childhood is encouraged due to its association with behavioural development later in life. The objective of this study was to examine if the level of positive-interaction parenting style differs among teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada, and to identify the characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting style separately for each age group. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308843/associations-between-recreational-runners-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-coping-strategies-and-time-loss-due-to-injury-and-illness-during-preparations-for-a-marathon-event
#10
Bo Tillander, Håkan Gauffin, Örjan Dahlström, Toomas Timpka
BACKGROUND: Due to the dominance of overuse injuries among runners, knowledge of how use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and behavioural factors contribute to injury events is important. The aim of this study was to explore recreational marathon runners' strategies for coping with injury and illness, including use of drugs for control of pain and inflammation, and to investigate whether these strategies were associated with the 1-year prevalence of time-loss injury and illness...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304869/improving-local-health-through-community-health-workers-in-cambodia-challenges-and-solutions
#11
Kim Ozano, Padam Simkhada, Khem Thann, Rose Khatri
BACKGROUND: Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives...
January 6, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303420/the-social-side-of-shame-approach-versus-withdrawal
#12
Ilona E de Hooge, Seger M Breugelmans, Fieke M A Wagemans, Marcel Zeelenberg
At present, the consequences and functions of experiences of shame are not yet well understood. Whereas psychology literature typically portrays shame as being bad for social relations, motivating social avoidance and withdrawal, there are recent indications that shame can be reinterpreted as having clear social tendencies in the form of motivating approach and social affiliation. Yet, until now, no research has ever put these alternative interpretations of shame-motivated behaviours directly to the test. The present paper presents such a test by studying the extent to which shame motivates a preference for social withdrawal versus a preference for social approach...
January 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297943/wrapping-preterm-infants-in-cloth-and-newspaper-after-delivery-led-to-higher-temperatures-on-arrival-at-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#13
Nitika Agrawal, Kunal Das, Prachi Patwal, Neerul Pandita, Alpa Gupta
AIM: Neonatal hypothermia is a preventable cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and wrapping neonates in newspaper sandwiched between cotton sheets is a simple intervention. This 2017 Indian pilot study tested the heat insulating property of sandwiched sheets METHODS: At birth we randomised 100 neonates who were more than 32 weeks of gestation and needed neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) observation or care without a ventilator or bilevel positive airway pressure support into two groups of 50...
January 3, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289592/attitudes-barriers-and-enablers-to-physical-activity-in-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review
#14
Anne L Harrison, Nicholas F Taylor, Nora Shields, Helena C Frawley
QUESTION: What are the attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity perceived by pregnant women? DESIGN: In a systematic literature review, eight electronic databases were searched: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Medline, PsycInfo, SPORTDiscus (from database inception until June 2016) and PubMed (from 2011 until June 2016). Quantitative data expressed as proportions were meta-analysed. Data collected using Likert scales were synthesised descriptively...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283933/a-preventive-model-for-muscle-injuries-a-novel-approach-based-on-learning-algorithms
#15
Alejandro López-Valenciano, Francisco Ayala, José Miguel Puerta, Mark De Ste Croix, Francisco Vera-García, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Iñaki Ruiz-Pérez, Gregory Myer
INTRODUCTION: The application of contemporary statistical approaches coming from Machine Learning and Data Mining environments to build more robust predictive models to identify athletes at high risk of injury might support injury prevention strategies of the future. PURPOSE: The purpose was to analyse and compare the behaviour of numerous machine learning methods in order to select the best performing injury risk factor model to identify athlete at risk of lower extremity muscle injuries (MUSINJ)...
December 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282257/barriers-and-facilitators-of-physical-activity-in-knee-and-hip-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#16
Archontissa M Kanavaki, Alison Rushton, Nikolaos Efstathiou, Asma Alrushud, Rainer Klocke, Abhishek Abhishek, Joan L Duda
Physical activity (PA), including engagement in structured exercise, has a key role in the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, maintaining a physically active lifestyle is a challenge for people with OA. PA determinants in this population need to be understood better so that they can be optimised by public health or healthcare interventions and social policy changes. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing qualitative evidence on barriers and facilitators of PA for patients with hip or knee OA...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282110/the-joint-associations-of-smoking-and-obesity-with-subsequent-short-and-long-sickness-absence-a-five-year-follow-up-study-with-register-linkage
#17
Eira Roos, Tea Lallukka, Eero Lahelma, Ossi Rahkonen
BACKGROUND: Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). METHODS: A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000-2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women)...
December 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278021/artful-moments-a-framework-for-successful-engagement-in-an-arts-based-programme-for-persons-in-the-middle-to-late-stages-of-dementia
#18
Janis Humphrey, Maureen Montemuro, Esther Coker, Laurie Kilgour-Walsh, Katherine Moros, Carmen Murray, Shannon Stanners
Art galleries are becoming more inclusive in their activities for those with specific needs. The interdisciplinary team on an inpatient behavioural health unit collaborated with artist-educators at the Art Gallery of Hamilton (Ontario, Canada) to create an arts-based programme. 'Artful Moments' involved using a combination of art appreciation and hands-on art making activities and took place on the unit at the hospital and at the art gallery. A pilot study of eight participants and their care partners who attended the programme is presented...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275340/anticipated-health-behaviour-changes-and-perceived-control-in-response-to-disclosure-of-genetic-risk-of-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-a-quantitative-survey-study-among-women-in-the-uk
#19
Susanne F Meisel, Lindsay Sarah Macduff Fraser, Lucy Side, Sue Gessler, Katie E J Hann, Jane Wardle, Anne Lanceley
BACKGROUND: Genetic risk assessment for breast cancer and ovarian cancer (BCOC) is expected to make major inroads into mainstream clinical practice. It is important to evaluate the potential impact on women ahead of its implementation in order to maximise health benefits, as predictive genetic testing without adequate support could lead to adverse psychological and behavioural responses to risk disclosure. OBJECTIVE: To examine anticipated health behaviour changes and perceived control to disclosure of genetic risk for BCOC and establish demographic and person-specific correlates of adverse anticipated responses in a population-based sample of women...
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274614/social-cure-what-social-cure-the-propensity-to-underestimate-the-importance-of-social-factors-for-health
#20
S Alexander Haslam, Charlotte McMahon, Tegan Cruwys, Catherine Haslam, Jolanda Jetten, Niklas K Steffens
RATIONALE: Recent meta-analytic research indicates that social support and social integration are highly protective against mortality, and that their importance is comparable to, or exceeds, that of many established behavioural risks such as smoking, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, and obesity that are the traditional focus of medical research (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010). The present study examines perceptions of the contribution of these various factors to life expectancy within the community at large...
December 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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