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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152733/factorial-and-convergent-validity-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-short-version-in-ghana
#1
Samuel Adjorlolo, Bruce D Watt
Studies have shown the existence of psychopathy construct in Western cultures. However, there is a general lack of research on this topical issue in non-Western countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, this study investigated the factorial and convergent validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in 327 adolescents in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure (interpersonal, behavioural and affective) of psychopathy that was invariant across gender...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150863/family-behaviours-that-have-an-impact-on-the-self-management-activities-of-adults-living-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis
#2
J Vongmany, T Luckett, L Lam, J L Phillips
AIMS: To identify family behaviours that adults with Type 2 diabetes' perceive as having an impact on their diabetes self-management. BACKGROUND: Research suggests that adults with Type 2 diabetes perceive that family members have an important impact on their self-management; however, it is unclear which family behaviours are perceived to influence self-management practices. METHODS: This meta-synthesis identified and synthesized qualitative studies from the databases EMBASE, Medline and CINAHL published between the year 2000 and October 2016...
November 18, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149245/high-dimensional-therapeutic-inference-in-the-focally-damaged-human-brain
#3
Tianbo Xu, Hans Rolf Jäger, Masud Husain, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev
Though consistency across the population renders the extraordinarily complex functional anatomy of the human brain surveyable, the inverse inference-from common functional maps to individual behaviour-is constrained by marked individual deviation from the population mean. Such inference is fundamental to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions in focal brain injury, where the impact of an induced structural change in the brain is quantified by its behavioural consequences, inevitably refracted through the lens of lesion-outcome relations...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148598/job-strain-in-nursing-homes-exploring-the-impact-of-leadership
#4
Annica Backman, Karin Sjögren, Hugo Lövheim, David Edvardsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the association between leadership behaviours, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Managerial leadership styles have been associated to job strain in the literature, however, the impact of perceived leadership behaviors' on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within this context...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144997/examination-of-a-therapeutic-recreation-based-clinical-placement-for-undergraduate-nursing-students-a-self-determined-perspective
#5
Dana Perlman, Ellie Taylor, Lorna Moxham, Susan Sumskis, Christopher Patterson, Renee Brighton, Tim Heffernan
Nursing students across the globe are expected to undertake clinical placements. To date, there have been no studies that have examined the potential educational benefits for undergraduate nursing students engaged in a mental health clinical placement grounded in self-determination theory. The present study examined the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in a mental health clinical placement termed Recovery Camp. An ethnographic methodology within a case study approach was used. The researchers were immersed in the clinical placement, which took place at a YMCA camp facility...
November 10, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143453/professional-competencies-and-work-related-support-in-relation-to-periodontal-therapy-and-work-satisfaction-a-questionnaire-study-among-swedish-dental-hygienists
#6
A Liss, A Y Alian, J L Wennström, K H Abrahamsson
OBJECTIVES: To analyse dental hygienists' (DHs) views on professional competencies and behavioural interventions in the treatment of periodontitis patients, perceived work-related support and work satisfaction. METHODS: A Web-based questionnaire was distributed to all DHs employed at the public dental service in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden. 302 (83%) responded to the questionnaire; 291 of these DHs stated that they on regular basis treated periodontitis patients and thus constituted the sample for analyses...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141661/preventing-enduring-behavioural-problems-in-young-children-through-early-psychological-intervention-healthy-start-happy-start-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Paul G Ramchandani, Christine O'Farrelly, Daphne Babalis, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sarah Byford, Ellen S R Grimas, Jane E Iles, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Julia McGinley, Charlotte M Phillips, Alan Stein, Jane Warwick, Hillary C Watt, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individual and society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug and alcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children when difficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of a psychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140440/cord-metabolic-profiles-in-obese-pregnant-women-insights-into-offspring-growth-and-body-composition
#8
Nashita Patel, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Keith Godfrey, Annette Briley, Paul Welsh, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Paul Seed, Berthold Koletzko, Lucilla Poston
Context: Offspring exposed in-utero to maternal obesity have an increased risk of later obesity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention in obese women on the offspring's cord blood metabolic profile, and examine associations of cord blood metabolic profile with maternal clinical characteristics and offspring anthropometry at birth and age 6 months. Design: Randomised controlled trial and cohort study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136184/female-mimicry-by-sneaker-males-has-a-transcriptomic-signature-in-both-the-brain-and-gonad-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#9
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Melissa S Lamm, Jodi T Thomas, Kim Rutherford, Kelly C Thompson, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behaviour, morphology and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioural and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125009/exercise-beliefs-and-behaviours-of-individuals-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobility-type
#10
Jane V Simmonds, Anthony Herbland, Alan Hakim, Nelly Ninis, William Lever, Qasim Aziz, Mindy Cairns
PURPOSE: To explore exercise beliefs and behaviours of individuals with Joint Hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - hypermobility type and to explore patient experiences of physiotherapy. METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire survey design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from adult members of the Hypermobility Syndromes Association and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Support UK. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data...
November 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124291/self-reported-discriminatory-and-positive-behaviours-towards-people-with-mental-health-problems-findings-from-an-australian-national-survey
#11
Nicola J Reavley, Amy J Morgan, Alyssia Rossetto, Anthony F Jorm
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore self-reported avoidance, discrimination, and positive treatment by members of the public towards people with mental health problems. METHODS: In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18 +. Respondents were asked if they had known an adult with a mental health problem over the previous 12 months. If they had, they were asked further questions about the person's age, gender, relationship to the respondent, and their mental health problem...
November 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121536/a-far-greater-sense-of-community-the-impact-of-volunteer-behaviour-on-the-wellness-of-rural-older-australians
#12
Jeni Warburton, Rachel Winterton
This paper builds on place-based research investigating the transformative potential of volunteering for service-deprived, ageing rural communities. Here, we critically explore the relationship between communities of place, voluntarism and wellness for rural older Australians. We draw on data from a large qualitative multi-site study, and utilise Ryan et al.'s (2005) systemic model of community attachment. Findings support the dual perspective of strong community sentiments through social embeddedness in rural communities; and personal interests, associated with rational choice theory, through healthy ageing practices...
November 6, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118203/condom-use-behaviour-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-seven-country-community-based-participatory-research-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#13
Keshab Deuba, Verena Kohlbrenner, Sushil Koirala, Anna Mia Ekström
OBJECTIVES: We examined the prevalence of inconsistent condom use and its correlates among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Between 1 October 2012 and 31 May 2013, a total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between condom use behaviour and demographics, social support, stigma and discrimination and various health-related variables...
November 8, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116785/a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-for-obesity
#14
Javier García-Cárceles, Juan M Decara, Henar Vázquez-Villa, Ramón Rodríguez, Eva Codesido, Jacobo Cruces, José Brea, María I Loza, Francisco Alén, Joaquin Botta, Peter J McCormick, Juan A Ballesteros, Bellinda Benhamú, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, María L López-Rodríguez
The 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, clinically approved for the treatment of obesity, causes important side effects mainly related to subtype selectivity. In the search for 5-HT2CR allosteric modulators as safer antiobesity drugs, a chemical library from Vivia Biotech was screened using ExviTech platform. Structural modifications of identified hit VA240 in synthesized analogues 6-41 afforded compound 11 (N-[(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]pyridin-3-amine, VA012), which exhibited dose-dependent enhancement of serotonin efficacy, no significant off-target activities, and low binding competition with serotonin or other orthosteric ligands...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111454/the-application-of-reward-learning-in-the-real-world-changes-in-the-reward-positivity-amplitude-reflect-learning-in-a-medical-education-context
#15
Chad C Williams, Kent G Hecker, Michael K Paget, Sylvain P Coderre, Kelly W Burak, Bruce Wright, Olave E Krigolson
Evidence ranging from behavioural adaptations to neurocognitive theories has made significant advances into our understanding of feedback-based learning. For instance, over the past twenty years research using electroencephalography has demonstrated that the amplitude of a component of the human event-related brain potential - the reward positivity - appears to change with learning in a manner predicted by reinforcement learning theory (Holroyd and Coles, 2002; Sutton and Barto, 1998). However, while the reward positivity (also known as the feedback related negativity) is well studied, whether the component reflects an underlying learning process or whether it is simply sensitive to feedback evaluation is still unclear...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106032/the-effects-of-conditioned-media-generated-by-polarized-macrophages-on-the-cellular-behaviours-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Xiao-Tao He, Xuan Li, Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Xin-Yue Xu, Fa-Ming Chen
Macrophages (Mφs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological events including wound healing and tissue regeneration, in which they play both positive and negative roles depending on their polarization state. In this study, we investigated the cellular behaviours of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) after incubation in different conditioned media (CMs) generated by unpolarized Mφs (M0) or polarized Mφs (M1 and M2). Mφ polarization was induced by stimulation with various cytokines, and CMs were obtained from in vitro Mφ cultures termed CM0, CM1 and CM2 based on each Mφ phenotype...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105204/emotional-reactivity-and-appraisal-of-food-in-relation-to-eating-disorder-cognitions-and-behaviours-evidence-to-support-the-motivational-conflict-hypothesis
#17
Sarah E Racine, Karen R Hebert, Stephen D Benning
Eating disorders are associated with both negative and positive emotional reactions towards food. Individual eating disorder symptoms may relate to distinct emotional responses to food, which could necessitate tailored treatments based on symptom presentation. We examined associations between eating disorder symptoms and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral images in 87 college students [mean (SD) age = 19.70 (2.09); mean (SD) body mass index = 23.25(2.77)]. Reflexive and facial electromyography measures tapping negative emotional reactivity (startle blink reflex) and appraisal (corrugator muscle response) as well as positive emotional reactivity (postauricular reflex) and appraisal (zygomaticus muscle response) were collected...
November 3, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096650/does-home-neighbourhood-supportiveness-influence-the-location-more-than-volume-of-adolescent-s-physical-activity-an-observational-study-using-global-positioning-systems
#18
Emma Coombes, Andy Jones, Ashley Cooper, Angie Page
BACKGROUND: Environmental characteristics of home neighbourhoods are hypothesised to be associated with residents' physical activity levels, yet many studies report only weak or equivocal associations. We theorise that this may be because neighbourhood characteristics influence the location of activity more than the volume. Using a sample of UK adolescents, we examine the role of home neighbourhood supportiveness for physical activity, both in terms of volume of activity undertaken and a measure of proximity to home at which activity takes place...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096223/plasma-cortisol-and-oxytocin-levels-predict-help-seeking-intentions-for-depressive-symptoms
#19
Susan Thomas, Theresa Larkin
BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals often refuse or withdraw from help, a phenomenon termed help-negation, which is a risk factor for poor outcomes. Most previous research has investigated psychosocial factors including stigma as causes of low help-seeking intentions for depression, however these do not adequately explain the problem. We hypothesised that because help-negation worsens with symptom severity, it might be linked to important biological changes associated with depression itself...
October 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094228/the-influence-of-home-and-school-environments-on-children-s-diet-and-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index-a-structural-equation-modelling-approach
#20
Joyce Haddad, Shahid Ullah, Lucinda Bell, Evie Leslie, Anthea Magarey
Introduction The home and school environments play important roles in influencing children's health behaviours. However, their simultaneous influence on childhood obesity has not yet been examined. We explore the relationship of the home and school environments with childhood obesity, to determine whether this relationship is mediated by children's fruit and vegetable intake and physical behaviours. Methods This study uses baseline data from 9 to 11 year old children, their parents and school principals (matched data n = 2466) from the Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle Project...
November 1, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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