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Intrinsic motivation and memory

Tom Delbroek, Wietse Vermeylen, Joke Spildooren
[Purpose] This study investigates whether cognition, balance and dual task performance in institutionalized older adults improves by a virtual reality dual task training. [Subjects and Methods] Randomized controlled trial; Twenty institutionalized older adults with mild cognitive impairment (13 female, 7 male; average age, 87.2 ± 5.96 years) were randomized to the intervention (i.e. Virtual reality dual-task training using the BioRescue) or control group (no additional training). The intervention group took part in a 6-week training program while the elderly in the control group maintained their daily activities...
July 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Martín Klappenbach, Ayelén Nally, Fernando Federico Locatelli
The neurobiology of learning and memory has been mainly studied by focusing on pure aversive or appetitive experiences. Here, we challenged this approach considering that real-life stimuli come normally associated with competing aversive and appetitive consequences and that interaction between conflicting information must be intrinsic part of the memory processes. We used Neohelice crabs, taking advantage of two well-described appetitive and aversive learning paradigms and combining them in a single training session to evaluate how this affects memory...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joseph J Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, then animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food-seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined "neuronal ensembles," have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. Although alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Anina Leuch, Luca Papariello, Oded Zilberberg, Christian L Degen, R Chitra, Alexander Eichler
Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Felicia W Sun, Michael R Stepanovic, Joseph Andreano, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson
UNLABELLED: Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Olivia C Küster, Patrick Fissler, Daria Laptinskaya, Franka Thurm, Andrea Scharpf, Alexander Woll, Stephan Kolassa, Arthur F Kramer, Thomas Elbert, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: While observational studies show that an active lifestyle including cognitive, physical, and social activities is associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia, experimental evidence from corresponding training interventions is more inconsistent with less pronounced effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare training- and lifestyle-related changes in cognition. This is the first study investigating these associations within the same time period and sample...
September 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
M A Muckaden, Sachi Sanjay Pandya
BACKGROUND: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. AIMS: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Céline Charroud, Emmanuelle Le Bars, Jérémy Deverdun, Jason Steffener, François Molino, Meriem Abdennour, Florence Portet, Alain Bonafe, Yaakov Stern, Karen Ritchie, Tasnime N Akbaraly, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur
Characterization of normal age-related changes in resting state brain networks associated with working memory performance is a major prerequisite for studying neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between performing a working memory task (under MRI) and resting-state brain networks in a large cohort of healthy elderly subjects (n=337). Functional connectivity and interactions between networks were assessed within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and right and left central executive (CEN) networks in two groups of subjects classed by their performance (low and high)...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Kirk Warren Brown, Robert J Goodman, Richard M Ryan, Bhikkhu Anālayo
Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition...
2016: PloS One
Hanna Kovshoff, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Ralf W Dittmann, Bruno Falissard, Dina Gojkovic Grimshaw, Chris Hollis, Sarah Inglis, Kerstin Konrad, Elizabeth Liddle, Suzanne McCarthy, Peter Nagy, Margaret Thompson, Ian C K Wong, Alessandro Zuddas, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such potential experiences. Second, to use the derived data to generate items for a new questionnaire that can be used for monitoring such events in medication trials or routine clinical care. METHODS: Following a literature search aimed at identifying associations between MPH and cognition and/or motivation, a qualitative semistructured interview was designed to focus specifically on the domains of cognition (i...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Gabriele Wulf, Rebecca Lewthwaite
Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect...
October 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Chun-Hua Lu, Weiwei Guo, Yuwei Hu, Xiu-Juan Qi, Itamar Willner
Acrylamide-acrylamide nucleic acids are cross-linked by two cooperative functional motives to form shaped acrylamide-DNA hydrogels. One of the cross-linking motives responds to an external trigger, leading to the dissociation of one of the stimuli-responsive bridges, and to the transition of the stiff shaped hydrogels into soft shapeless states, where the residual bridging units, due to the chains entanglement, provide an intrinsic memory for the reshaping of the hydrogels. Subjecting the shapeless states to counter stimuli restores the dissociated bridges, and regenerates the original shape of the hydrogels...
December 23, 2015: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fabio Ferrarelli
Numerous electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have reported neurophysiological and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients during wakefulness. However, these findings have been inconsistently replicated across different groups of patients, thus complicating the identification of underlying neuronal defects. Sleep minimizes possible waking-related confounds, including decreased motivation and presence of active symptoms. Additionally, the two main sleep rhythms, slow waves and spindles, reflect the intrinsic activity of corticothalamic circuits and are associated with cognitive activities, including learning and memory, occurring during wakefulness...
June 1, 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Fabio Ferrarelli, Brady A Riedner, Michael J Peterson, Giulio Tononi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is considered a core feature of schizophrenia, and impaired performances in episodic memory (EM) and executive function (EF) tasks are consistently reported in schizophrenia patients. Traditional fMRI and EEG studies have helped identifying brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), involved in these tasks. However, it is unclear whether intrinsic defects in prefrontal function per se contribute to poor performance in schizophrenia, given the presence of confounds like reduced motivation and psychotic symptoms...
November 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings...
October 1, 2015: NeuroImage
Guo-wei Lu, Guo Shao
Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) refers to exposure of organisms, systems, organs, tissues or cells to moderate hypoxia/ischemia that is able to result in a resistance to subsequent severe hypoxia/ischemia in tissues and cells. The effects exerted by HPC are well documented. The original local in situ (LiHPC) is now broadened to remote ectopic organs-tissues (ReHPC) and extended crossly to cross pluripotential HPC(CpHPC) induced by a variety of stresses other than hypoxia/ischemia, including cancer, for example...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Witali Aswolinskiy, Gordon Pipa
Neural plasticity plays an important role in learning and memory. Reward-modulation of plasticity offers an explanation for the ability of the brain to adapt its neural activity to achieve a rewarded goal. Here, we define a neural network model that learns through the interaction of Intrinsic Plasticity (IP) and reward-modulated Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). IP enables the network to explore possible output sequences and STDP, modulated by reward, reinforces the creation of the rewarded output sequences...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Matthias J Gruber, Bernard D Gelman, Charan Ranganath
People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity...
October 22, 2014: Neuron
Asaf Gilboa, Melanie Sekeres, Morris Moscovitch, Gordon Winocur
Behavior in the real world is rarely motivated by primary conditioned stimuli that have been directly associated with potent unconditioned reinforcers. Instead, motivation and choice behavior are driven by complex chains of higher-order associations that are only indirectly linked to intrinsic reward and often exert their influence outside awareness. Second-order conditioning (SOC) [1] is a basic associative-learning mechanism whereby stimuli acquire motivational salience by proxy, in the absence of primary incentives [2, 3]...
September 22, 2014: Current Biology: CB
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