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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092580/determination-of-the-edge-of-criticality-in-echo-state-networks-through-fisher-information-maximization
#1
Lorenzo Livi, Filippo Maria Bianchi, Cesare Alippi
It is a widely accepted fact that the computational capability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is maximized on the so-called "edge of criticality." Once the network operates in this configuration, it performs efficiently on a specific application both in terms of: 1) low prediction error and 2) high short-term memory capacity. Since the behavior of recurrent networks is strongly influenced by the particular input signal driving the dynamics, a universal, application-independent method for determining the edge of criticality is still missing...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#2
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077011/mourning-and-grief-on-facebook
#3
Erin Willis, Patrick Ferrucci
Facebook not only changed the way we communicate but also the way we mourn and express grief. The social networking site allows users to interact with deceased users' walls after death. This study utilized textual analysis to categorize Facebook posts ( N = 122) on 30 deceased users' walls according to uses and gratifications theory. Most posts were found to be motivated by entertainment, followed by integration and social interaction. Facebook users posted memories, condolences, and interacted with friends and family members in the deceased user's network...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069437/indispensable-role-of-the-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-the-procognitive-effects-of-angiotensin-iv
#4
Jan Józef Braszko
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a major role in brain functioning, including that of cognition-related structures such as cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory enhancing effect of the neuropeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) have been linked to VGCCs but only in respect of its long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess behaviorally effects of L- and T-type VGCCs blocking drugs in low, behaviorally inactive, doses on Ang IV facilitation of recall of aversively (foot-shock) and appetitively (curiosity for novelty) motivated behaviors...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068126/using-perspective-to-resolve-reference-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation
#5
James E Cane, Heather J Ferguson, Ian A Apperly
Research has demonstrated a link between perspective taking and working memory. Here we used eye tracking to examine the time course with which working memory load (WML) influences perspective-taking ability in a referential communication task and how motivation to take another's perspective modulates these effects. In Experiment 1, where there was no reward or time pressure, listeners only showed evidence of incorporating perspective knowledge during integration of the target object but did not anticipate reference to this common ground object during the pretarget-noun period...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060919/the-older-adult-positivity-effect-in-evaluations-of-trustworthiness-emotion-regulation-or-cognitive-capacity
#6
Leslie A Zebrowitz, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Angela Gutchess, Nouchine Hadjikhani
An older adult positivity effect, i.e., the tendency for older adults to favor positive over negative stimulus information more than do younger adults, has been previously shown in attention, memory, and evaluations. This effect has been attributed to greater emotion regulation in older adults. In the case of attention and memory, this explanation has been supported by some evidence that the older adult positivity effect is most pronounced for negative stimuli, which would motivate emotion regulation, and that it is reduced by cognitive load, which would impede emotion regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060704/segnet-a-deep-convolutional-encoder-decoder-architecture-for-scene-segmentation
#7
Vijay Badrinarayanan, Alex Kendall, Roberto Cipolla
We present a novel and practical deep fully convolutional neural network architecture for semantic pixel-wise segmentation termed SegNet. This core trainable segmentation engine consists of an encoder network, a corresponding decoder network followed by a pixel-wise classification layer. The architecture of the encoder network is topologically identical to the 13 convolutional layers in the VGG16 network [1]. The role of the decoder network is to map the low resolution encoder feature maps to full input resolution feature maps for pixel-wise classification...
January 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017317/a-validation-study-of-the-automated-self-administered-24-hour-dietary-recall-for%C3%A2-children-2014-version-at-school-lunch
#8
Caroline F Krehbiel, George J DuPaul, Jessica A Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Obtaining valid and reliable estimates of usual dietary intake at a reasonable cost is a challenge in school-based nutrition research. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2014 version (ASA24 Kids-2014), a self-administered, computerized 24-hour dietary recall, offers improved feasibility over traditional interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. OBJECTIVE: This mixed-methods study examined ASA24 Kids-2014's validity for measuring dietary intake from National School Lunch Program lunches...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010184/prospective-memory-7-years-after-severe-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-the-tge-2-prospective-longitudinal-study
#9
Agata Krasny-Pacini, Leila Francillette, Hanna Toure, Dominique Brugel, Anne Laurent-Vannier, Philippe Meyer, Jonathan Evans, Mathilde Chevignard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term outcome in prospective memory (PM), seven years after childhood severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), in a prospective longitudinal cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 76 young individuals (aged 7-22 years): 39 patients with a severe accidental TBI included prospectively seven years earlier, aged 0-15 years at injury, and 37 controls individually matched on age, gender and parental education. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three novel short PM tasks varying in the delay, motivation and context (ecological versus paper and pencil task)...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003509/the-importance-of-relevant-emotional-arousal-in-the-efficacy-of-pictorial-health-warnings-for-cigarettes
#10
Zhenhao Shi, An-Li Wang, Lydia F Emery, Kaitlin M Sheerin, Daniel Romer
INTRODUCTION: Warning labels for cigarettes proposed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were rejected by the courts partly because they were thought to be emotionally evocative but have no educational value. To address this issue, we compared three types of smoking warnings: (1) FDA-proposed warnings with pictures illustrating the smoking hazards; (2) warnings with the same text information paired with equally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images; and (3) text-only warnings. METHODS: Smokers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980078/reward-retroactively-enhances-memory-consolidation-for-related-items
#11
Anuya Patil, Vishnu P Murty, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Elizabeth A Phelps, Lila Davachi
Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated the influence of reward motivation on retroactive memory enhancement selectively for conceptually related information. We found behavioral evidence that reward retroactively enhances memory at a 24-h memory test, but not at an immediate memory test, suggesting a role for post-encoding mechanisms of consolidation...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976921/clash-of-the-primary-motivations-motivated-processing-of-emotionally-experienced-content-in-fear-appeals-about-obesity-prevention
#12
Rachel L Bailey, Tianjiao Grace Wang, C Kit Kaiser
This study examined individuals' physiological and cognitive responses to different types of emotionally experienced content located in obesity prevention fear appeals. Results suggested that experienced valence impacted individuals' attention and memory as a function of experienced arousal level. Local content that created coactive highly arousing experiences received the most attention, though visual recognition suggested these messages were more difficult to encode. Local content that created negative moderately arousing experiences was best encoded...
December 15, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959821/class-specific-subspace-kernel-representations-and-adaptive-margin-slack-minimization-for-large-scale-classification
#13
Yinan Yu, Konstantinos I Diamantaras, Tomas McKelvey, Sun-Yuan Kung
In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940145/m1-muscarinic-receptors-are-necessary-for-retrieval-of-remote-context-fear-memory
#14
Rafael Rodisanski Patricio, Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira
Several studies have investigated the transition of consolidation of recent memory to remote memory in aversively motivated tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, the mechanisms that serve the retrieval of remote memories, has not yet been fully understood. Some evidences suggest that the central cholinergic system appears be involved in the modulation of these processes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a pre-test administration of dicyclomine, a high-affinity M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist, on the retrieval of remote memories in fear conditioning and IA tasks...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940080/sex-specific-recruitment-of-a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampal-thalamic-system-during-context-dependent-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues-in-rats
#15
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
December 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940063/automated-reminders-and-physician-notification-to-promote-immunosuppression-adherence-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-randomized-trial
#16
Peter P Reese, Roy D Bloom, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Adam Mussell, Daniel Leidy, Simona Levsky, Jingsan Zhu, Lin Yang, Wenli Wang, Andrea Troxel, Harold I Feldman, Kevin Volpp
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression nonadherence increases the risk for kidney transplant loss after transplantation. Wireless-enabled pill bottles have created the opportunity to monitor medication adherence in real time. Reminders may help patients with poor memory or organization. Provision of adherence data to providers may motivate patients to improve adherence and help providers identify adherence barriers. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Kidney transplant recipients (n=120) at a single center...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932959/exposure-to-ketamine-anesthesia-affects-rat-impulsive-behavior
#17
António Melo, Hugo Leite-Almeida, Clara Ferreira, Nuno Sousa, José M Pêgo
Introduction: Ketamine is a general anesthetic (GA) that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as GA are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behavior trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931197/reaching-the-elderly-understanding-of-health-and-preventive-experiences-for-a-tailored-approach-results-of-a-qualitative-study
#18
Christiane Patzelt, Susanne Heim, Bernhilde Deitermann, Gudrun Theile, Christian Krauth, Eva Hummers-Pradier, Ulla Walter
BACKGROUND: Often preventive measures are not accessed by the people who were intended to be reached. Programs for older adults may target men and women, older adults, advanced old age groups and/or chronically ill patients with specific indications. The defined target groups rarely participate in the conception of programs or in the design of information materials, although this would increase accessibility and participation. In the German "Reaching the Elderly" study (2008-2011), an approach to motivating older adults to participate in a preventive home visit (PHV) program was modified with the participatory involvement of the target groups...
December 8, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929339/cognitive-activity-mediates-the-association-between-social-activity-and-cognitive-performance-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Cassandra L Brown, Annie Robitaille, Elizabeth M Zelinski, Roger A Dixon, Scott M Hofer, Andrea M Piccinin
Social activity is 1 aspect of an active lifestyle and some evidence indicates it is related to preserved cognitive function in older adulthood. However, the potential mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We investigate 4 potential mediational pathways through which social activity may relate to cognitive performance. A multilevel structural equation modeling approach to mediation was used to investigate whether cognitive activity, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and vascular health conditions mediate the association between social activity and cognitive function in older adults...
December 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928433/psychopathology-and-psychotherapeutic-intervention-in-diabetes-particularities-challenges-and-limits
#20
REVIEW
Popa-Velea O, Bubulac L, Petrescu L, Purcarea Rm
Diabetes is a problem of great public health importance, creating a considerable burden to the affected individuals and society. The psychological approach of this disease implies the early acknowledging of behavioral symptoms and the construction of effective psychotherapeutic interventions. Regarding the psychological symptoms, cognitive malfunctions in diabetes include a slowing of information processing, attention, memory, and concentration, which, in turn, can significantly diminish motivation for therapy, compliance, and ability for self-care...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
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