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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943742/academic-procrastination-and-goal-accomplishment-a-combined-experimental-and-individual-differences-investigation
#1
Daniel E Gustavson, Akira Miyake
This study examined the relationship between academic procrastination and goal accomplishment in two novel ways. First, we experimentally tested whether undergraduate students (N = 177) could reduce their academic procrastination over a course of three weeks after performing goal-related exercises to set so-called SMART goals and/or to prepare those students with specific strategies to resist their temptations (forming implementation intentions). Second, we conducted systematic regression analyses to examine whether academic procrastination at baseline uniquely predicts later goal-related outcomes, controlling for various correlated variables, including personality traits (e...
February 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933901/motivation-to-avoid-loss-improves-implicit-skill-performance
#2
Danbee Chon, Kelsey R Thompson, Paul J Reber
Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated motivation (approach/avoidance) and type of feedback (positive/negative) to measure how these affected a well-studied task of implicit sequence learning. Across 2 experiments, we found a consistent effect that motivation to avoid loss led to much higher levels of sequence-specific task performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927655/preferential-processing-of-task-irrelevant-beloved-related-information-and-task-performance-two-event-related-potential-studies
#3
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition...
September 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913698/reduced-value-driven-attentional-capture-among-children-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls
#4
Anthony W Sali, Brian A Anderson, Steven Yantis, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
The current study examined whether children with ADHD were more distracted by a stimulus previously associated with reward, but currently goal-irrelevant, than their typically-developing peers. In addition, we also probed the associated cognitive and motivational mechanisms by examining correlations with other behavioral tasks. Participants included 8-12 year-old children with ADHD (n = 30) and typically developing controls (n = 26). Children were instructed to visually search for color-defined targets and received monetary rewards for accurate responses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#5
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898959/cognitive-training-using-a-novel-memory-game-on-an-ipad-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-amci
#6
George Savulich, Thomas Piercy, Chris Fox, John Suckling, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien, Barbara J Sahakian
Background: Cognitive training is effective in patients with mild cognitive impairment but does not typically address the motivational deficits associated with older populations with memory difficulties. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in 42 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment assigned to either the cognitive training (n=21; 8 hours of gameplay over 4 weeks) or control (n=21; clinic visits as usual) groups...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894175/sexual-congruency-in-the-connectome-and-translatome-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#7
Amanda S Chung, Samara M Miller, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Larry S Zweifel
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system is important for reward, motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system are linked to multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which present with sex differences. Little is known about the extent of heterogeneity in the basic organization of VTA dopamine neurons with regard to sex. Here, we characterized the cell-specific connectivity of VTA dopamine neurons, their mRNA translational profile, and basic electrophysiological characteristics in a common strain of mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890150/antagonizing-the-gabaa-receptor-during-behavioral-training-improves-spatial-memory-at-different-doses-in-control-and-chronically-stressed-rats
#8
Kenji J Nishimura, J Bryce Ortiz, Cheryl D Conrad
Chronic stress leads to a dysregulated inhibitory tone that could impact hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory. The present study examined whether spatial memory deficits resulting from chronic stress could be overcome by antagonizing the GABAA receptor, a prominent inhibitory receptor of GABA in the hippocampus. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically stressed (STR, wire mesh restraint, 6h/d/21d) or placed in a no-stress control group (CON). When chronic restraint ended, rats were tested on a 2-trial object placement (OP) task at a delay (3h) that would result in chance performance without intervention and then on novel object recognition (NOR) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) to assess non-spatial memory and anxiety profile...
September 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890049/psychological-processes-in-chronic-pain-influences-of-reward-and-fear-learning-as-key-mechanisms-behavioral-evidence-neural-circuits-and-maladaptive-changes
#9
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker
In the understanding of chronic pain, hypotheses derived from psychological theories, together with insights from physiological assessments and brain imaging, highlight the importance of mechanistically driven approaches. Physical system changes, for example following injury, can result in alterations of psychological processes and are accompanied by changes in corticolimbic circuits, which have been shown to be essential in emotional learning and memory, as well as reward processing and related behavior. In the present review, we thus highlight the importance of motivational, reward/pain relief, and fear learning processes in the context of chronic pain and discuss the potential of a mechanistic understanding of chronic pain within a clinical perspective, for example for the development of therapeutic strategies...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888192/what-counts-in-preschool-number-knowledge-a-bayes-factor-analytic-approach-toward-theoretical-model-development
#10
Yi Mou, Ilaria Berteletti, Daniel C Hyde
Preschool children vary tremendously in their numerical knowledge, and these individual differences strongly predict later mathematics achievement. To better understand the sources of these individual differences, we measured a variety of cognitive and linguistic abilities motivated by previous literature to be important and then analyzed which combination of these variables best explained individual differences in actual number knowledge. Through various data-driven Bayesian model comparison and selection strategies on competing multiple regression models, our analyses identified five variables of unique importance to explaining individual differences in preschool children's symbolic number knowledge: knowledge of the count list, nonverbal approximate numerical ability, working memory, executive conflict processing, and knowledge of letters and words...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887385/prior-learning-of-relevant-non-aversive-information-is-a-boundary-condition-for-avoidance-memory-reconsolidation-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#11
Andressa Radiske, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Sergio Conde-Ocaziones, Anatildes Feitosa, Cristiano A Köhler, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883804/the-influences-of-emotion-on-learning-and-memory
#12
REVIEW
Chai M Tyng, Hafeez U Amin, Mohamad N M Saad, Aamir S Malik
Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880120/reward-related-limbic-memory-and-stimulation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-an-upgrade-in-value-attribution
#13
Anna Brancato, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
While a lot is known about the mechanisms promoting aversive learning, the impact of rewarding factors on memory has received comparatively less attention. This research investigates reward-related explicit memory in male rats, by taking advantage of the emotional-object recognition test. This is based on the prior association, during conditioned learning, between a rewarding experience (the encounter with a receptive female rat) and an object; afterwards rat discrimination and recognition of the 'emotional object' is recorded in the presence of a novel object, as a measure of positive limbic memory formation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879851/fundamental-bound-on-the-persistence-and-capacity-of-short-term-memory-stored-as-graded-persistent-activity
#14
Onur Ozan Koyluoglu, Yoni Pertzov, Sanjay Manohar, Masud Husain, Ila R Fiete
It is widely believed that persistent neural activity underlies short-term memory. Yet, as we show, temporal degradation in such networks behaves differently from human short-term memory performance. We build a more general framework where the memory is viewed as a problem of passing information through noisy channels that represent analog persistent activity networks. Rather than directly storing information, such memory networks might hold information encoded to achieve robustness against noise. We derive a fundamental lower-bound on memory recall precision, which declines with storage duration and number of stored items...
September 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879833/prevalence-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-its-association-with-caregiver-burden
#15
Faisal Sheikh, Zahinoor Ismail, Moyra E Mortby, Philip Barber, Alicja Cieslak, Karyn Fischer, Robert Granger, David B Hogan, Aaron Mackie, Colleen J Maxwell, Bijoy Menon, Patricia Mueller, David Patry, Dawn Pearson, Jeremy Quickfall, Tolulope Sajobi, Eric Tse, Meng Wang, Eric E Smith
BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes later life acquired, sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in cognitively normal individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as an at-risk state for incident cognitive decline and dementia. We developed an operational definition of MBI and tested whether the presence of MBI was related to caregiver burden in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or MCI assessed at a memory clinic. METHODS: MBI was assessed in 282 consecutive memory clinic patients with SCD (n = 119) or MCI (n = 163) in accordance with the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877756/jigsaw-puzzles-as-cognitive-enrichment-pace-the-effect-of-solving-jigsaw-puzzles-on-global-visuospatial-cognition-in-adults-50-years-of-age-and-older-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Patrick Fissler, Olivia C Küster, Laura S Loy, Daria Laptinskaya, Martin J Rosenfelder, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive disorders are an important societal challenge and the need for early prevention is increasingly recognized. Meta-analyses show beneficial effects of cognitive activities on cognition. However, high financial costs, low intrinsic motivation, logistic challenges of group-based activities, or the need to operate digital devices prevent their widespread application in clinical practice. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a cognitive activity without these hindering characteristics, but cognitive effects have not been investigated yet...
September 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872641/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deficiency-during-neurodevelopment-in-mice-models-the-prodromal-state-of-schizophrenia-through-epigenetic-changes-in-nuclear-receptor-genes
#17
M Maekawa, A Watanabe, Y Iwayama, T Kimura, K Hamazaki, S Balan, H Ohba, Y Hisano, Y Nozaki, T Ohnishi, M Toyoshima, C Shimamoto, K Iwamoto, M Bundo, N Osumi, E Takahashi, A Takashima, T Yoshikawa
The risk of schizophrenia is increased in offspring whose mothers experience malnutrition during pregnancy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary components that are crucial for the structural and functional integrity of neural cells, and PUFA deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show that gestational and early postnatal dietary deprivation of two PUFAs-arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-elicited schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mouse offspring at adulthood...
September 5, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864083/an-operant-based-detection-method-for-inferring-tinnitus-in-mice
#18
Hongyan Zuo, Debin Lei, Shobhana Sivaramakrishnan, Benjamin Howie, Jessica Mulvany, Jianxin Bao
BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus is a hearing disorder in which a person perceives sound when no external sound is present. It can be acute or chronic. Because our current understanding of its pathology is incomplete, no effective cures have yet been established. Mouse models are useful for studying the pathophysiology of tinnitus as well as for developing therapeutic treatments. NEW METHOD: We have developed a new method for determining acute and chronic tinnitus in mice, called sound-based avoidance detection (SBAD)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857583/neurophysiological-traces-of-interpersonal-pain-how-emotional-autobiographical-memories-affect-event-related-potentials
#19
Kristina B Rohde, Franz Caspar, Thomas Koenig, Antonio Pascual-Leone, Maria Stein
The automatic, involuntary reactivation of disturbing emotional memories, for example, of interpersonal pain, causes psychological discomfort and is central to many psychopathologies. This study aimed at elucidating the automatic brain processes underlying emotional autobiographical memories by investigating the neurophysiological dynamics within the first second after memory reactivation. Pictures of different individualized familiar faces served as cues for different specific emotional autobiographical memories, for example, for memories of interpersonal pain and grievances or for memories of appreciation in interpersonal relationships...
August 31, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857198/low-relational-mobility-leads-to-greater-motivation-to-understand-enemies-but-not-friends-and-acquaintances
#20
Liman Man Wai Li, Takahiko Masuda, Hajin Lee
Enemyship occurs across societies, but it has not received as much attention as other types of relationships such as friendship in previous research. This research examined the influence of relational mobility on people's motivation to understand their personal enemies by measuring different dependent variables across three studies. First, a cross-cultural comparison study found that Hong Kong Chinese, from a low-relational-mobility society, reported a stronger desire to seek proximity to enemies relative to European Canadians, from a high-relational-mobility society (Study 1)...
August 31, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
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