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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808356/the-gist-of-delay-of-gratification-understanding-and-predicting-problem-behaviors
#1
Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms
Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804382/positive-messages-enhance-older-adults-motivation-and-recognition-memory-for-physical-activity-programmes
#2
Nanna Notthoff, Peter Klomp, Friederike Doerwald, Susanne Scheibe
Although physical activity is an effective way to cope with ageing-related impairments, few older people are motivated to turn their sedentary lifestyle into an active one. Recent evidence suggests that walking can be more effectively promoted in older adults with positive messages about the benefits of walking than with negative messages about the risks of inactivity. This study examined motivation and memory as the supposed mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively framed compared to negatively framed messages for promoting activity...
September 2016: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791809/the-mechanical-strength-of-orthodontic-elastomeric-memory-chains-and-plastic-chains-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Hubert Kardach, Barbara Biedziak, Aneta Olszewska, Ewelina Golusińska-Kardach, Jerzy Sokalski
BACKGROUND: The loss of physical properties of orthodontic chains has been a topic of discussion among scientists and clinicians, motivating efforts to improve elastic materials and minimize the decrease of force. Orthodontic companies have introduced memory elastomers, which, according to the manufacturers, have improved mechanical properties. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of stretching elastomeric chains submerged in 37°C artificial saliva...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770540/collaborative-remembering-revisited-study-context-access-modulates-collaborative-inhibition-and-later-benefits-for-individual-memory
#4
Magdalena Abel, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Collaborating groups typically show reduced recall relative to nominal groups, i.e., to the cumulated non-redundant recall of the same number of people remembering in isolation-a finding termed collaborative inhibition. Motivated by the results of several previous studies, this study examined in two experiments whether access to study context at test influences the effects of collaboration. In both experiments, subjects collaborated in triads or recalled previously studied material in isolation. Experiment 1 applied short versus prolonged retention intervals to vary access to study context at test, whereas Experiment 2 used the list-method directed forgetting task and applied remember versus forget instructions to modulate context access...
August 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768409/opiates-and-plasticity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#5
Ludovic D Langlois, Fereshteh S Nugent
Opioids are among the most effective pain relievers; however, their abuse has been on the rise worldwide evident from an alarming increase in accidental opioid overdoses. This demands for an urgent increase in scientific endeavors for better understanding of main cellular mechanisms and circuits involved in opiate addiction. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that memories associated with positive and negative opioid experiences are critical in promoting compulsive opiate-seeking and opiate-taking behaviors, and relapse...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767647/differential-spontaneous-recovery-across-cognitive-abilities-during-detoxification-period-in-alcohol-dependence
#6
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Alexis Zorbas, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD), and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767373/mixed-neural-network-approach-for-temporal-sleep-stage-classification
#7
Hao Dong, Akara Supratak, Wei Pan, Chao Wu, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages at lower cost in the home. However, these reports have involved recordings from electrodes placed on the cranial vertex or occiput, which are both uncomfortable and difficult to position...
July 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766816/improving-adherence-to-multiple-medications-in-older-people-in-primary-care-selecting-intervention-components-to-address-patient-reported-barriers-and-facilitators
#8
Deborah E Patton, Cathal A Cadogan, Cristín Ryan, Jill J Francis, Gerard J Gormley, Peter Passmore, Ngaire Kerse, Carmel M Hughes
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is vital to ensuring optimal patient outcomes, particularly amongst multimorbid older people prescribed multiple medications. Interventions targeting adherence often lack a theoretical underpinning and this may impact on effectiveness. The theoretical domains framework (TDF) of behaviour can aid intervention development by systematically identifying key determinants of medication adherence. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (i) identify determinants (barriers, facilitators) of adherence to multiple medications from older people's perspectives; (ii) identify key domains to target for behaviour change; and (iii) map key domains to intervention components [behaviour change techniques (BCTs)] that could be delivered in an intervention by community pharmacists...
August 1, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763111/left-corner-parsing-with-distributed-associative-memory-produces-surprisal-and-locality-effects
#9
Nathan E Rasmussen, William Schuler
This article describes a left-corner parser implemented within a cognitively and neurologically motivated distributed model of memory. This parser's approach to syntactic ambiguity points toward a tidy account both of surprisal effects and of locality effects, such as the parsing breakdowns caused by center embedding. The model provides an algorithmic-level (Marr, 1982) account of these breakdowns: The structure of the parser's memory and the nature of incremental parsing produce a smooth degradation of processing accuracy for longer center embeddings, and a steeper degradation when they are nested, in line with recall observations by Miller and Isard (2003) and speed-accuracy trade-off observations by McElree et al...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759840/an-experimental-canine-patent-ductus-arteriosus-occlusion-device-based-on-shape-memory-polymer-foam-in-a-nitinol-cage
#10
Mark A Wierzbicki, Sarah B Raines, Sonya G Gordon, John C Criscione, Ashley B Saunders, Scott Birch, Bradley Due, Brandis Keller, Landon D Nash, Matthew W Miller, Duncan J Maitland
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital cardiovascular defect in which a fetal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery does not spontaneously close shortly after birth. If left uncorrected serious complications and even death can occur. Surgical ligation is the traditional treatment method; however, it is an invasive procedure, that motivates development of a minimally invasive option. Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams are unique materials that hold promise in the field of minimally invasive occlusion devices...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758776/cognitive-and-contextual-correlates-of-spontaneous-and-deliberate-mind-wandering
#11
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Individuals with greater cognitive abilities generally show reduced rates of mind-wandering when completing relatively demanding tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, it is yet unclear whether elevated rates of mind-wandering among low-ability individuals are manifestations of deliberate, intentional episodes of mind-wandering because of task disengagement or lack of motivation, or to spontaneous, unintentional failures to maintain task-oriented attention. The present study examined this issue by measuring working memory capacity (WMC), mind-wandering during 3 relatively demanding attention control tasks, and contextual variables (e...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757680/parallel-algorithms-for-switching-edges-in-heterogeneous-graphs
#12
Hasanuzzaman Bhuiyan, Maleq Khan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Madhav Marathe
An edge switch is an operation on a graph (or network) where two edges are selected randomly and one of their end vertices are swapped with each other. Edge switch operations have important applications in graph theory and network analysis, such as in generating random networks with a given degree sequence, modeling and analyzing dynamic networks, and in studying various dynamic phenomena over a network. The recent growth of real-world networks motivates the need for efficient parallel algorithms. The dependencies among successive edge switch operations and the requirement to keep the graph simple (i...
June 2017: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757149/motivation-and-short-term-memory-in-visual-search-attention-s-accelerator-revisited
#13
Daniel Schneider, Claudia Bonmassar, Clayton Hickey
A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue)...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745642/assessing-spatial-memory-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-using-a-radial-water-tread-maze
#14
Marcella M Cline, Megan A Ostlie, Chloe G Cross, Gregory G Garwin, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
Despite the recent increase in use of mouse models in scientific research, researchers continue to use cognitive tasks that were originally designed and validated for rat use. The Radial Water Tread (RWT) maze test of spatial memory (designed specifically for mice and requiring no swimming) has been shown previously to successfully distinguish between controlled cortical impact-induced TBI mice and sham controls. Here, a detailed protocol for this task is presented. The RWT maze capitalizes on the natural tendency of mice to avoid open areas in favor of hugging the sides of an apparatus (thigmotaxis)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744033/the-effect-of-cognitive-motor-dual-task-training-with-the-biorescue-force-platform-on-cognition-balance-and-dual-task-performance-in-institutionalized-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Tom Delbroek, Wietse Vermeylen, Joke Spildooren
[Purpose] This study investigates whether cognition, balance and dual task performance in institutionalized older adults improves by a virtual reality dual task training. [Subjects and Methods] Randomized controlled trial; Twenty institutionalized older adults with mild cognitive impairment (13 female, 7 male; average age, 87.2 ± 5.96 years) were randomized to the intervention (i.e. Virtual reality dual-task training using the BioRescue) or control group (no additional training). The intervention group took part in a 6-week training program while the elderly in the control group maintained their daily activities...
July 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#16
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally-connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#17
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732087/a-dissociation-between-engagement-and-learning-enthusiastic-instructions-fail-to-reliably-improve-performance-on-a-memory-task
#18
Benjamin A Motz, Joshua R de Leeuw, Paulo F Carvalho, Kaley L Liang, Robert L Goldstone
Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729828/working-memory-profiles-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-infected-children-a-comparison-with-neurotypical-controls
#19
Robyn Milligan, Kate Cockcroft
This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#20
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regard to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of this conserved neural network...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
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