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Motivation and memory

Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Ariel A Batallán-Burrowes, C Andrew Chapman
Persistent firing in layer III entorhinal cortex neurons that can be evoked during muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to mechanisms of working memory. The entorhinal cortex receives strong dopaminergic inputs which may modulate working memory for motivationally significant information. We used whole cell recordings in in vitro rat brain slices to assess the effects of dopamine on persistent firing in layer III neurons initiated by depolarizing current injection. Persistent firing during pharmacological block of ionotropic excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, and in the presence of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 μM), was observed in 39% of layer III pyramidal cells...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jiawei Liu, Rachel L Bailey
This study examined how the presence of substance cues interacted with arousing content level in public service announcements (PSAs) to affect human motivational activation, and as a result, affect cognitive information processing. A 2 (arousing content level: high vs. low arousing content fear appeal PSAs) × 2 (substance cue: absence vs. presence) × 4 (repetition) within-subject factorial design experiment was conducted. Overall, the results indicated that the presence of substance cues in high arousing content fear appeal messages elicited defensive processing, yielding poor audio recognition memory sensitivity and a more conservative criterion bias...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
Nura W Lingawi, Nathan M Holmes, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Evidence indicates that the infralimbic cortex (IL) encodes and retrieves the inhibitory memory produced by fear extinction. Recently, we have shown that the IL is also involved in the inhibitory memory generated by stimulus pre-exposure that causes latent inhibition. These results are surprising because a stimulus undergoing fear extinction carries aversive motivational value, whereas a pre-exposed stimulus is neutral. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that the IL encodes inhibition irrespective of the motivational information about the stimulus...
March 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
S Sastre-Riba, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: From a differential perspective, high intellectual ability is an expression of intellectual functioning with characteristic functional correlates and structural correlates of the underlying neural activity that suggests an improved executive capacity as a relevant characteristic, highlighting in it a more effective working memory. DEVELOPMENT: The neuroscientific evidences about the neural mechanisms that can explain the differences are analyzed between the intellectual functioning of the high intellectual ability and the typical intellectual capacity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Véronique Deroche-Gamonet, Jean-Michel Revest, Jean-François Fiancette, Eric Balado, Muriel Koehl, Noëlle Grosjean, Djoher Nora Abrous, Pier-Vincenzo Piazza
The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Kathryn J Ralph, Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli
INTRODUCTION: Existing evidence suggests that performance- and rating-based measures of working memory (WM) correlate poorly. Although some researchers have interpreted this evidence as suggesting that these measures may be assessing distinct cognitive constructs, another possibility is that rating-based measures are related to some but not all theoretically motivated performance-based measures. The current study distinguished between performance-based measures of primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM), and examined the relation between each of these components of WM and parent-ratings on the WM subscale of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-WM)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jeffrey W Brown, Derek Caetano-Anollés, Marianne Catanho, Ekaterina Gribkova, Nathaniel Ryckman, Kun Tian, Mikhail Voloshin, Rhanor Gillette
Economic decisions arise from evaluation of alternative actions in contexts of motivation and memory. In the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea the economic decisions of foraging are found to occur by the workings of a simple, affectively controlled homeostat with learning abilities. Here, the neuronal circuit relations for approach-avoidance choice of Pleurobranchaea are expressed and tested in the foraging simulation Cyberslug. Choice is organized around appetitive state as a moment-to-moment integration of sensation, motivation (satiation/hunger), and memory...
January 2018: ENeuro
Leila M Guissoni Campos, Alessandre Hataka, Isis Z Vieira, Rogério L Buchaim, Isadora F Robalinho, Giovanna E P S Arantes, Joyce S Viégas, Henrique Bosso, Rafael M Bravos, Luciana Pinato
Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes in anticipation of daily and seasonal environmental rhythms. In addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary central oscillator, the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar cortex contains influences functions such as motivational processes, regulation of feeding, food anticipation, language, and working memory...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jay J Van Bavel, Andrea Pereira
Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties - known as partisanship - can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even perceptual judgments. We propose an identity-based model of belief for understanding the influence of partisanship on these cognitive processes...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Ekrem Dere, Anja Ronnenberg, Björn Tampe, Sahab Arinrad, Manuela Schmidt, Elisabeth Zeisberg, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Based on the intellicage paradigm, we have developed a novel cognitive, emotional and social phenotyping battery that permits comprehensive standardized behavioral characterization of mice in an experimenter-independent social setting. Evaluation of this battery in a large number of male and female C57BL/6 wildtype mice, tested in >20 independent cohorts, revealed high reproducibility of the behavioral readouts and may serve as future reference tool. We noticed robust sex-specific differences in general activity, cognitive and emotional behavior, but not regarding preference for social pheromones...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Emily L Mroz, Susan Bluck
People's preferences for memorializing loved ones vary and may depend on their personal attitudes and experiences with death. Participants (N = 145) completed the Memorializing Preferences Checklist and measures of personal attitudes and life experiences with death. Factor analysis identified four Memorializing Preferences. In terms of predicting preferences, greater acknowledgement of death, and having experienced more losses, predicted preference for memorializing through Societal Tradition, Community Legacy, and Continuing Intimacy...
February 23, 2018: Death Studies
Rowan H Harwood, Veronika van der Wardt, Sarah E Goldberg, Fiona Kearney, Pip Logan, Vicky Hood-Moore, Vicky Booth, Jennie E Hancox, Tahir Masud, Zoe Hoare, Andrew Brand, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Carys Jones, Roshan das Nair, Kristian Pollock, Maureen Godfrey, John R F Gladman, Kavita Vedhara, Helen Smith, Martin Orrell
Background: People with dementia progressively lose abilities and are prone to falling. Exercise- and activity-based interventions hold the prospect of increasing abilities, reducing falls, and slowing decline in cognition. Current falls prevention approaches are poorly suited to people with dementia, however, and are of uncertain effectiveness. We used multiple sources, and a co-production approach, to develop a new intervention, which we will evaluate in a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), with embedded adherence, process and economic analyses...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Jonas Vanthornhout, Lien Decruy, Jan Wouters, Jonathan Z Simon, Tom Francart
Speech intelligibility is currently measured by scoring how well a person can identify a speech signal. The results of such behavioral measures reflect neural processing of the speech signal, but are also influenced by language processing, motivation, and memory. Very often, electrophysiological measures of hearing give insight in the neural processing of sound. However, in most methods, non-speech stimuli are used, making it hard to relate the results to behavioral measures of speech intelligibility. The use of natural running speech as a stimulus in electrophysiological measures of hearing is a paradigm shift which allows to bridge the gap between behavioral and electrophysiological measures...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Silviu I Rusu, Jan V Lankelma, Jadin C Jackson, Laura A Van Mourik-Donga, Marian Joëls, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Cognitive challenges are often accompanied by a discharge of stress hormones, which in turn modulate multiple brain areas. Among these, the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex are critically involved in high-order cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making. Previous studies assessing the effects of corticosterone on spatial memory found an increase or a decrease in performance depending on the timing of stress hormone discharge relative to the behavioral task. Most of these studies, however, made use of aversively motivated behaviors, whereas less is known about corticosteroid effects on flexible learning during reward-driven spatial navigation...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Hao Mei, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and PFC and may coordinate the information flow within the HPC-PFC pathway. Here we examined if RE activity contributes to the spatial memory consolidation. Rats were trained to find reward following a complex trajectory on a crossword-like maze...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
Martin Marko, Igor Riečanský
Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference...
May 2018: Cognition
Zachariah R Cross, Mark J Kohler, Matthias Schlesewsky, M G Gaskell, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
We hypothesize a beneficial influence of sleep on the consolidation of the combinatorial mechanisms underlying incremental sentence comprehension. These predictions are grounded in recent work examining the effect of sleep on the consolidation of linguistic information, which demonstrate that sleep-dependent neurophysiological activity consolidates the meaning of novel words and simple grammatical rules. However, the sleep-dependent consolidation of sentence-level combinatorics has not been studied to date...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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