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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#1
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206689/working-memory-ability-and-early-drug-use-progression-as-predictors-of-adolescent-substance-use-disorders
#2
Atika Khurana, Daniel Romer, Laura M Betancourt, Hallam Hurt
AIMS: To test a neurobehavioral model of adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) resulting from an imbalance between a hyperactive reward motivation system and a hypoactive executive control system. Specifically, we tested (1) if early weakness in working memory (WM) and associated imbalance indicators of acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD) predict SUD in late adolescence, and (2) if early drug use progression mediates this relation. DESIGN: Five waves of longitudinal data collected annually from 2005-2010, with a final follow-up in 2012...
February 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203212/influence-of-ongoing-task-difficulty-and-motivation-level-on-children-s-prospective-memory-in-a-chinese-sample
#3
Pi-Guo Han, Lei Han, Yu-Long Bian, Yu Tian, Min-Xia Xu, Feng-Qiang Gao
Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188200/stop-think-a-simple-approach-to-encourage-the-self-assessment-of-learning
#4
Richard Guy, Bruce Byrne, Marian Dobos
A simple "stop think" approach was developed to encourage the self-assessment of learning. A key element was the requirement for students to rate their feeling of difficulty before [FOD(pre)] and after [FOD(post)] completing each of three authentic anatomy and physiology concept map exercises. The cohort was divided into low- (group L) and high-performing (group H) groups (based on final subject marks). Both FOD(pre) (group L) and FOD(post) (groups L and H) were significantly negatively correlated with score for some maps...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185871/differential-arc-protein-expression-in-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-after-moderate-and-intense-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#5
Diego A González-Franco, Víctor Ramírez-Amaya, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Gina L Quirarte
Intense training refers to training mediated by emotionally arousing experiences, such as aversive conditioning motivated by relatively high intensities of foot-shock, which produces a strong memory that is highly resistant to extinction. Intense training protects memory consolidation against the amnestic effects of a wide variety of treatments, administered systemically or directly into brain structures. The mechanisms of this protective effect are unknown. To determine a potential neurobiological correlate of the protective effect of intense training, rats were trained in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task using different intensities of foot-shock (0...
February 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182548/fast-and-scalable-feature-selection-for-gene-expression-data-using-hilbert-schmidt-independence-criterion
#6
Mehrdad J Gangeh, Hadi Zarkoob, Ali Ghodsi
GOAL: In computational biology, selecting a small subset of informative genes from microarray data continues to be a challenge due to the presence of thousands of genes. This paper aims at quantifying the dependence between gene expression data and the response variables and to identifying a subset of the most informative genes using a fast and scalable multivariate algorithm. METHODS: A novel algorithm for feature selection from gene expression data was developed...
January 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181795/water-responsive-shape-recovery-induced-buckling-in-biodegradable-photo-cross-linked-poly-ethylene-glycol-peg-hydrogel
#7
Abhijit Vijay Salvekar, Wei Min Huang, Rui Xiao, Yee Shan Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman, Kiang Hiong Tay, Ze Xiang Shen
The phenomenon of recovering the permanent shape from a severely deformed temporary shape, but only in the presence of the right stimulus, is known as the shape memory effect (SME). Materials with such an interesting effect are known as shape memory materials (SMMs). Typical stimuli to trigger shape recovery include temperature (heating or cooling), chemical (including water/moisture and pH value), and light. As a SMM is able not only to maintain the temporary shape but also to respond to the right stimulus when it is applied, via shape-shifting, a seamless integration of sensing and actuation functions is achieved within one single piece of material...
February 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178988/nested-houses-domestication-dynamics-of-human-wasp-relations-in-contemporary-rural-japan
#8
Charlotte L R Payne, Joshua D Evans
BACKGROUND: Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. METHODS: Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174533/reward-dependent-invigoration-relates-to-theta-oscillations-and-is-predicted-by-dopaminergic-midbrain-integrity-in-healthy-elderly
#9
Tineke K Steiger, Nico Bunzeck
Motivation can have invigorating effects on behavior via dopaminergic neuromodulation. While this relationship has mainly been established in theoretical models and studies in younger subjects, the impact of structural declines of the dopaminergic system during healthy aging remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young and elderly humans in a reward-learning paradigm. Specifically, scene images were initially encoded by combining them with cues predicting monetary reward (high vs...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169427/financial-incentive-does-not-affect-p300-in-response-to-certain-episodic-and-semantic-probe-stimuli-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-concealed-information-test-cit-in-detection-of-malingering
#10
J Peter Rosenfeld, Elena Labkovsky, Elena Davydova, Anne Ward, Lauren Rosenfeld
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response of the autonomic nervous system in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor P300 tests based on the three-stimulus protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as CITs). The present report is the first attempt to study the effect of financial motivation on the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol using both episodic and semantic memory probe and irrelevant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167496/a-maternal-western-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation-modifies-offspring-s-microbiota-activity-blood-lipid-levels-cognitive-responses-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-yucatan-pigs
#11
David Val-Laillet, Marie Besson, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Ameni Kanzari, Hélène Quesnel, Nathalie Bonhomme, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Bas Kemp, Sophie Blat, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Caroline Clouard
A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny...
February 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164771/a-role-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-in-cognitive-training
#12
Feng Lin, Kathi L Heffner, Ping Ren, Duje Tadin
BACKGROUND: Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132044/acquisition-and-consolidation-of-two-way-active-avoidance-in-the-high-immobilization-depressive-rats
#13
N Nachkebia, M Shavgulidze, O Mchedlidze, E Chkhartishvili, E Chijavadze
Present study investigated possible changes in acquisition and consolidation of associative memory in high immobilization "depressive" and low immobilization "non-depressive" rats. Question is very topical because understanding the character of learning and memory disturbances, one of symptoms of major depressive disease, is very significant for more intimate definition of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and appropriate searching the ways of its correction. Selection of rats according to the level of immobilization was made by means of forced swim test...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119279/effects-of-video-game-training-on-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-measures-of-attention-and-memory-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Soledad Ballesteros, Julia Mayas, Eloisa Ruiz-Marquez, Antonio Prieto, Pilar Toril, Laura Ponce de Leon, Maria L de Ceballos, José Manuel Reales Avilés
BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity-based approaches seem to offer promising ways of maintaining cognitive health in older adults and postponing the onset of cognitive decline symptoms. Although previous research suggests that training can produce transfer effects, this study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous studies by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of training expectations. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the effects of a randomized computer-based intervention consisting of training older adults with nonaction video games on brain and cognitive functions that decline with age, including attention and spatial working memory, using behavioral measures and electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials [ERPs]) just after training and after a 6-month no-contact period; (2) to explore whether motivation, engagement, or expectations might account for possible training-related improvements; and (3) to examine whether inflammatory mechanisms assessed with noninvasive measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva impair cognitive training-induced effects...
January 24, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114038/class-specific-subspace-kernel-representations-and-adaptive-margin-slack-minimization-for-large-scale-classification
#15
Yinan Yu, Konstantinos I Diamantaras, Tomas McKelvey, Sun-Yuan Kung
In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111495/public-attitudes-on-the-ethics-of-deceptively-planting-false-memories-to-motivate-healthy-behavior
#16
Robert A Nash, Shari R Berkowitz, Simon Roche
Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting 'beneficial' false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional 'false-memory therapy' that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale-rating (both studies) and open-text (study 2) responses...
November 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111347/the-effect-of-task-demand-and-incentive-on-neurophysiological-and-cardiovascular-markers-of-effort
#17
Stephen H Fairclough, Kate Ewing
According to motivational intensity theory, effort is proportional to the level of task demand provided that success is possible and successful performance is deemed worthwhile. The current study represents a simultaneous manipulation of demand (working memory load) and success importance (financial incentive) to investigate neurophysiological (EEG) and cardiovascular measures of effort. A 2×2 repeated-measures study was conducted where 18 participants performed a n-back task under three conditions of demand: easy (1-back), hard (4-back) and very hard (7-back)...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#18
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092580/determination-of-the-edge-of-criticality-in-echo-state-networks-through-fisher-information-maximization
#19
Lorenzo Livi, Filippo Maria Bianchi, Cesare Alippi
It is a widely accepted fact that the computational capability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is maximized on the so-called "edge of criticality." Once the network operates in this configuration, it performs efficiently on a specific application both in terms of: 1) low prediction error and 2) high short-term memory capacity. Since the behavior of recurrent networks is strongly influenced by the particular input signal driving the dynamics, a universal, application-independent method for determining the edge of criticality is still missing...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#20
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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