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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786067/disrupting-reconsolidation-memory-erasure-or-blunting-of-emotional-motivational-value
#1
Elizabeth S Cogan, Mark A Shapses, Terry E Robinson, Natalie C Tronson
When memories are retrieved they become labile, and subject to alteration by a process known as reconsolidation. Disruption of memory reconsolidation decreases the performance of learned responses, which is often attributed to erasure of the memory; in the case of Pavlovian learning, to a loss of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). However, an alternative interpretation is that disrupting reconsolidation does not erase memories, but blunts their emotional/motivational impact...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778091/health-care-provider-experiences-in-primary-care-memory-clinics-a-phenomenological-study
#2
Linda Sheiban, Paul Stolee, Carrie McAiney, Veronique Boscart
BACKGROUND: There is a growing need for community-based services for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Memory clinic (MC) teams in primary care settings have been established to provide care to people with ADRD. To consider wider adoption of these MC teams, insight is needed into the experiences of practitioners working in these models. The purpose of the current study is to explore the experiences of health care providers (HCPs) who work in primary care Memory Clinic (MC) teams to provide care to persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD)...
May 19, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772021/analysis-of-risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-word-list-memory-test-results-and-questionnaire-responses-in-healthy-japanese-individuals-registered-in-an-online-database
#3
Masayo Ogawa, Daichi Sone, Kazushi Maruo, Hiroyuki Shimada, Keisuke Suzuki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hidehiro Mizusawa
Although the development of effective therapeutic drugs and radical treatment options for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains urgent, progress in recent clinical trials of AD drugs has been less than adequate. In order to advance the progress of clinical trials, it is necessary to establish more efficient methods of recruitment. In Japan, there are registration systems stratified by mild cognitive impairment and preclinical and clinical stages of early and advanced stage dementia, but there is no registration system for healthy individuals yet...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767387/no-medication-for-my-child-a-naturalistic-study-on-the-treatment-preferences-for-and-effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-versus-psychostimulant-medication-in-clinically-referred-youth-with-adhd
#4
Peter Muris, Dorien Roodenrijs, Lut Kelgtermans, Sonja Sliwinski, Ulrike Berlage, Hanna Baillieux, Anne Deckers, Marieke Gunther, Bertien Paanakker, Ida Holterman
In this naturalistic clinical study, we explored the applicability and clinical effectiveness of Cogmed WMT, pharmacotherapy, and their combination for clinically referred children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ninety youth with ADHD (ages 6-16 years) and their parents were offered the possibility to choose one of the three interventions. The motives for choosing various interventions were quite different. Medication was chosen because this treatment was expected to be most effective, but also because the Cogmed WMT program was regarded as too taxing...
May 16, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#5
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751168/subjective-cognitive-function-in-hoarding-disorder
#6
David F Tolin, Lauren S Hallion, Bethany M Wootton, Hannah C Levy, Amber L Billingsley, Akanksha Das, Benjamin W Katz, Michael C Stevens
The aim of the present study was to examine subjective cognitive impairment among adult patients with hoarding disorder (HD). Eighty-three patients with HD and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) participants received a diagnostic interview and completed measures of subjective cognitive functioning and motivations for saving behavior, as well as measures of hoarding severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. The HD group reported more impairment than did the HC group in domains of memory, distractibility, blunders, memory for names, and inattention...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740004/evidence-of-soft-bound-behaviour-in-analogue-memristive-devices-for-neuromorphic-computing
#7
Jacopo Frascaroli, Stefano Brivio, Erika Covi, Sabina Spiga
The development of devices that can modulate their conductance under the application of electrical stimuli constitutes a fundamental step towards the realization of synaptic connectivity in neural networks. Optimization of synaptic functionality requires the understanding of the analogue conductance update under different programming conditions. Moreover, properties of physical devices such as bounded conductance values and state-dependent modulation should be considered as they affect storage capacity and performance of the network...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739995/observation-of-magnetic-radial-vortex-nucleation-in-a-multilayer-stack-with-tunable-anisotropy
#8
Vedat Karakas, Aisha Gokce, Ali Taha Habiboglu, Sevdenur Arpaci, Kaan Ozbozduman, Ibrahim Cinar, Cenk Yanik, Riccardo Tomasello, Silvia Tacchi, Giulio Siracusano, Mario Carpentieri, Giovanni Finocchio, Thomas Hauet, Ozhan Ozatay
Recently discovered exotic magnetic configurations, namely magnetic solitons appearing in the presence of bulk or interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (i-DMI), have excited scientists to explore their potential applications in emerging spintronic technologies such as race-track magnetic memory, spin logic, radio frequency nano-oscillators and sensors. Such studies are motivated by their foreseeable advantages over conventional micro-magnetic structures due to their small size, topological stability and easy spin-torque driven manipulation with much lower threshold current densities giving way to improved storage capacity, and faster operation with efficient use of energy...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733621/transfer-of-test-enhanced-learning-meta-analytic-review-and-synthesis
#9
Steven C Pan, Timothy C Rickard
Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723188/beachmat-a-bioconductor-c-api-for-accessing-high-throughput-biological-data-from-a-variety-of-r-matrix-types
#10
Aaron T L Lun, Hervé Pagès, Mike L Smith
Biological experiments involving genomics or other high-throughput assays typically yield a data matrix that can be explored and analyzed using the R programming language with packages from the Bioconductor project. Improvements in the throughput of these assays have resulted in an explosion of data even from routine experiments, which poses a challenge to the existing computational infrastructure for statistical data analysis. For example, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiments frequently generate large matrices containing expression values for each gene in each cell, requiring sparse or file-backed representations for memory-efficient manipulation in R...
May 3, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713268/lateral-hypothalamus-as-a-motivation-cognition-interface-in-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Gorica D Petrovich
Converging evidence for an essential function of the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) in the control of feeding behavior has been accumulating since the classic work conducted almost 80 years ago. The LHA is also important in reward and reinforcement processes and behavioral state control. A unifying function for the LHA across these processes has not been fully established. Nonetheless, it is considered to integrate motivation with behavior. More recent work has demonstrated that the LHA is also required when cognitive processes, such as associative learning and memory control feeding behavior, suggesting it may serve as a motivation-cognition interface...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701542/for-the-further-training-of-individuals-in-neurosurgery-a-history-of-the-william-p-van-wagenen-fellowship
#12
Tyler M Schmidt, Ian A DeAndrea-Lazarus, Kristopher T Kimmell, G Edward Vates, Stephen J Haines, Webster H Pilcher
The William P. Van Wagenen Fellowship, celebrating its 50th anniversary, is an annual award given by the AANS and administered by the Neurosurgery Research and Education Foundation (NREF). Named after its benefactor, Dr. William Van Wagenen, the fellowship continues his legacy of mentorship and innovation. As the premier research award for young neurosurgeons, it has provided a foundation for career development for many thought leaders in the field. The award was created in the spirit of Van Wagenen's belief in collaboration with other institutions as a means of refining neurosurgical technique, creating new research initiatives, and improving patient outcomes...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699774/what-are-the-preferences-of-patients-attending-a-memory-clinic-for-disclosure-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
F Mahieux, M Herr, J Ankri
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This report shares and discusses the collected personal preferences of patients attending a memory clinic for disclosure of a potential Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. METHODS: In this prospective study of outpatients attending a single memory clinic over a 6-year period (March 2004-October 2010), doctors collected their patients' wishes (willingness to be informed, motivation, presence of the family) through a standardized procedure. RESULTS: Of the 1005 patients questioned throughout the study period-with a final diagnosis of dementia for 480 of them-858 (85...
April 23, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#14
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691205/developing-sustainable-and-impactful-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-interventions-for-spanish-speaking-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-lessons-learned-from-informative-interviews
#15
Jason Mitchell, Maria Beatriz Torres, Lucy Asmar, Thu Danh, Keith J Horvath
BACKGROUND: Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) test for HIV at least once in their lifetime, opportunities to improve regular HIV testing, particularly among Hispanic or Latino MSM, is needed. Many mHealth interventions in development, including the ones on HIV testing, have primarily focused on English-speaking white, black, and MSM of other races. To date, no studies have assessed app use, attitudes, and motivations for downloading and sustaining use of mobile apps and preferences with respect to HIV prevention among Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in the United States...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687640/priming-as-a-motivating-factor-in-sociophonetic-variation-and-change
#16
Lynn Clark
Understanding how and why pronunciations vary and change has been a dominant theme in variationist sociolinguistics (Labov, , ). Linguistic variability has also been an area of focus in psychology and cognitive science. Work from these two fields has shown that where variation exists in language, an alternative form, once used, persists in working memory and has a greater chance of reuse (Bock, ; Bock & Loebell, ; Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland, ). While there have been efforts to connect priming research with sociolinguistics at the level of grammar (Poplack, ; Travis, ), there has been less work which explicitly considers the potential role of priming as a motivating factor in accent variation and change...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687240/simultaneous-assessment-of-cognitive-function-circadian-rhythm-and-spontaneous-activity-in-aging-mice
#17
Sreemathi Logan, Daniel Owen, Sixia Chen, Wei-Jen Chen, Zoltan Ungvari, Julie Farley, Anna Csiszar, Amanda Sharpe, Maarten Loos, Bastijn Koopmans, Arlan Richardson, William E Sonntag
Cognitive function declines substantially with age in both humans and animal models. In humans, this decline is associated with decreases in independence and quality of life. Although the methodology for analysis of cognitive function in human models is relatively well established, similar analyses in animal models have many technical issues (e.g., unintended experimenter bias, motivational issues, stress, and testing during the light phase of the light dark cycle) that limit interpretation of the results. These caveats, and others, potentially bias the interpretation of studies in rodents and prevent the application of current tests of learning and memory as part of an overall healthspan assessment in rodent models of aging...
April 24, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686631/the-perception-of-time-is-underestimated-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Carmelo M Vicario, Kim Felmingham
Research has revealed reduced temporal discounting (i.e., increased capacity to delay reward) and altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa (AN). In line with the research linking temporal underestimation with a reduced tendency to devalue a reward and reduced interoceptive awareness, we tested the hypothesis that time duration might be underestimated in AN. Our findings revealed that patients with AN displayed lower timing accuracy in the form of timing underestimation compared with controls. These results were not predicted by clinical, demographic factors, attention, and working memory performance of the participants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684024/crystallized-and-fluid-intelligence-of-university-students-with-intellectual-disability-who-are-fully-integrated-versus-those-who-studied-in-adapted-enrichment-courses
#19
Hefziba Lifshitz, Jay Verkuilen, Shlomit Shnitzer-Meirovich, Carmit Altman
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of people with intellectual disability (ID) in higher postsecondary academic education is on the rise. However, there are no scientific criteria for determining the eligibility for full inclusion of students with ID in university courses. This study focuses on two models of academic inclusion for students with ID: (a) separate adapted enrichment model: students with ID study in separate enrichment courses adapted to their level; (b) full inclusion model: students with ID are included in undergraduate courses, receive academic credits and are expected to accumulate the amount of credits for a B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680966/mnemonic-and-behavioral-effects-of-biperiden-an-m1-selective-antagonist-in-the-rat
#20
Anna Popelíková, Štěpán Bahník, Veronika Lobellová, Jan Svoboda, Aleš Stuchlík
RATIONALE: There is a persistent pressing need for valid animal models of cognitive and mnemonic disruptions (such as seen in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias) usable for preclinical research. OBJECTIVES: We have set out to test the validity of administration of biperiden, an M1-acetylcholine receptor antagonist with central selectivity, as a potential tool for generating a fast screening model of cognitive impairment, in outbred Wistar rats. METHODS: We used several variants of the Morris water maze task: (1) reversal learning, to assess cognitive flexibility, with probe trials testing memory retention; (2) delayed matching to position (DMP), to evaluate working memory; and (3) "counter-balanced acquisition," to test for possible anomalies in acquisition learning...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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