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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145751/negative-symptoms-and-reward-disturbances-in-schizophrenia-before-and-after-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#1
Mette Ødegaard Nielsen, Egill Rostrup, Brian Villumsen Broberg, Sanne Wulff, Birte Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms (NS) are a central part of the symptomatology of schizophrenia, which is highly correlated to the functional outcome. Disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to be central in the pathogenesis of NS by decreasing motivation and hedonic experiences. In this study, we compared reward-related brain activity in patients improving and not improving in NS after treatment with amisulpride. METHODS: Thirty-nine antipsychotic-naive patients and 49 healthy controls completed functional magnetic resonance imaging with a modified monetary incentive delay task...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132089/neural-effects-of-environmental-advertising-an-fmri-analysis-of-voice-age-and-temporal-framing
#2
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Myriam Martínez-Fiestas, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130724/probiotics-for-fibromyalgia-study-design-for-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Pablo Roman, Ángeles F Estévez, Nuria Sánchez-Labraca, Fernando Cañadas, Alonso Miras, Diana Cardona
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, generalized and diffuse pain disorder accompanied by other symptoms such as emotional and cognitive deficits. The FMS patients show a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently it has been found that microbes in the gut may regulate brain processes through the gut-microbiota-brain axis, modulating thus affection, motivation and higher cognitive functions. Therefore, the use of probiotics might be a new treatment that could improve the physical, psychological and cognitive state in FMS; however, no evidence about this issue is available...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118728/mutual-influence-of-reward-anticipation-and-emotion-on-brain-activity-during-memory-retrieval
#4
Chunping Yan, Fang Liu, Yunyun Li, Qin Zhang, Lixia Cui
Previous studies on the joint effect of reward motivation and emotion on memory retrieval have obtained inconsistent results. Furthermore, whether and how any such joint effect might vary over time remains unclear too. Accordingly, using the event-related potential (ERP) measurement of high temporal resolution, our study investigates the cognitive and brain mechanisms of monetary reward and emotion affecting the retrieval processes of episodic memory. Twenty undergraduate and graduate students participated in the research, and our study's behavioral results indicated that reward (relative to no reward) and negative emotion (relative to positive and neutral emotion) significantly improved recognition performance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#5
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116867/the-effects-of-smoking-abstinence-on-incentivized-spatial-working-memory
#6
Charles Geier, Nicole Roberts, David Lydon-Staley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reward processing and working memory (WM) underlie value-based decision-making; consequently, joint examination of these systems may further our understanding of why smokers choose to smoke again following a quit attempt (relapse). While previous studies have demonstrated altered reward and WM function associated with nicotine exposure, little is known about the effects of abstinence on the joint function of these systems. The current study aims to address this gap...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114273/formulation-and-characterization-of-nanomedicine-solid-lipid-nanoparticle-associate-with-the-extract-of-pterospermum-acerifolium-for-the-screening-of-neurochemicals-and-neuroendocrine-effects
#7
Ankur Choubey, Ritu Gilhotra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Gopal Garg
Background: Nanotechnology has given the likelihood of conveying medications to particular cells utilizing nanoparticles. Nanosystems can convey the dynamic constituent at an adequate fixation amid the whole treatment time frame, guiding it to the fancied site of activity. Traditional medications do not meet these necessities. The fundamental motivation behind creating elective medication conveyance advancements is to expand effectiveness of medication conveyance and security during the time spent medication conveyance and give more accommodation to the patient...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113794/a-new-rat-compatible-robotic-framework-for-spatial-navigation-behavioral-experiments
#8
Sam Gianelli, Bruce Harland, Jean-Marc Fellous
BACKGROUND: Understanding the neural substrate of information encoding and processing requires a precise control of the animal's behavior. Most of what has been learned from the rodent navigational system results from relatively simple tasks in which the movements of the animal is controlled by corridors or walkways, passive movements, treadmills or virtual reality environments. While a lot has been and continues to be learned from these types of experiments, recent evidence has shown that such artificial constraints may have significant consequences on the functioning of the neural circuits of spatial navigation...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078387/individual-differences-in-associative-memory-among-older-adults-explained-by-hippocampal-subfield-structure-and-function
#9
Valerie A Carr, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Serra E Favila, Brian K Rutt, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Anthony D Wagner
Older adults experience impairments in episodic memory, ranging from mild to clinically significant. Given the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in episodic memory, age-related changes in MTL structure and function may partially account for individual differences in memory. Using ultra-high-field 7T structural MRI and high-resolution 3T functional MRI (hr-fMRI), we evaluated MTL subfield thickness and function in older adults representing a spectrum of cognitive health. Participants performed an associative memory task during hr-fMRI in which they encoded and later retrieved face-name pairs...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077721/enhanced-storage-capacity-with-errors-in-scale-free-hopfield-neural-networks-an-analytical-study
#10
Do-Hyun Kim, Jinha Park, Byungnam Kahng
The Hopfield model is a pioneering neural network model with associative memory retrieval. The analytical solution of the model in mean field limit revealed that memories can be retrieved without any error up to a finite storage capacity of O(N), where N is the system size. Beyond the threshold, they are completely lost. Since the introduction of the Hopfield model, the theory of neural networks has been further developed toward realistic neural networks using analog neurons, spiking neurons, etc. Nevertheless, those advances are based on fully connected networks, which are inconsistent with recent experimental discovery that the number of connections of each neuron seems to be heterogeneous, following a heavy-tailed distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072005/-new-trains-of-thoughts-about-acupuncture-analgesia-acupuncture-analgesia-feb-involve-multi-dimensional-regulation-of-pain
#11
Jian-Qiao Fang, Xiao-Mei Shao
With the development of pain study, researchers gradually recognized that pain is composed of three main dimensions, namely "sensory-discriminative" "affective-motivational" and "cognitive-evaluative" which influence each other and are also independent from each other. Pain study has shifted away from focusing on the single mode of nociception to the multi-dimensional mode of sensory-affection-cognition. It is held early in traditional Chinese medicine that "when there is a stoppage, there is a pain" and a worsening disease Feb induce depression, which has already shown a multi-dimensional recognition about pain...
February 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071234/effects-of-herbal-compound-imod-on-behavior-and-expression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-genes-in-streptozotocin-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Niloofar Bazazzadegan, Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Kioomars Saliminejad, Koorosh Kamali, Mehdi Banan, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid
Purpose: Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for over 95% of cases. Possible mechanisms of AD such as inflammation and oxidative stresses in the brain motivate researchers to follow many therapies which would be effective, especially in the early stages of the disease. IMOD, the herbal extract of R. Canina, T. Vulgare and U. Dioica plant species enriched with selenium, has anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and protective effects against oxidative stress. Methods: In this study three AD-related genes, DAXX, NFκβ and VEGF, were chosen as candidate to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the extract by comparing their expression levels in the hippocampus of rat model of sporadic AD, using qPCR in the herbal-treated and control groups...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070813/the-impact-of-ageing-reveals-distinct-roles-for-human-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-in-pattern-separation-and-object-recognition-memory
#13
Serena E Dillon, Demitra Tsivos, Michael Knight, Bryony McCann, Catherine Pennington, Anna I Shiel, Myra E Conway, Margaret A Newson, Risto A Kauppinen, Elizabeth J Coulthard
Both recognition of familiar objects and pattern separation, a process that orthogonalises overlapping events, are critical for effective memory. Evidence is emerging that human pattern separation requires dentate gyrus. Dentate gyrus is intimately connected to CA3 where, in animals, an autoassociative network enables recall of complete memories to underpin object/event recognition. Despite huge motivation to treat age-related human memory disorders, interaction between human CA3 and dentate subfields is difficult to investigate due to small size and proximity...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#14
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058940/much-ado-about-aha-insight-problem-solving-is-strongly-related-to-working-memory-capacity-and-reasoning-ability
#15
Adam Chuderski, Jan Jastrzębski
A battery comprising 4 fluid reasoning tests as well as 13 working memory (WM) tasks that involved storage, recall, updating, binding, and executive control, was applied to 318 adults in order to evaluate the true relationship of reasoning ability and WM capacity (WMC) to insight problem solving, measured using 40 verbal, spatial, math, matchstick, and remote associates problems (insight problems). WMC predicted 51.8% of variance in insight problem solving and virtually explained its almost isomorphic link to reasoning ability (84...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058519/longitudinal-changes-in-cognition-in-young-adult-cannabis-users
#16
Mary P Becker, Paul F Collins, Ashley Schultz, Snežana Urošević, Brittany Schmaling, Monica Luciana
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent cannabis use (CU) is associated with impaired attention, executive function, and verbal learning/memory. These associations are generally observed in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies of cannabis users are lacking. METHOD: The present study examines associations between CU and cognition over time in chronic daily adolescent-onset CUs, as compared to nonusing controls. Both groups completed a neuropsychological battery at study intake and again 2 years later...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055971/luck-come-here-automatic-approach-tendencies-toward-gambling-cues-in-moderate-to-high-risk-gamblers
#17
Marilisa Boffo, Ruby Smits, Joshua P Salmon, Megan E Cowie, David T H A de Jong, Elske Salemink, Pam Collins, Sherry H Stewart, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate-to-high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was prospectively related to gambling behaviour and problems...
October 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055395/the-neural-signature-of-emotional-memories-in-serial-crimes
#18
Philippe Chassy
Neural plasticity is the process whereby semantic information and emotional responses are stored in neural networks. It is hypothesized that the neural networks built over time to encode the sexual fantasies that motivate serial killers to act should display a unique, detectable activation pattern. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis posits that such networks comprise activation of brain sites that reflect four cognitive components: autobiographical memory, sexual arousal, aggression, and control over aggression...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#19
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048933/the-association-between-video-game-play-and-cognitive-function-does-gaming-platform-matter
#20
Vivian Huang, Michaelia Young, Alexandra J Fiocco
Despite consumer growth, few studies have evaluated the cognitive effects of gaming using mobile devices. This study examined the association between video game play platform and cognitive performance. Furthermore, the differential effect of video game genre (action versus nonaction) was explored. Sixty undergraduate students completed a video game experience questionnaire, and we divided them into three groups: mobile video game players (MVGPs), console/computer video game players (CVGPs), and nonvideo game players (NVGPs)...
November 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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