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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338743/incidental-memory-for-faces-in-children-with-different-genetic-subtypes-of-prader-willi-syndrome
#1
Alexandra P Key, Elisabeth M Dykens
The present study examined the effects of genetic subtype on social memory in children (7-16 years) with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during a passive viewing task were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 15 children with the deletion subtype and 13 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD). While all participants perceived faces as different from houses (N170 responses), repeated faces elicited more positive ERP amplitudes ('old/new' effect, 250-500ms) only in children with the deletion subtype...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337646/the-puzzle-of-study-time-allocation-for-the-most-challenging-items
#2
Monika Undorf, Rakefet Ackerman
Learners often allocate more study time to challenging items than to easier ones. Nevertheless, both predicted and actual memory performance are typically worse for difficult than for easier items. The resulting inverse relations between people's predictions of their memory performance (judgments of learning; JOLs) and self-paced study time (ST) are often explained by bottom-up, data-driven ST allocation that is based on fluency. However, we demonstrate robust inverted U-shaped relations between JOLs and ST that cannot be explained by data-driven ST allocation alone...
March 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#3
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333472/how-stable-is-the-personal-past-stability-of-most-important-autobiographical-memories-and-life-narratives-across-eight-years-in-a-life-span-sample
#4
Christin Köber, Tilmann Habermas
Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328492/digital-tracking-of-cognitive-decline-researchers-are-co-opting-computers-in-their-efforts-to-detect-early-signs-of-dementia
#5
Michele Solis
Pinpointing where healthy brain aging leaves off and dementia begins is difficult. Is a slip in memory an expected outcome for a too-busy person or a warning of something else? If an empty-nester loses the motivation to cook, is it a sign that the person is enjoying retirement after a lifetime spent cooking or an early sign of a cognitive decline?
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327232/attention-and-memory-benefits-for-physical-attractiveness-may-mediate-prosocial-biases
#6
David Vaughn Becker
Mating motivations can explain attractiveness benefits, but what proximate mechanisms might serve as efficient causes of these biases? There is growing evidence that visual cues of physical attractiveness capture attention and facilitate memory, enhancing salience in ways that could underlie, for example, preferring one job applicant over another. All of these effects beg deeper questions about the meaning of attractiveness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#7
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
March 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302573/stair-walking-is-more-energizing-than-low-dose-caffeine-in-sleep-deprived-young-women
#8
Derek D Randolph, Patrick J O'Connor
INTRODUCTION: The acute energizing effect of exercise and caffeine has never been examined in a single study of adults with chronic sleep deprivation but evidence from a study of this type could help individuals choose between these two common alertness-enhancing options. AIM: The apriori primary aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of 10-min of low-to-moderate intensity stair walking to the consumption of capsules containing 50mg caffeine or flour (placebo) on feelings of energy in physically active, college female caffeine users with chronic insufficient sleep...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295187/working-memory-moderates-the-effect-of-the-integrative-process-of-implicit-and-explicit-autonomous-motivation-on-academic-achievement
#9
Alexandre Gareau, Patrick Gaudreau
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294132/5-ht2c-agonists-modulate-schizophrenia-like-behaviors-in-mice
#10
Vladimir M Pogorelov, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Jianjun Cheng, Mei Huang, Claire M Schmerberg, Herbert Y Meltzer, Bryan L Roth, Alan P Kozikowski, William C Wetsel
All FDA-approved antipsychotic drugs (APDs) target primarily dopamine D2 or serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors, or both; however, these medications are not universally effective, they may produce undesirable side-effects, and provide only partial amelioration of negative and cognitive symptoms. The heterogeneity of pharmacological responses in schizophrenic patients suggests additional drug-targets may be effective in improving aspects of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that 5-HT2C receptors may be a promising target for schizophrenia since their activation reduces mesolimbic nigrostriatal dopamine release (which conveys antipsychotic action), they are expressed almost exclusively in CNS, and have weight-loss promoting capabilities...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293729/altered-cortico-striatal-crosstalk-underlies-object-recognition-memory-deficits-in-the-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-model-of-schizophrenia
#11
Aman Asif-Malik, Daniel Dautan, Andrew M J Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Sub-chronic treatment with the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) produces cognitive abnormalities in rodents that reliably model aspects of the neurocognitive alterations observed in schizophrenia. Given that network activity across regions encompassing medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a significant role in motivational and cognitive tasks, we measured activity across cortico-striatal pathways in PCP-treated rats to characterize neural enabling and encoding of task performance in a novel object recognition task...
March 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293187/comparison-of-cognitive-change-after-working-memory-training-and-logic-and-planning-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#12
Vina M Goghari, Linette Lawlor-Savage
Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286179/formation-of-hippocampal-mhtt-aggregates-leads-to-impaired-spatial-memory-hippocampal-activation-and-adult-neurogenesis
#13
L C Schwab, K Richetin, R A Barker, N Déglon
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of motor, psychiatric and cognitive deficits with the latter classically attributed to disruption of fronto-striatal circuits. However, emerging evidence suggests that some of the cognitive deficits in HD may have their origin in other structures including the hippocampus. Hippocampal abnormalities have been reported in HD mouse models particularly in terms of performance on the Morris Water Maze. However, in these animals, it is difficult to be certain whether the spatial memory deficits are due to local pathology within this structure or their poor mobility and motivation...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285034/social-influence-and-mental-routes-to-the-production-of-authentic-false-memories-and-inauthentic-false-memories
#14
Michael F Wagner, John J Skowronski
Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered...
March 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280399/technologies-for-physical-activity-self-monitoring-a-study-of-differences-between-users-and-non-users
#15
Anna Åkerberg, Anne Söderlund, Maria Lindén
BACKGROUND: Different kinds of physical activity (PA) self-monitoring technologies are used today to monitor and motivate PA behavior change. The user focus is essential in the development process of this technology, including potential future users such as representatives from the group of non-users. There is also a need to study whether there are differences between the groups of users and non-users. The aims of this study were to investigate possible differences between users and non-users regarding their opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies and to investigate differences in demographic variables between the groups...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263856/childhood-and-adolescent-fish-consumption-and-adult-neuropsychological-performance-an-analysis-from-the-cape-cod-health-study
#16
Lindsey J Butler, Patricia A Janulewicz, Jenny L Carwile, Roberta F White, Michael R Winter, Ann Aschengrau
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory analysis examines the relationship between childhood and adolescent fish consumption and adult neuropsychological performance. DESIGN: Data from a retrospective cohort study that assessed fish consumption from age 7 to 18years via questionnaire were analyzed. A subset of the population underwent domain-specific neuropsychological assessment. Functions evaluated included omnibus intelligence, academic achievement, language, visuospatial skills, learning and memory, attention and executive function, fine motor coordination, mood, and motivation to perform...
March 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261138/explaining-sad-people-s-memory-advantage-for-faces
#17
Peter J Hills, Zoe Marquardt, Isabel Young, Imogen Goodenough
Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259689/modulation-of-neuro-inflammatory-condition-acetylcholinesterase-and-antioxidant-levels-by-genistein-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-in-mice
#18
Mithun Singh Rajput, Purnima Dey Sarkar
The association of diabetes and cognitive decline may indicate that high sugar level might be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. A collective term 'diabetes associated cognitive decline' (DACD) has been coined for the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus showing decline in their cognitive function, especially weak episodic memory, cognitive inflexibility and poor psychomotor performance leading towards Alzheimer's disease. However, at present, no specific treatment exists for the prevention and/or treatment of DACD...
March 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253083/individual-differences-and-long-term-consequences-of-tdcs-augmented-cognitive-training
#19
Benjamin Katz, Jacky Au, Martin Buschkuehl, Tessa Abagis, Chelsea Zabel, Susanne M Jaeggi, John Jonides
A great deal of interest surrounds the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to augment cognitive training. However, effects are inconsistent across studies, and meta-analytic evidence is mixed, especially within healthy, young adults. One major source of this inconsistency is individual differences among the participants, but these differences are rarely examined in the context of combined training/stimulation studies. In addition, it is unclear how long the effects of stimulation last, even in successful interventions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248620/countering-craving-with-disgust-images-examining-nicotine-withdrawn-smokers-motivated-message-processing-of-anti-tobacco-public-service-announcements
#20
Russell B Clayton, Glenn Leshner, Rachel L Tomko, Timothy J Trull, Thomas M Piasecki
There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content...
March 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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