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Motivation and memory

Rongfeng Hu, Sen Jin, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Ji Hu
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
J R Yuan, X H Yan, Y Xiao, Y D Guo, C J Dai
Motivated by recent measurement of the magnetism and conductance of the oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions, we performed first principle calculations of the magnetic order and electronic transport by explicitly including fully relativistic effects. Our results show that the spin alignment is a cycloidal spiral feature attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which indicates that the observed magnetism in experiments is of noncollinear nature. The oxygen concentration is the responsible for the switching of the rotational sense of the spiral magnetic order found in oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Sherie Ma, Craig M Smith, Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach
Relaxin-3 is a member of a superfamily of structurally-related peptides that includes relaxin and insulin-like peptide hormones. Soon after the discovery of the relaxin-3 gene, relaxin-3 was identified as an abundant neuropeptide in brain with a distinctive topographical distribution within a small number of GABA neuron populations that is well conserved across species. Relaxin-3 is thought to exert its biological actions through a single class-A GPCR - relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Class-A comprises GPCRs for relaxin-3 and insulin-like peptide-5 and other peptides such as orexin and the monoamine transmitters...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Marco Furtner
Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state...
October 18, 2016: Appetite
Marieke Voshaar, Johanna Vriezekolk, Sandra van Dulmen, Bart van den Bemt, Mart van de Laar
BACKGROUND: Although disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the cornerstone of treatment for inflammatory rheumatic diseases, medication adherence to DMARDs is often suboptimal. Effective interventions to improve adherence to DMARDs are lacking, and new targets are needed to improve adherence. The aim of the present study was to explore patients' barriers and facilitators of optimal DMARD use. These factors might be used as targets for adherence interventions. METHODS: In a mixed method study design, patients (n = 120) with inflammatory arthritis (IA) completed a questionnaire based on an existing adapted Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify facilitators and barriers of DMARD use...
October 21, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Janna M Gottwald, Sheila Achermann, Carin Marciszko, Marcus Lindskog, Gustaf Gredebäck
The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks-involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition-and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks...
October 7, 2016: Psychological Science
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Corinna La Rosa, Jeff Longmate, Joy Martinez, Qiao Zhou, Teodora I Kaltcheva, Weimin Tsai, Jennifer Drake, Mary Carroll, Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Nicola Hardwick, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ibrahim Aldoss, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia, Don J Diamond
Attenuated poxvirus Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding three immunodominant CMV antigens which stimulates a host anti-viral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination)...
October 19, 2016: Blood
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Giovanna Merli, Ashton Verdery, Ted Mouw, Jing Li
The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population...
July 2016: Migration Studies
Daowen Zhang, Jie Lena Sun, Karen Pieper
Linear mixed effects models are widely used to analyze a clustered response variable. Motivated by a recent study to examine and compare the hospital length of stay (LOS) between patients undertaking percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) from several international clinical trials, we proposed a bivariate linear mixed effects model for the joint modeling of clustered PCI and CABG LOS's where each clinical trial is considered a cluster. Due to the large number of patients in some trials, commonly used commercial statistical software for fitting (bivariate) linear mixed models failed to run since it could not allocate enough memory to invert large dimensional matrices during the optimization process...
October 2016: Statistics in Biosciences
Carien S Lansink, Guido T Meijer, Jan V Lankelma, Martin A Vinck, Jadin C Jackson, Cyriel M A Pennartz
: The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar, Dipen Vasudev Patel, Ajay Gajanan Phatak
OBJECTIVE: Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study...
2016: PloS One
M Schuler, M Lukasczik, H Laterveer, F Weilbach, M Presl, M Presl, J Knörzer, S Neuderth
Objectives: The MBO(®) Kompakt-Neurowoche is offered as a work-related medical rehabilitation measure (based on allocation by a physician) following a regular neurological rehabilitation program with a duration of 7 days. Program access, process, and outcomes were examined in terms of a formative evaluation. Method: Pre-post-questionnaire data from 5 data points were used: start of regular rehabilitation (T0); start of work-related rehabilitation (T1); end of work-related rehabilitation (T2); 6-months follow-up (T3); 12-months follow-up (T4)...
October 2016: Die Rehabilitation
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hannah Twarkowski, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Kevin Mandrick, Vsevolod Peysakhovich, Florence Rémy, Evelyne Lepron, Mickaël Causse
In our anxiogenic and stressful world, the maintenance of an optimal cognitive performance is a constant challenge. It is particularly true in complex working environments (e.g. flight deck, air traffic control tower), where individuals have sometimes to cope with a high mental workload and stressful situations. Several models (i.e. processing efficiency theory, cognitive-energetical framework) have attempted to provide a conceptual basis on how human performance is modulated by high workload and stress/anxiety...
October 7, 2016: Biological Psychology
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Siying Zhu, Barbara C McGrath, Yuting Bai, Xin Tang, Douglas R Cavener
PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for behavioral flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression via its translational control. Motivated by the recent discoveries that PERK regulates Ca(2+) dynamics in insulin-secreting β-cells underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and modulates Ca(2+) signals-dependent working memory, we explored the role of PERK in regulating Gq protein-coupled Ca(2+) dynamics in pyramidal neurons. We found that acute PERK inhibition by the use of a highly specific PERK inhibitor reduced the intracellular Ca(2+) rise stimulated by the activation of acetylcholine, metabotropic glutamate and bradykinin-2 receptors in primary cortical neurons...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Brain
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