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Motivation and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#1
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918270/interaction-of-inhibitory-and-facilitatory-effects-of-conditioning-trials-on-long-term-memory-formation
#2
Shouhei Hosono, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami
Animals learn through experience and consolidate the memories into long-time storage. Conditioning parameters to induce protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) have been the subject of extensive studies in many animals. Here we found a case in which a conditioning trial inhibits or facilitates LTM formation depending on the intervals from preceding trials. We studied the effects of conditioning parameters on LTM formation in olfactory conditioning of maxillary-palpi extension response with sucrose reward in the cockroach Periplaneta americana We found, at first, that translation- and transcription-dependent LTM forms 1 h after training, the fastest so far reported in insects...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917117/training-on-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control-in-young-adults
#3
Maria J Maraver, M Teresa Bajo, Carlos J Gomez-Ariza
Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911547/parametric-symmetry-breaking-in-a-nonlinear-resonator
#5
Anina Leuch, Luca Papariello, Oded Zilberberg, Christian L Degen, R Chitra, Alexander Eichler
Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#6
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906494/alcohol-dependent-molecular-adaptations-of-the-nmda-receptor-system
#7
REVIEW
Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron
Phenotypes such as motivation to consume alcohol, goal-directed alcohol seeking and habit formation contribute to the mechanisms underlying heavy alcohol use. Learning and memory processes greatly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of these behavioral phenotypes. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a driving force of synaptic plasticity, a key cellular hallmark of learning and memory. Here, we describe data in rodents and humans linking signaling molecules that center around the NMDARs and behaviors associated with the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse...
December 1, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900481/trial-by-trial-switching-between-procedural-and-declarative-categorization-systems
#8
Matthew J Crossley, Jessica L Roeder, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby
Considerable evidence suggests that human category learning recruits multiple memory systems. A popular assumption is that procedural memory is used to form stimulus-to-response mappings, whereas declarative memory is used to form and test explicit rules about category membership. The multiple systems framework has been successful in motivating and accounting for a broad array of empirical observations over the past 20 years. Even so, only a couple of studies have examined how the different categorization systems interact...
November 30, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895602/motivational-and-behavioral-activation-as-an-adjunct-to-psychiatric-rehabilitation-for-mild-to-moderate-negative-symptoms-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study
#9
Kee-Hong Choi, Eunju Jaekal, Ga-Young Lee
Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA) is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation toward treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA) has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#10
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893345/quo-vadis-the-future-of-psychoanalysis
#11
Mauricio Cortina
Although contemporary psychoanalysis is split into different schools and traditions, there is growing support for some of the main tenets of contemporary psychodynamic thinking from attachment theory, infant research, developmental psychopathology, new models of motivation, the neuroscience of emotions and emotional regulation, and the discovery of different implicit and explicit memory systems. These tenets, which psychodynamic clinicians of all stripes encounter in their daily work with clients, are the following: (1) that large footprints are left over from infancy and childhood which involved insensitive, intrusive, frightening, or shaming care; (2) the carryover of these relational experiences into adulthood are expressed as unconscious expectations and attributions we make of others (transference and countertransference; (3) defensive processes and emotional regulation and deregulatory patterns develop to cope with these unhealthy relations...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884551/resting-state-abnormalities-in-heroin-dependent-individuals
#12
REVIEW
Niki Pandria, Leda Kovatsi, Ana B Vivas, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Drug addiction is a major health problem worldwide. Recent neuroimaging studies have shed light into the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as well as its consequences to the human brain. The most vulnerable, to heroin addiction, brain regions have been reported to be specific prefrontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal regions, as well as, some subcortical regions. The brain regions involved are usually linked with reward, motivation/drive, memory/learning, inhibition as well as emotional control and seem to form circuits that interact with each other...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881596/combined-iron-deficiency-and-low-aerobic-fitness-doubly-burden-academic-performance-among-women-attending-university
#13
Samuel P Scott, Mary Jane De Souza, Karsten Koehler, Laura E Murray-Kolb
BACKGROUND: Academic success is a key determinant of future prospects for students. Cognitive functioning has been related to nutritional and physical factors. Here, we focus on iron status and aerobic fitness in young-adult female students given the high rate of iron deficiency and declines in fitness reported in this population. OBJECTIVES: We sought to explore the combined effects of iron status and fitness on academic success and to determine whether these associations are mediated by cognitive performance...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880785/individual-differences-in-dynamic-functional-brain-connectivity-across-the-human-lifespan
#14
Elizabeth N Davison, Benjamin O Turner, Kimberly J Schlesinger, Michael B Miller, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett, Jean M Carlson
Individual differences in brain functional networks may be related to complex personal identifiers, including health, age, and ability. Dynamic network theory has been used to identify properties of dynamic brain function from fMRI data, but the majority of analyses and findings remain at the level of the group. Here, we apply hypergraph analysis, a method from dynamic network theory, to quantify individual differences in brain functional dynamics. Using a summary metric derived from the hypergraph formalism-hypergraph cardinality-we investigate individual variations in two separate, complementary data sets...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873188/imagining-the-personal-past-episodic-counterfactuals-compared-to-episodic-memories-and-episodic-future-projections
#15
Müge Özbek, Annette Bohn, Dorthe Berntsen
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872762/understanding-the-functional-plasticity-in-neural-networks-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-cocaine-use-disorder-a-role-for-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-in-a2a-d2-heteroreceptor-complexes
#16
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Karolina Wydra, Julia Pintsuk, Manuel Narvaez, Fidel Corrales, Magdalena Zaniewska, Luigi F Agnati, Rafael Franco, Sergio Tanganelli, Luca Ferraro, Malgorzata Filip, Kjell Fuxe
Our hypothesis is that allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in homo- and heteroreceptor complexes may form the molecular basis of learning and memory. This principle is illustrated by showing how cocaine abuse can alter the adenosine A2AR-dopamine D2R heterocomplexes and their receptor-receptor interactions and hereby induce neural plasticity in the basal ganglia. Studies with A2AR ligands using cocaine self-administration procedures indicate that antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R heterocomplexes of the ventral striatopallidal GABA antireward pathway play a significant role in reducing cocaine induced reward, motivation, and cocaine seeking...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#17
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872341/amygdala-circuits-for-fear-memory-a-key-role-for-dopamine-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Joo Han Lee, Seungho Lee, Joung-Hun Kim
In addition to modulating a number of cognitive functions including reward, punishment, motivation, and salience, dopamine (DA) plays a pivotal role in regulating threat-related emotional memory. Changes in neural circuits of the amygdala nuclei are also critically involved in the acquisition and expression of emotional memory. In this review, we summarize the regulation of amygdala circuits by DA. Specifically, we describe DA signaling in the amygdala, and DA regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of the amygdala neurons...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872180/on-learning-natural-science-categories-that-violate-the-family-resemblance-principle
#19
Robert M Nosofsky, Craig A Sanders, Alex Gerdom, Bruce J Douglas, Mark A McDaniel
The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862489/amygdala-mu-opioid-receptors-mediate-the-motivating-influence-of-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#20
Nina T Lichtenberg, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Inactivation of BLA mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors was found to dose-dependently attenuate the ability of a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward (i...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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