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Circadian biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646790/the-effects-of-individual-biological-rhythm-differences-on-sleep-quality-daytime-sleepiness-and-dissociative-experiences
#1
Yavuz Selvi, Ali Kandeger, Murat Boysan, Nursel Akbaba, Ayca A Sayin, Emine Tekinarslan, Basak O Koc, Omer F Uygur, Vedat Sar
Individuals who differ markedly by sleep chronotype, i.e., morning-type or evening-type also differ on a number of psychological, behavioral, and biological variables. Among several other psychological functions, dissociation may also lead to disruption and alteration of consciousness, which may facilitate dream-like experiences. Our study was aimed at an inquiry into the effects of individual biological rhythm differences on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in conjunction with dissociative experiences...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645331/circadian-clock-gene-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-sleep-patterns-and-obesity-in-african-americans-findings-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#2
Pia Riestra, Samson Y Gebreab, Ruihua Xu, Rumana J Khan, Amadou Gaye, Adolfo Correa, Nancy Min, Mario Sims, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms regulate key biological processes and the dysregulation of the intrinsic clock mechanism affects sleep patterns and obesity onset. The CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput) gene encodes a core transcription factor of the molecular circadian clock influencing diverse metabolic pathways, including glucose and lipid homeostasis. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and body mass index (BMI)...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636777/biological-effects-related-to-geomagnetic-activity-and-possible-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Viacheslav V Krylov, Margaret Larkin
This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of geomagnetic activity. Correlations between geomagnetic indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated geomagnetic storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which geomagnetic activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that geomagnetic activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal geomagnetic variation...
June 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629592/measurement-and-clinical-utility-of-%C3%AE-ctx-in-serum-and-plasma
#4
Stephen A P Chubb, Samuel D Vasikaran
Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619534/cryptochrome-photoreceptors-in-green-algae-unexpected-versatility-of-mechanisms-and-functions
#5
Tilman Kottke, Sabine Oldemeyer, Sandra Wenzel, Yong Zou, Maria Mittag
Green algae have a highly complex and diverse set of cryptochrome photoreceptor candidates including members of the following subfamilies: plant, plant-like, animal-like, DASH and cryptochrome photolyase family 1 (CPF1). While some green algae encode most or all of them, others lack certain members. Here we present an overview about functional analyses of so far investigated cryptochrome photoreceptors from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (plant and animal-like cryptochromes) and Ostreococcus tauri (CPF1) with regard to their biological significance and spectroscopic properties...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619182/evolution-of-circadian-rhythms-from-bacteria-to-human
#6
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Nirav Thakkar, Paromita Das, Manika Pal Bhadra
The human body persists in its rhythm as per its initial time zone, and transition always occur according to solar movements around the earth over 24 h. While traveling across different latitudes and longitudes, at the pace exceeding the earth's movement, the changes in the external cues exceed the level of toleration of the body's biological clock. This poses an alteration in our physiological activities of sleep-wake pattern, mental alertness, organ movement, and eating habits, causing them to temporarily lose the track of time...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618495/robustness-of-synthetic-oscillators-in-growing-and-dividing-cells
#7
Joris Paijmans, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617195/light-and-clock-control-of-genes-involved-in-detoxification
#8
G Carmona-Antoñanzas, M Santi, H Migaud, L M Vera
Circadian regulation of hepatic detoxification seems to be amongst the key roles of the biological clock. The liver is the major site for biotransformation, and in mammals, it contains several clock-controlled transcription factors such as proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper proteins (PAR bZIP) and basic-helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family that act as circadian regulators of detoxification genes. This investigation explored the existence of daily and circadian expression of transcription factors involved in detoxification, as well as the temporal profile of a set of their target genes in zebrafish liver...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615531/environment-and-bladder-cancer-molecular-analysis-by-interaction-networks
#9
Andrea Polo, Anna Crispo, Pellegrino Cerino, Luca Falzone, Saverio Candido, Aldo Giudice, Giuseppina De Petro, Gennaro Ciliberto, Maurizio Montella, Alfredo Budillon, Susan Costantini
Bladder cancer (BC) is the 9th most common cancer worldwide, and the 6th most common cancer in men. Its development is linked to chronic inflammation, genetic susceptibility, smoking, occupational exposures and environmental pollutants. Aim of this work was to identify a sub-network of genes/proteins modulated by environmental or arsenic exposure in BC by computational network approaches. Our studies evidenced the presence of HUB nodes both in "BC and environment" and "BC and arsenicals" networks. These HUB nodes resulted to be correlated to circadian genes and targeted by some miRNAs already reported as involved in BC, thus suggesting how they play an important role in BC development due to environmental or arsenic exposure...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603481/effects-of-dim-light-at-night-on-food-intake-and-body-mass-in-developing-mice
#10
Yasmine M Cissé, Juan Peng, Randy J Nelson
Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598695/unconventional-roles-of-opsins
#11
Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell
Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the biggest surprise is that opsins have light-independent roles, countering more than a century of dogma that they function exclusively as light sensors...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598202/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-time-dependent-dosing-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamics-of-amlodipine-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-human-subjects
#12
Samira Khodadoustan, Iran Nasri Ashrafi, K Vanaja Satheesh, Chethan Kumar, Shekar Hs, Chikkalingaiah S
In clinical practice, circadian rhythms play a prominent role in pharmacokinetics and cell responses to therapy, hence necessitating in designing a defined protocol for drug administration. Clinical evidence for chronopharmacological behavior of cardiovascular active drugs in human subjects has been limited for amlodipine. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the chronopharmacokinetic and chronopharmacodynamic phenomena of amlodipine and evaluate the effect of time of dosage in hypertensive subjects...
June 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#13
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594845/temperature-amplitude-coupling-for-stable-biological-rhythms-at-different-temperatures
#14
Gen Kurosawa, Atsuko Fujioka, Satoshi Koinuma, Atsushi Mochizuki, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594245/chronotype-correlates-with-developmental-index-intelligence-and-academic-achievement-a-study-based-on-nationwide-indicators
#15
Christoph Randler
Chronotype or morningness-eveningness (M/E) is an individual trait with a biological basis. In this study, I analysed the relationship between M/E and nationwide available data, such as economic variables, school achievement, intelligence and conscientiousness, which is a personality trait. These variables have been chosen because, first, they are linked on the individual level with circadian preference, and, second these associations have been found based on meta-analyses, which gives these findings a high plausibility...
June 8, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591634/a-cell-autonomous-mammalian-12%C3%A2-hr-clock-coordinates-metabolic-and-stress-rhythms
#16
Bokai Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Yinghong Pan, Emily M Mace, Brian York, Athanasios C Antoulas, Clifford C Dacso, Bert W O'Malley
Besides circadian rhythms, oscillations cycling with a 12 hr period exist. However, the prevalence, origin, regulation, and function of mammalian 12 hr rhythms remain elusive. Utilizing an unbiased mathematical approach identifying all superimposed oscillations, we uncovered prevalent 12 hr gene expression and metabolic rhythms in mouse liver, coupled with a physiological 12 hr unfolded protein response oscillation. The mammalian 12 hr rhythm is cell autonomous, driven by a dedicated 12 hr pacemaker distinct from the circadian clock, and can be entrained in vitro by metabolic and ER stress cues...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590878/tick-tock-circadian-regulation-of-plant-innate-immunity
#17
Hua Lu, C Robertson McClung, Chong Zhang
Many living organisms on Earth have evolved the ability to integrate environmental and internal signals to determine time and thereafter adjust appropriately their metabolism, physiology, and behavior. The circadian clock is the endogenous timekeeper critical for multiple biological processes in many organisms. A growing body of evidence supports the importance of the circadian clock for plant health. Plants activate timed defense with various strategies to anticipate daily attacks of pathogens and pests and to modulate responses to specific invaders in a time-of-day-dependent manner (gating)...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585704/the-regulations-and-role-of-circadian-clock-and-melatonin-in-uterine-receptivity-and-pregnancy-an-immunological-perspective
#18
Gene Chi Wai Man, Tao Zhang, Xiaoyan Chen, Jianzhang Wang, Fangrong Wu, Yingyu Liu, Chi Chiu Wang, Ying Cheong, Tin Chiu Li
During normal pregnancy, the mechanism by which the fetus escapes immunological rejection by the maternal womb remains elusive. Given the biological complexities, the immunological mechanism is unlikely to be simply an allograft response in acceptance or rejection of the early pregnancy. Circadian clock responsible for the mammalian circadian rhythm is an endogenously generated rhythm associated with almost all physiological processes including reproduction. There is now growing evidence to suggest that the circadian clocks are intricately linked to the immune system and pregnancy...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583447/etiology-of-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-2-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Robert P Schleimer, Sergejs Berdnikovs
Epithelial barriers of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway serve common critical functions, such as maintaining a physical barrier against environmental insults and allergens and providing a tissue interface balancing the communication between the internal and external environments. We now understand that in patients with allergic disease, regardless of tissue location, the homeostatic balance of the epithelial barrier is skewed toward loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and impaired innate defense...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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