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Circadian biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448626/genetic-background-dependent-effects-of-murine-micro-rnas-on-circadian-clock-function
#1
Silke Kiessling, Ahmet Ucar, Kamal Chowdhury, Henrik Oster, Gregor Eichele
MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of a wide range of biological processes. Antagomir studies suggest an implication of miR-132 in the functionality of the mammalian circadian clock. miR-212 and miR-132 are tandemly processed from the same transcript and share the same seed region. We found the clock modulator miR-132 and miR-212 to be expressed rhythmically in the central circadian clock. Consequently, mRNAs implicated in circadian functions may likely be targeted by both miRs. To further characterize the circadian role we generated mice with stable deletion of the miR-132/212 locus and compared the circadian behavior of mutant and wild-type control animals on two genetic backgrounds frequently used in chronobiological research, C57BL/6N and 129/Sv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440906/familial-longevity-is-characterized-by-high-circadian-rhythmicity-of-serum-cholesterol-in-healthy-elderly-individuals
#2
Rosa van den Berg, Raymond Noordam, Sander Kooijman, Steffy W M Jansen, Abimbola A Akintola, P Eline Slagboom, Hanno Pijl, Patrick C N Rensen, Nienke R Biermasz, Diana van Heemst
The biological clock, whose function deteriorates with increasing age, determines bodily circadian (i.e. 24h) rhythms, including that of cholesterol metabolism. Dampening of circadian rhythms has been associated with aging and disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals with a familial predisposition for longevity have a higher amplitude circadian serum cholesterol concentration rhythm. The aim of this study was to investigate circadian rhythmicity of serum cholesterol concentrations in offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425940/circadian-clock-cell-division-and-cancer-from-molecules-to-organism
#3
REVIEW
Anton Shostak
As a response to environmental changes driven by the Earth's axial rotation, most organisms evolved an internal biological timer-the so called circadian clock-which regulates physiology and behavior in a rhythmic fashion. Emerging evidence suggests an intimate interplay between the circadian clock and another fundamental rhythmic process, the cell cycle. However, the precise mechanisms of this connection are not fully understood. Disruption of circadian rhythms has a profound impact on cell division and cancer development and, vice versa, malignant transformation causes disturbances of the circadian clock...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-reveals-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#4
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Ike Dela Peña, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Aeree Sohn, Chan Young Shin, Doug Hyun Han, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae Hoon Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416043/delaying-middle-school-and-high-school-start-times-promotes-student-health-and-performance-an-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-position-statement
#6
Nathaniel F Watson, Jennifer L Martin, Merrill S Wise, Kelly A Carden, Douglas B Kirsch, David A Kristo, Raman K Malhotra, Eric J Olson, Kannan Ramar, Ilene M Rosen, James A Rowley, Terri E Weaver, Ronald D Chervin
During adolescence, internal circadian rhythms and biological sleep drive change to result in later sleep and wake times. As a result of these changes, early middle school and high school start times curtail sleep, hamper a student's preparedness to learn, negatively impact physical and mental health, and impair driving safety. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that delaying school start times positively impacts student achievement, health, and safety. Public awareness of the hazards of early school start times and the benefits of later start times are largely unappreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415870/longitudinal-changes-in-the-antecedent-and-early-manifest-course-of-bipolar-disorder-a-narrative-review-of-prospective-studies
#7
Andrea Pfennig, Karolina Leopold, Philipp Ritter, Anne Böhme, Emanuel Severus, Michael Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Prospective study designs ideally allow patients to be followed from the first manifestations of the illness or even from an at-risk stage. It can thus provide data on the predictive value of changes in clinical symptomatology, cognition or further biological markers to broaden our understanding of the etiopathology and symptomatic trajectory of bipolar disorders. The scope of this narrative review is to summarize evidence from prospectively collected data on psychopathological and other clinical and biological changes in the early developmental course of bipolar disorders...
May 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415855/predicting-jet-lag-in-long-haul-cabin-crew-the-role-of-illness-cognitions-and-behaviour
#8
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Established risk factors for jet lag are mostly physiological including circadian preference, age, gender, the number of flight zones crossed and to some extent direction of travel. Some research has also highlighted a role for psychosocial factors including sleep, diet and 'circadian' health behaviours and illness cognitions although this remains relatively untested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep, diet and illness cognitions in predicting perceived jet lag amongst long-haul crew...
April 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412578/communicating-with-scientific-graphics-a-descriptive-inquiry-into-non-ideal-normativity
#9
Benjamin Sheredos
Scientists' graphical practices have recently become a target of inquiry in the philosophy of science, and in the cognitive sciences. Here I supplement our understanding of graphical practices via a case study of how researchers crafted the graphics for scientific publication in the field of circadian biology. The case highlights social aspects of graphical production which have gone understudied - especially concerning the negotiation of publication. I argue that it also supports a challenge to the claim that empirically-informed "cognitive design principles" offer an apt understanding of the norms of success which govern good scientific graphic design to communicate data and hypotheses to other experts...
April 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408140/differential-menopause-versus-aging-induced-changes-in-oxidative-stress-and-circadian-rhythm-gene-markers
#10
Oriol A Rangel-Zuñiga, Cristina Cruz-Teno, Carmen Haro, Gracia M Quintana-Navarro, Fernando Camara-Martos, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Marta Garaulet, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Antonio Camargo
Menopause is characterized by the depletion of estrogen that has been proposed to cause oxidative stress. Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock that controls physiological processes. It was analyzed the gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the lipids and glucose levels in plasma of a subgroup of 17 pre-menopausal women, 19 men age-matched as control group for the pre-menopausal women, 20 post-menopausal women and 20 men age-matched as control group for the post-menopausal women; all groups were matched by body mass index...
April 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407113/a-new-promoter-element-associated-with-daily-time-keeping-in-drosophila
#11
Brandi Sharp, Eric Paquet, Felix Naef, Akanksha Bafna, Herman Wijnen
Circadian clocks are autonomous daily timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to adapt to environmental rhythms as well as temporally organize biological functions. Clock-controlled timekeeping involves extensive regulation of rhythmic gene expression. To date, relatively few clock-associated promoter elements have been identified and characterized. In an unbiased search of core clock gene promoters from 12 species of Drosophila, we discovered a 29-bp consensus sequence that we designated as the Clock-Associated Transcriptional Activation Cassette or 'CATAC'...
April 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405608/circadian-phase-resetting-by-a-single-short-duration-light-exposure
#12
Shadab A Rahman, Melissa A St Hilaire, Anne-Marie Chang, Nayantara Santhi, Jeanne F Duffy, Richard E Kronauer, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley, Elizabeth B Klerman
BACKGROUND. In humans, a single light exposure of 12 minutes and multiple-millisecond light exposures can shift the phase of the circadian pacemaker. We investigated the response of the human circadian pacemaker to a single 15-second or 2-minute light pulse administered during the biological night. METHODS. Twenty-six healthy individuals participated in a 9-day inpatient protocol that included assessment of dim light melatonin onset time (DLMO time) before and after exposure to a single 15-second (n = 8) or 2-minute (n = 12) pulse of bright light (9,500 lux; 4,100 K fluorescent) or control background dim light (<3 lux; n = 6)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402850/fad-regulates-cryptochrome-protein-stability-and-circadian-clock-in-mice
#13
Arisa Hirano, Daniel Braas, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk), an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400425/the-logic-of-transcriptional-regulator-recruitment-architecture-at-cis-regulatory-modules-controlling-liver-functions
#14
Julie Dubois-Chevalier, Vanessa Dubois, Hélène Dehondt, Parisa Mazrooei, Claire Mazuy, Aurélien A Sérandour, Céline Gheeraert, Guillaume Penderia, Eric Baugé, Bruno Derudas, Nathalie Hennuyer, Réjane Paumelle, Guillemette Marot, Jason S Carroll, Mathieu Lupien, Bart Staels, Philippe Lefebvre, Jérôme Eeckhoute
Control of gene transcription relies on concomitant regulation by multiple transcriptional regulators (TR). However, how recruitment of a myriad of TR is orchestrated at cis-regulatory modules (CRM) to account for co-regulation of specific biological pathways is only partially understood. Here, we have used mouse liver CRM involved in regulatory activities of the hepatic TR, NR1H4 (FXR; farnesoid X receptor), as our model system to tackle this question. Using integrative cistromic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and interactomic analyses, we reveal a logical organization where trans-regulatory modules (TRM), which consist of subsets of preferentially and co-ordinately co-recruited TR, assemble into hierarchical combinations at hepatic CRM...
April 11, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396906/the-lausanne-geneva-cohort-study-of-offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders-methodology-findings-current-sample-characteristics-and-perspectives
#15
Caroline L Vandeleur, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Enrique Castelao, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, François Ferrero, Pierre Marquet, Jean-Michel Aubry, Martin Preisig
PURPOSE: Studies focusing on the offspring of affected parents utilize the well-established familial aggregation of mood disorders as a powerful tool for the identification of risk factors, early clinical manifestations, and prodromes of mood disorders in these offspring. The major goals of the Lausanne-Geneva mood cohort study are to: (1) assess the familial aggregation of bipolar and unipolar mood disorders; (2) prospectively identify risk factors for mood disorders as well as their early signs and prodromes; (3) identify their endophenotypes including cognitive features, alterations in brain structure, HPA-axis dysregulation, and abnormalities of the circadian rhythm of activity...
April 10, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382018/phosphoproteome-profiling-reveals-circadian-clock-regulation-of-posttranslational-modifications-in-the-murine-hippocampus
#16
Cheng-Kang Chiang, Bo Xu, Neel Mehta, Janice Mayne, Warren Y L Sun, Kai Cheng, Zhibin Ning, Jing Dong, Hanfa Zou, Hai-Ying Mary Cheng, Daniel Figeys
The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that drives daily rhythms in physiology, behavior, and gene expression. The underlying mechanisms of circadian timekeeping are cell-autonomous and involve oscillatory expression of core clock genes that is driven by interconnecting transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFLs). Circadian clock TTFLs are further regulated by posttranslational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation. The hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory and the conversion of short- to long-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379676/the-root-growth-regulating-brevicompanine-natural-products-modulate-the-plant-circadian-clock
#17
Amaury de Montaigu, Julian Oeljeklaus, Jan H Krahn, Mohamed N S Suliman, Vivek Halder, Elisa de Ansorena, Sabrina Nickel, Markus Schlicht, Ondrej Plihal, Karolina Kubiasova, Lenka Radova, Barbara Kracher, Reka Toth, Farnusch Kaschani, George Coupland, Erich Kombrink, Markus Kaiser
Plant growth regulating properties of brevicompanines (Brvs), natural products of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum, have been known for several years, but further investigations into the molecular mechanism of their bioactivity have not been performed. Following chemical synthesis of brevicompanine derivatives, we studied their activity in the model plant Arabidopsis by a combination of plant growth assays, transcriptional profiling and numerous additional bioassays. These studies demonstrated that brevicompanines cause transcriptional misregulation of core components of the circadian clock, whereas other biological read-outs were not affected...
April 5, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378363/impact-of-sleep-inertia-on-visual-selective-attention-for-rare-targets-and-the-influence-of-chronotype
#18
Hannah K Ritchie, Tina M Burke, Tristan B Dear, Andrew W Mchill, John Axelsson, Kenneth P Wright
Sleep inertia is affected by circadian phase, with worse performance upon awakening from sleep during the biological night than biological day. Visual search/selective visual attention performance is known to be sensitive to sleep inertia and circadian phase. Individual differences exist in the circadian timing of habitual wake time, which may contribute to individual differences in sleep inertia. Because later chronotypes awaken at an earlier circadian phase, we hypothesized that later chronotypes would have worse visual search performance during sleep inertia than earlier chronotypes if awakened at habitual wake time...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377415/circadian-disruption-and-prostate-cancer-risk-an-updated-review-of-epidemiological-evidences
#19
Méyomo G Wendeu-Foyet, Florence Menegaux
Since the publication of the IARC Monograph in 2007 classifying night shift work leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans, there is an increasingly growing interest in understanding how circadian disruption may play a role in cancer development. This systematic review provides a comprehensive update on epidemiological evidences on circadian disruption and prostate cancer since the last review published in 2012. We identified 12 new studies evaluating the effects of several circadian disruptors such as night shift work, sleep patterns, and circadian genes in prostate cancer risk...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373831/interactions-of-circadian-rhythmicity-stress-and-orexigenic-neuropeptide-systems-implications-for-food-intake-control
#20
REVIEW
Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach, Grzegorz Hess, Marian H Lewandowski
Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the "control" of the "master biological clock" reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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