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Circadian biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#1
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525781/sleep-waves-and-recovery-from-drug-and-alcohol-dependence-towards-a-rhythm-analysis-of-sleep-in-residential-treatment
#2
Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Joanne Neale
This paper reports on a study of sleep amongst men and women who are living in residential rehabilitation centres in the UK and who are receiving support for their recovery from addiction to alcohol and other forms of substance use. Conceptually and methodologically, the paper draws on the work of the French sociologist Lefebvre and, in particular, his rhythmanalysis. We argue that this approach offers a useful way of exploring sleep in terms of biological, experiential, temporal, spatial and social rhythms...
May 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#3
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525248/-magnetic-fields-and-health-from-epidemiology-to-cryptochrome-chemistry
#4
REVIEW
J Vanderstraeten
Biological effects of static magnetic fields (MF) and time-varying MF of electricity (50/60 Hz) appear possible from intensities in the low illitesla range. However, prolonged exposure to 50/60 Hz MF is associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia at less than one microtesla of time-averaged intensity. And such kind of association is suggested in adults for some blood cancers and senile dementia. The cryptochrome hypothesis has been proposed to explain the association established with childhood leukemia...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515914/analysis-of-the-function-of-microrna-375-in-humans-using-bioinformatics
#5
Xiaohua Chen, Baoxia Li, Rongcheng Luo, Sina Cai, Cao Zhang, Xiaolong Cao
MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) is expressed at low levels in many types of solid tumor, particularly in gastrointestinal tumors. It is considered to be important in the development of cancer and certain diseases. Thus, more detailed knowledge is required on the particular functions of miR-375. miRs function by regulating target genes. Therefore, in the current study, miRWalk (which includes the data from 10 prediction software programs) was used to predict the target genes of miR-375. The genes, which were co-predicted using five different software programs were further analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online software [including gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis]...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510601/reproductive-biology-of-the-deep-brooding-coral-seriatopora-hystrix-implications-for-shallow-reef-recovery
#6
Rian Prasetia, Frederic Sinniger, Kaito Hashizume, Saki Harii
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs, between 30 and 150 m depth) are hypothesized to contribute to the recovery of degraded shallow reefs through sexually produced larvae (referred to as Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis). In Okinawa, Japan, the brooder coral Seriatopora hystrix was reported to be locally extinct in a shallow reef while it was found abundant at a MCE nearby. In this context, S. hystrix represents a key model to test the Deep Reef Refuge Hypothesis and to understand the potential contribution of mesophotic corals to shallow coral reef recovery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510251/short-term-effects-of-green-tea-chronotherapy-on-the-metabolic-homeostasis-of-mice-on-different-diets
#7
R P Amorim, I P Daher, F P D Arcangelo, M F Bellini, W A Orcini, G R Sarria, R L Peruquetti
Biological rhythms can be defined as changes in physiological or behavioral variables that repeat at certain time intervals. Rhythms that last approximately 24 h are referred to as circadian rhythms. Modern lifestyles have drastically affected human habits, as well as the population's eating habits. These changes have generated an epidemic of metabolic syndromes, such as obesity and diabetes. In an attempt to combat obesity, populations have attempted to use many different herbal remedies and plant-based drugs, the most common of which is Camellia sinensis, or green tea...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506881/altered-circadian-patterns-of-salivary-cortisol-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-critical-literature-review
#8
Nathalie Coulon, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Michel Walter, Sylvie Tordjman
This article focuses on stress vulnerability in schizophrenia through an integrated clinical and biological approach. The objective of this article is to better understand the relationships between vulnerability, stress and schizophrenia. First, the concept of vulnerability is defined and several models of vulnerability in schizophrenia are reviewed. Second, a section is developed on the biology of stress, and more specifically on the stress responses of the hypothalamo-pitutary adrenal (HPA) axis. Then, studies of cortisol circadian rhythms are summarized, suggesting hyper-reactivity of the HPA axis in patients with schizophrenia and high risk individuals for schizophrenia...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506121/mammalian-circadian-period-but-not-phase-and-amplitude-is-robust-against-redox-and-metabolic-perturbations
#9
Marrit Putker, Priya Crosby, Kevin A Feeney, Nathaniel P Hoyle, Ana S H da Costa, Edoardo Gaude, Christian Frezza, John Stuart O'Neill
AIMS: Circadian rhythms permeate all levels of biology to temporally regulate cell and whole-body physiology, although the cell-autonomous mechanism that confers ~24-hour periodicity is incompletely understood. Reports describing circadian oscillations of over-oxidised peroxiredoxin abundance have suggested redox signaling plays an important role in the timekeeping mechanism. Here, we tested the functional contribution that redox state and primary metabolism make to mammalian cellular timekeeping...
May 15, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503165/stress-related-and-circadian-secretion-and-target-tissue-actions-of-glucocorticoids-impact-on-health
#10
REVIEW
Nicolas C Nicolaides, Evangelia Charmandari, Tomoshige Kino, George P Chrousos
Living organisms are highly complex systems that must maintain a dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis that requires energy to be sustained. Stress is a state in which several extrinsic or intrinsic disturbing stimuli, the stressors, threaten, or are perceived as threatening, homeostasis. To achieve homeostasis against the stressors, organisms have developed a highly sophisticated system, the stress system, which provides neuroendocrine adaptive responses, to restore homeostasis. These responses must be appropriate in terms of size and/or duration; otherwise, they may sustain life but be associated with detrimental effects on numerous physiologic functions of the organism, leading to a state of disease-causing disturbed homeostasis or cacostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503116/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#11
REVIEW
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
BACKGROUND: Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing based on an internal 24-hour clock...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496429/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-temperature-compensation-of-the-circadian-clock
#12
REVIEW
Rajesh Narasimamurthy, David M Virshup
An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep-wake cycle, feeding-fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496287/a-systems-theoretic-approach-to-analysis-and-control-of-mammalian-circadian-dynamics
#13
John H Abel, Francis J Doyle
The mammalian circadian clock is a complex multi-scale, multivariable biological control system. In the past two decades, methods from systems engineering have led to numerous insights into the architecture and functionality of this system. In this review, we examine the mammalian circadian system through a process systems lens. We present a mathematical framework for examining the cellular circadian oscillator, and show recent extensions for understanding population-scale dynamics. We provide an overview of the routes by which the circadian system can be systemically manipulated, and present in silico proof of concept results for phase resetting of the clock via model predictive control...
December 2016: Chemical Engineering Research & Design: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487255/disruption-of-adolescents-circadian-clock-the-vicious-circle-of-media-use-exposure-to-light-at-night-sleep-loss-and-risk-behaviors
#14
Yvan Touitou, David Touitou, Alain Reinberg
Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486416/transcriptomics-and-the-mediterranean-diet-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, José M Lou-Bonafonte, Carmen Arnal, María A Navarro, Jesús Osada
The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and in decreasing overall mortality. Nowadays, transcriptomics is gaining particular relevance due to the existence of non-coding RNAs capable of regulating many biological processes. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of the Mediterranean diet on transcriptomes of different tissues in various experimental models. While information on regulatory RNA is very limited, they seem to contribute to the effect...
May 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486120/circadian-rhythms-move-over-neurons-astrocytes-mediate-scn-clock-function
#16
Marc D Ruben, John B Hogenesch
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus are described as master pacemaker cells for biological rhythms. However, a series of recent studies demonstrate the importance of another cell type, astrocytes, for biological timekeeping.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482221/recent-progress-in-expanding-the-chemiluminescent-toolbox-for-bioimaging
#17
REVIEW
Kazushi Suzuki, Takeharu Nagai
Nowadays, the application of chemiluminescence imaging is no longer limited to the monitoring of slow biological phenomena such as circadian rhythms and in vivo tracking of cells. The expanded color palette of bright chemiluminescent protein and near-infrared-emitting luciferins have greatly improved the sensitivity of in vivo tracking of cells as well as enabling real-time cellular chemiluminescence imaging with high spatial resolution. Furthermore, functional chemiluminescent indicators based on the novel concept have been developed, providing more information related to physiological and pathological processes in living organisms...
May 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475596/long-term-rebaudioside-a-treatment-does-not-alter-circadian-activity-rhythms-adiposity-or-insulin-action-in-male-mice
#18
Thomas H Reynolds, Rachelle A Soriano, Obadi A Obadi, Stanley Murkland, Bernard Possidente
Obesity is a major public health problem that is highly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, two conditions associated with circadian disruption. To date, dieting is one of the only interventions that result in substantial weight loss, but restricting caloric intake is difficult to maintain long-term. The use of artificial sweeteners, particularly in individuals that consume sugar sweetened beverages (energy drinks, soda), can reduce caloric intake and possibly facilitate weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the artificial sweetener, rebaudioside A (Reb-A), on circadian rhythms, in vivo insulin action, and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473844/functional-characterization-of-a-putative-glycine-max-elf4-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-and-its-role-during-flowering-control
#19
Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Thiago J Nakayama, Hugo B C Molinari, Marcos F Basso, Liliane M M Henning, Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini, Frank G Harmon, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Flowering is an important trait in major crops like soybean due to its direct relation to grain production. The circadian clock mediates the perception of seasonal changes in day length and temperature to modulate flowering time. The circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4) was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and is believed to play a key role in the integration of photoperiod, circadian regulation, and flowering. The molecular circuitry that comprises the circadian clock and flowering control in soybeans is just beginning to be understood...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473760/persistent-effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-on-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-brain-transcriptome-and-behavior
#20
Tove Porseryd, Kristina Volkova, Nasim Reyhanian Caspillo, Thomas Källman, Patrik Dinnetz, Inger Porsh Hällström
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3, and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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