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Circadian biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#1
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922793/diurnal-cycling-transcription-factors-of-pineapple-revealed-by-genome-wide-annotation-and-global-transcriptomic-analysis
#2
Anupma Sharma, Ching Man Wai, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu
Circadian clock provides fitness advantage by coordinating internal metabolic and physiological processes to external cyclic environments. Core clock components exhibit daily rhythmic changes in gene expression, and the majority of them are transcription factors (TFs) and transcription coregulators (TCs). We annotated 1,398 TFs from 67 TF families and 80 TCs from 20 TC families in pineapple, and analyzed their tissue-specific and diurnal expression patterns. Approximately 42% of TFs and 45% of TCs displayed diel rhythmic expression, including 177 TF/TCs cycling only in the nonphotosynthetic leaf tissue, 247 cycling only in the photosynthetic leaf tissue, and 201 cycling in both...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920512/rhythmic-three-part-harmony-the-complex-interaction-of-maternal-placental-and-fetal-circadian-systems
#3
Peter J Mark, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Brendan J Waddell
From the perspective of circadian biology, mammalian pregnancy presents an unusual biological scenario in which an entire circadian system (i.e., that of the fetus) is embodied within another (i.e., that of the mother). Moreover, both systems are likely to be influenced at their interface by a third player, the placenta. Successful pregnancy requires major adaptations in maternal physiology, many of which involve circadian changes that support the high metabolic demands of the growing fetus. A functional role for maternal circadian adaptations is implied by the effects of circadian disruption, which result in pregnancy complications including higher risks for miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914494/sketching-biological-phenomena-and-mechanisms
#4
Benjamin Sheredos, William Bechtel
In many fields of biology, both the phenomena to be explained and the mechanisms proposed to explain them are commonly presented in diagrams. Our interest is in how scientists construct such diagrams. Researchers begin with evidence, typically developed experimentally and presented in data graphs. To arrive at a robust diagram of the phenomenon or the mechanism, they must integrate a variety of data to construct a single, coherent representation. This process often begins as the researchers create a first sketch, and it continues over an extended period as they revise the sketch until they arrive at a diagram they find acceptable...
September 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910542/effect-of-monochromatic-light-on-circadian-rhythmic-expression-of-clock-genes-and-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-in-chick-retina
#5
Jing Cao, Jiang Bian, Zixu Wang, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
Birds have more developed visual function. They not only have the ability to detect light and darkness but also have the color vision. Previous study showed that monochromatic light influenced avian physiological processes, which were controlled by clock genes. Therefore, bird's eye is a good model to studying the impact of color of light on circadian rhythms. Avian retina is one of the most important central oscillations. The study was designed to investigate the effect of color of light on the expression of clock genes and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA expression in chick retina...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#6
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900189/misalignment-with-the-external-light-environment-drives-metabolic-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#7
Alexander C West, Laura Smith, David W Ray, Andrew S I Loudon, Timothy M Brown, David A Bechtold
Most organisms use internal biological clocks to match behavioural and physiological processes to specific phases of the day-night cycle. Central to this is the synchronisation of internal processes across multiple organ systems. Environmental desynchrony (e.g. shift work) profoundly impacts human health, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterise the impact of desynchrony between the internal clock and the external light-dark (LD) cycle on mammalian physiology...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899666/stem-cells-and-the-circadian-clock
#8
REVIEW
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Thomas Dickmeis, Benjamin D Weger
The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#9
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893605/oscillator-networks-with-tissue-specific-circadian-clocks-in-plants
#10
REVIEW
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Many organisms rely on circadian clocks to synchronize their biological processes with the 24-hour rotation of the earth. In mammals, the circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral clocks in other tissues. The central clock is tightly coupled to synchronize rhythmicity and can organize peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal signals. In contrast to mammals, it has long been assumed that the circadian clocks in each plant cell is able to be entrained by external light, and they are only weakly coupled to each other...
September 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878635/alcohol-intake-increases-in-adolescent-c57bl-6j-mice-during-intermittent-cycles-of-phase-delayed-long-light-conditions
#11
Joshua J Gamsby, Abby M Pribish, Korey D Stevanovic, Amara Yunus, Danielle Gulick
Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to "social jetlag", a state of circadian desynchrony (CD), in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset) delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877894/later-circadian-timing-of-food-intake-is-associated-with-increased-body-fat
#12
Andrew W McHill, Andrew Jk Phillips, Charles A Czeisler, Leigh Keating, Karen Yee, Laura K Barger, Marta Garaulet, Frank Ajl Scheer, Elizabeth B Klerman
Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour.Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877172/automated-recording-of-home-cage-activity-and-temperature-of-individual-rats-housed-in-social-groups-the-rodent-big-brother-project
#13
William S Redfern, Karen Tse, Claire Grant, Amy Keerie, David J Simpson, John C Pedersen, Victoria Rimmer, Lauren Leslie, Stephanie K Klein, Natasha A Karp, Rowland Sillito, Agis Chartsias, Tim Lukins, James Heward, Catherine Vickers, Kathryn Chapman, J Douglas Armstrong
Measuring the activity and temperature of rats is commonly required in biomedical research. Conventional approaches necessitate single housing, which affects their behavior and wellbeing. We have used a subcutaneous radiofrequency identification (RFID) transponder to measure ambulatory activity and temperature of individual rats when group-housed in conventional, rack-mounted home cages. The transponder location and temperature is detected by a matrix of antennae in a baseplate under the cage. An infrared high-definition camera acquires side-view video of the cage and also enables automated detection of vertical activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#14
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869341/egcg-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hepg2-cells-involvement-of-bmal1
#15
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Yuqi Gao, Runnan Li, Yiwen Wang, Xingyu Li, Shuxian Huang, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: Normal physiological processes require a robust biological timer called the circadian clock. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms contributes to a variety of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. EGCG has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective bioactivities. The objective of this study was to explore whether circadian clock is involved in the protective effect of EGCG against insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results demonstrated that EGCG reverses the relatively shallow daily oscillations of circadian clock genes transcription and protein expression induced by glucosamine in HepG2 cells...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868955/neurogenetics-of-drosophila-circadian-clock-expect-the-unexpected
#16
Patricia Jarabo, Francisco A Martin
Daily biological rhythms (i.e. circadian) are a fundamental part of animal behavior. Numerous reports have shown disruptions of the biological clock in neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. In the latter case, only recently we have gained insight into the molecular mechanisms. After 45 years of intense study of the circadian rhtythms, we find surprising similarities among species on the molecular clock that governs biological rhythms. Indeed, Drosophila is one of the most widely used models in the study of chronobiology...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866584/dynamic-influence-networks-for-rule-based-models
#17
Angus G Forbes, Andrew Burks, Kristine Lee, Xing Li, Pierre Boutillier, Jean Krivine, Walter Fontana
We introduce the Dynamic Influence Network (DIN), a novel visual analytics technique for representing and analyzing rulebased models of protein-protein interaction networks. Rule-based modeling has proved instrumental in developing biological models that are concise, comprehensible, easily extensible, and that mitigate the combinatorial complexity of multi-state and multi-component biological molecules. Our technique visualizes the dynamics of these rules as they evolve over time. Using the data produced by KaSim, an open source stochastic simulator of rule-based models written in the Kappa language, DINs provide a node-link diagram that represents the influence that each rule has on the other rules...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865775/cardiac-clocks-and-preclinical-translation
#18
REVIEW
Priya Mistry, Austin Duong, Lorrie Kirshenbaum, Tami A Martino
Circadian rhythms are fundamentally important for cardiovascular health, including heart rate, blood pressure, and molecular gene and protein responses. Rhythms also play a direct role in the pathophysiology of heart disease, such as in the timing of onset and severity of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmias, and stroke. Importantly, a flurry of new studies reveals translational applications for circadian biology to clinical medicine, and especially cardiology. Circadian medicine is a promising new approach that targets the heart's daily physiologic and molecular rhythms to benefit the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865774/clock-genes-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-risk
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Tarquini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli
The molecular clockwork drives rhythmic oscillations of signaling pathways managing intermediate metabolism; the circadian timing system synchronizes behavioral cycles and anabolic/catabolic processes with environmental cues, mainly represented by light/darkness alternation. Metabolic pathways, bile acid synthesis, and autophagic and immune/inflammatory processes are driven by the biological clock. Proper timing of hormone secretion, metabolism, bile acid turnover, autophagy, and inflammation with behavioral cycles is necessary to avoid dysmetabolism...
October 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862076/timing-the-microbes-the-circadian-rhythm-of-the-gut-microbiome
#20
Xue Liang, Garret A FitzGerald
The mammalian circadian clock system, which includes the master clock and peripheral clocks, times different biological processes in reaction to external cues, such as the light-dark cycle. However, the chronobiology of prokaryotic cells is less well understood, except for in cyanobacteria. The recent blooming of gut microbiome research has revealed a critical role for the trillions of microbes residing in the vertebrate gut in determining both health and disease in the host. The question of whether the gut microbiome exhibits circadian oscillation and how it synchronizes with the host circadian clock has attracted considerable interest...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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