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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#1
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068405/head-injury-as-a-risk-factor-for-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-32-observational-studies
#2
Yanjun Li, Yongming Li, Xiaotao Li, Shuang Zhang, Jincheng Zhao, Xiaofeng Zhu, Guozhong Tian
BACKGROUND: Head injury is reported to be associated with increased risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in many but not all the epidemiological studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relative effect of head injury on dementia and AD risks. METHODS: Relevant cohort and case-control studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and Mar 31, 2015 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We used the random-effect model in this meta-analysis to take into account heterogeneity among studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065183/paramyxovirus-outbreak-in-a-long-term-care-facility-the-challenges-of-implementing-infection-control-practices-in-a-congregate-setting
#3
Steven Schaeffer Spires, H Keipp Talbot, Carolyn A Pope, Thomas R Talbot
OBJECTIVE We report an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in a dementia care ward containing 2 separately locked units (A and B) to heighten awareness of these pathogens in the older adult population and highlight some of the infection prevention challenges faced during a noninfluenza respiratory viral outbreak in a congregate setting. METHODS Cases were defined by the presence of new signs or symptoms that included (1) a single oral temperature ≥ 37...
January 9, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065176/behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-in-general-hospital-patients-with-dementia-distress-for-nursing-staff-and-complications-in-care-results-of-the-general-hospital-study
#4
J B Hessler, M Schäufele, I Hendlmeier, M N Junge, S Leonhardt, J Weber, H Bickel
AIMS: Little is known about how behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) manifest in the general hospital. The aim was to examine the frequency of BPSD in general hospitals and their associations with nursing staff distress and complications in care. METHODS: Cross-sectional representative study with 1469 patients aged ≥65, including 270 patients with dementia, of 33 randomly selected general hospitals in Germany. BPSD and complications were reported by nurses...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063022/identification-of-a-syndrome-class-of-neuropsychiatric-adverse-reactions-to-mefloquine-from-latent-class-modeling-of-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-data
#5
Remington L Nevin, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos
INTRODUCTION: Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. METHODS: Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs...
January 6, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060462/end-of-life-care-for-people-dying-with-dementia-in-general-practice-in-belgium-italy-and-spain-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-study
#6
Yolanda W H Penders, Gwenda Albers, Luc Deliens, Guido Miccinesi, Tomás Vega Alonso, Maite Miralles, Sarah Moreels, Lieve Van den Block
AIM: To describe and compare end-of-life care for people with mild or severe dementia in general practice in Belgium, Italy and Spain, in terms of place of care, place of death, treatment aims, use of specialized palliative care and communication with general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective survey was carried out of nationwide networks of GPs in Belgium, Italy and Spain, including patients who died aged 65 years or older in 2009-2011 and were judged by the GP to have had dementia (n = 1623)...
January 6, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056460/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-based-diagnosis-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-a-validation-study-for-previously-established-cutoffs
#7
Franc Llorens, André Karch, Ewa Golanska, Matthias Schmitz, Peter Lange, Beata Sikorska, Pawel P Liberski, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers have been proposed to discriminate sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) from other dementias and control cases. However, their clinical accuracy depends on the PRNP codon 129 genotype, leaving it unclear how well established markers behave in untested conditions. METHODS: We analyzed 14-3-3, tau, p-tau levels, and the p-tau/tau ratio in a population sample collected from Polish hospitals including nondementia, dementia, and definite sCJD cases and validated their parameters according to previously established cutoffs...
January 6, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049634/physical-activity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Ruth Stephen, Kristiina Hongisto, Alina Solomon, Eija Lönnroos
The current literature includes several studies investigating the association between physical activity and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate available evidence on this association. Medline via PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for original English language research articles assessing the relationship between physical activity and incident AD. The review was limited to prospective observational and intervention studies. Criteria for exclusion were studies focusing on individuals with dementia, cross-sectional study design, and case reports...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024212/thymoma-in-middle-mediastinum-that-induced-tracheal-compression-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Teiko Sakurai, Tetsuki Sakamoto, Tomoko Wakasa, Yoshio Ohta, Hiroyuki Shiono
BACKGROUND: A thymoma, an epithelial neoplasm of the thymus, mainly occurs in the anterior mediastinum, while few are seen in the middle mediastinum. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old male was referred for an incidental mass in the middle mediastinum. He had severe dementia and denied symptoms. Our follow-up computed tomography (CT) examinations had revealed the progress of tracheal compression along with tumor enlargement for 2 years. At 85 years old, we performed a thymomectomy via a median sternotomy to avoid complete trachea obstruction...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008242/a-genetic-screen-of-the-mutations-in-the-korean-patients-with-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Seong Soo An, Sun Ah Park, Eva Bagyinszky, Sun Oh Bae, Yoon-Jeong Kim, Ji Young Im, Kyung Won Park, Kee Hyung Park, Eun-Joo Kim, Jee Hyang Jeong, Jong Hun Kim, Hyun Jeong Han, Seong Hye Choi, SangYun Kim
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has distinct clinical characteristics in comparison to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The genetic contribution is suggested to be more potent in EOAD. However, the frequency of causative mutations in EOAD could be variable depending on studies. Moreover, no mutation screening study has been performed yet employing large population in Korea. Previously, we reported that the rate of family history of dementia in EOAD patients was 18.7% in a nationwide hospital-based cohort study, the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004274/imaging-biomarkers-of-dementia-recommended-visual-rating-scales-with-teaching-cases
#11
REVIEW
Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman, Danielle van Westen, Anders Wallin, Sara Shams, Lena Cavallin, Elna-Marie Larsson
: The diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis...
December 21, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992864/longer-duration-of-sleep-and-risk-of-cognitive-decline-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Hong-Bae Kim, Seung-Kwon Myung, Sun-Mi Lee, Yon Chul Park
BACKGROUND: Previous observational epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings about the association between longer durations of sleep and the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. To investigate the association between longer durations of sleep and the risk of cognitive decline, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the bibliographies of relevant articles to retrieve additional studies in July 2015...
December 20, 2016: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#13
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929804/familial-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-case-report-and-role-of-genetic-counseling-in-post-mortem-testing
#14
Kristin Clift, Kimberly Guthrie, Eric W Klee, Nicole Boczek, Margot Cousin, Patrick Blackburn, Paldeep Atwal
Here we present a case of an asymptomatic 53-year-old woman who sought genetic testing for Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (fCJD) after learning that her mother had fCJD. The patient's mother had a sudden onset of memory problems and rapidly deteriorating mental faculties in her late 70s, which led to difficulties ambulating, progressive non-fluent aphasia, dysphagia and death within ∼1 y of symptom onset. The cause of death was reported as "rapid onset dementia." The patient's family, unhappy with the vague diagnosis, researched prion disorders online and aggressively pursued causation and submitted frozen brain tissue from the mother to the National Prion Disease Surveillance Center, where testing revealed a previously described 5-octapeptide repeat insertion (5-OPRI) in the prion protein gene (PRNP) that is known to cause fCJD...
November 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929803/an-autopsy-verified-case-of-ftld-tdp-type-a-with-upper-motor-neuron-predominant-motor-neuron-disease-mimicking-mm2-thalamic-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#15
Yuichi Hayashi, Yasushi Iwasaki, Akira Takekoshi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Takahiko Asano, Maya Mimuro, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
Here we report an autopsy-verified case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-transactivation responsive region (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP) type A with upper motor neuron-predominant motor neuron disease mimicking MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). A 69-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of progressive dementia, irritability, insomnia, and gait disturbance without a family history of dementia or prion disease. Neurological examination revealed severe dementia, frontal signs, and exaggerated bilateral tendon reflexes...
November 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915581/ftld-tdp-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-comorbidity-a-report-of-two-cases-with-different-clinical-presentations
#16
Kateřina Storey, Silvie Johanidesová, Radoslav Matěj, Jiří Keller, Zdeněk Rohan, Robert Rusina
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (FTLD-TDP) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerations with different clinical presentations. We report two cases with FTLD-TDP and PSP in comorbidity: a patient with amnestic dementia developing frontal lobe dementia, Parkinsonism and supranuclear gaze palsy and a patient with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus developing akinesia, rigidity, and subcortical dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed neuronal and glial tau pathology together with ubiquitin, and phospho-TDP-43-immunoreactivities in the hippocampus, striatum, mesencephalon, and frontal and temporal cortices...
December 3, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910931/mutational-analysis-of-prnp-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-in-china
#17
Weiwei Zhang, Bin Jiao, Tingting Xiao, Chuzheng Pan, Xixi Liu, Lin Zhou, Beisha Tang, Lu Shen
The prion protein (PRNP) gene is associated with prion diseases, whereas variants of the PRNP gene may also explain some cases of Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in Caucasian populations. To determine the prevalence of the PRNP gene in patients with AD and FTD in China, we screened all exons of the PRNP gene in a cohort of 683 cases (606 AD and 77 FTD) in the Chinese Han population and we detected a novel missense mutation p.S17G in a late-onset AD (LOAD) patient. Furthermore, we analyzed the PRNP M/V polymorphism at codon 129, which was previously reported as a risk factor...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909286/three-cases-of-levodopa-resistant-parkinsonism-after-radiation-therapy
#18
Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905341/heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-who-had-bovine-bioprosthetic-valve-implantation
#19
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba, Irina Bloch, Haneen Jabaly-Habib
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898260/inpatient-palliative-care-for-neurological-disorders-lessons-from-a-large-retrospective-series
#20
Ying Liu, Danielle Kline, Shanae Aerts, Jeanie M Youngwerth, Jean S Kutner, Stefan Sillau, Benzi M Kluger
BACKGROUND: Patients with neurological disorders are the second most common patient population to receive inpatient palliative care services after cancer; however, there have been few reports describing the characteristics and needs of this population. OBJECTIVE: To understand which patients with neurological diagnoses utilized these services, reasons for consultation, and whether patterns of use changed over time. DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
January 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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