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Teemu J Murtola, Ville Jy Vihervuori, Jorma Lahtela, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo Lj Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Diabetic men have lowered overall risk of prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of hyperglycaemia is unclear. In this cohort study, we estimated PCa risk among men with diabetic fasting blood glucose level. METHODS: Participants of the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC) were linked to laboratory database for information on glucose measurements since 1978. The data were available for 17,860 men. Based on the average yearly level, the men were categorised as normoglycaemic, prediabetic, or diabetic...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Claudia Cava, Gloria Bertoli, Antonio Colaprico, Gianluca Bontempi, Giancarlo Mauri, Isabella Castiglioni
Like other cancer diseases, prostate cancer (PC) is caused by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the cells that drives malignant growth. These alterations are revealed by gene profiling and copy number alteration (CNA) analysis. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that also microRNAs have an important role in PC development. Despite efforts to profile PC, the alterations (gene, CNA, and miRNA) and biological processes that correlate with disease development and progression remain partially elusive. Many gene signatures proposed as diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer poorly overlap...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zipei Cao, Lijuan Wei, Weizhi Zhu, Xuping Yao
BACKGROUND: Reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (p16 and p14) expression through DNA methylation has been reported in prostate cancer (PCa). This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the difference of p16 and p14 methylation between PCa and different histological types of nonmalignant controls and the correlation of p16 or p14 methylation with clinicopathological features of PCa. METHODS: According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Wanfang, and CNKI databases...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Priya Moni, Hyo Seon Suh, Moshe Dolejsi, Do Han Kim, Alan C Mohr, Paul F Nealey, Karen K Gleason
Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach to enable next generation patterning at increasingly smaller length scales. DSA utilizes interfacial wetting layers to force the BCP domains to self-assemble with the desired orientation with respect to the substrate. Here, we demonstrate that initiated chemical vapor deposited (iCVD) polydivinylbenzene (pDVB) ultra-thin films can direct the self-assembly of poly(styrene-block-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). We found that methyl radicals formed at increased filament temperatures during the iCVD processes result in backbone methylation of pDVB...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ahmed S Zakaria, Alice Dragomir, Wassim Kassouf, Simon Tanguay, Armen Aprikian
OBJECTIVES: To characterize testosterone profile changes over time in a cohort of prostate cancer (PCa) patients managed with active surveillance (AS) and to assess its correlation with the initial disease characteristics and further progression. METHODS: We conducted retrospective chart review of PCa patients managed with AS. Patients were followed with PSA, total, free and bioavailable testosterone measurements, physical examination, and by repeat biopsies or periodic magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Joshua M Gleason, Bill R Christian, Erik D Barton
Patients requiring emergency airway management may be at greater risk of acute hypoxemic events because of underlying lung pathology, high metabolic demands, insufficient respiratory drive, obesity, or the inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Emergency tracheal intubation is often required before complete information needed to assess the risk of procedural hypoxia is acquired (i.e., arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or chest radiograph). During pre-oxygenation, administering high-flow nasal oxygen in addition to a non-rebreather face mask can significantly boost the effective inspired oxygen...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Salvina Barra, Liliana Belgioia, Michela Marcenaro, Serena Callegari, Alice Pastorino, Luca Trapani, Francesca Cavagnetto, Stefania Garelli, Renzo Corvò
Background: After radical prostatectomy (RP) radiotherapy (RT) plays a role, both as adjuvant or salvage treatment. If negative features are present such as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph invasion, and positive surgical margins, RT after RP reduces the risk of recurrence, although it is associated with an increased risk of acute and late toxicities. An intensified RT delivered in a shortened time could improve clinical outcome and be safely combined with hormonal therapy (HT)...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Anna C Wilkins, Barry Gusterson, Zsolt Szijgyarto, Joanne Haviland, Clare Griffin, Christine Stuttle, Frances Daley, Catherine M Corbishley, David P Dearnaley, Emma Hall, Navita Somaiah
PURPOSE: To assess whether the cellular proliferation marker Ki67 provides prognostic information and predicts response to radiation therapy fractionation in patients with localized prostate tumors participating in a randomized trial of 3 radiation therapy fractionation schedules (74 Gy/37 fractions vs 60 Gy/20 fractions vs 57 Gy/19 fractions). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A matched case-control study design was used; patients with biochemical/clinical failure >2 years after radiation therapy (BCR) were matched 1:1 to patients without recurrence using established prognostic factors (Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, tumor stage) and fractionation schedule...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Lynn Tan, Luke L Wang, Weranja Ranasinghe, Raj Persad, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Shomik Sengupta
Background: The aim of the paper is to investigate the outcomes of patients younger than 55 years in Victoria, Australia undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Data on all men undergoing RP in Victoria between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Tumor characteristics including Gleason grade, stage of disease (based on final pathology specimen), and cause of death were also obtained...
March 2018: Prostate International
Satoru Ueno, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Mizuki Onozawa, Shiro Hinotsu, Hideyuki Akaza, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki
Background: This prospective observational study elucidated the usefulness of hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. Background factors and the health-related quality of life in patients who initially underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) or primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) for localized prostate cancer are summarized. Materials and methods: Patients aged 67-76 years with clinical stage T1c or T2 localized prostate cancer treated with PADT or RP, a prostate-specific antigen concentration of <20 ng/mL, and Gleason score of ≤7 were included...
March 2018: Prostate International
Ping Li, Sungyong You, Christopher Nguyen, Yanping Wang, Jayoung Kim, Deepika Sirohi, Asha Ziembiec, Daniel Luthringer, Shih-Chieh Lin, Timothy Daskivich, Jonathan Wu, Michael R Freeman, Rola Saouaf, Debiao Li, Hyung L Kim
MRI is used to image prostate cancer and target tumors for biopsy or therapeutic ablation. The objective was to understand the biology of tumors not visible on MRI that may go undiagnosed and untreated. Methods: Prostate cancers visible or invisible on multiparametric MRI were macrodissected and examined by RNAseq. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on MRI visibility status were cross-referenced with publicly available gene expression databases to identify genes associated with disease progression...
2018: Theranostics
Yu Peng, Min Fan, Jingyi Song, Tiantian Cui, Rui Li
Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R2  = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tian-Bao Huang, Guang-Chen Zhou, Chuan-Peng Dong, Li-Ping Wang, Yang Luan, Jing-Ting Ye, Xiao Gu, Xu-Dong Yao, Jun-Hua Zheng, Xue-Fei Ding
Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in several types of cancer, but has not been fully studied in prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 95,846 men diagnosed with PCa were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2004 and 2009 within 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and differences in survival were assessed using the log-rank test. Cox regression models were used to assess the impact of marital status on survival outcomes...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jennifer B Gordetsky, Luciana Schultz, Kristin K Porter, Jeffrey W Nix, John V Thomas, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
MR/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy(TB) routinely samples multiple cores from each MR lesion of interest. Pathologists can evaluate the extent of cancer involvement and grade using an individual-core(IC) or aggregate(AG) method, which could potentially lead to differences in reporting. We reviewed patients who underwent TB followed by radical prostatectomy(RP). TB cores were evaluated for grade and tumor extent by two methods. IC method: grade for each TB lesion was based on the core with the highest Gleason score...
March 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Luke C Peng, Amol K Narang, Carol Gergis, Noura A Radwan, Peijin Han, Ariel E Marciscano, Scott P Robertson, Pei He, Janson Trieu, Ashwin N Ram, Todd R McNutt, Emily Griffith, Theodore A DeWeese, Stephanie Honig, Harleen Singh, Stephen C Greco, Phuoc T Tran, Curtiland Deville, Theodore L DeWeese, Daniel Y Song
OBJECTIVES: Perineural invasion (PNI) has not yet gained universal acceptance as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes for prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We analyzed the prognostic influence of PNI for a large institutional cohort of prostate cancer patients who underwent EBRT with and without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We, retrospectively, reviewed prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT from 1993 to 2007 at our institution...
March 15, 2018: Urologic Oncology
A Gevorgyan, J-F Hétet, M Robert, V Duchattelle-Dussaule, L Corno, I Boulay, H Baumert
OBJECTIVE: To study the oncologic and functional results of salvage cryotherapy after failure of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated by total salvage cryotherapy (3rd generation) in 2 centers (Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Joseph in Paris and Clinique Jule-Verne Nantes) in between January 2008 and April 2016 were included. The biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) was calculated using the Phoenix criteria (PSA>nadir+2ng/mL)...
March 15, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Eric J Jordan, Charles Fiske, Ronald Zagoria, Antonio C Westphalen
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ADC values in combination with PI-RADS v2 for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) compared to PI-RADS v2 alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 155 men whom underwent 3-Tesla prostate MRI and subsequent MR/US fusion biopsies at a single non-academic center from 11/2014 to 3/2016. All scans were performed with a surface coil and included T2, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Antoine Angelergues, Eleni Efstathiou, Revekka Gyftaki, Piotr Jan Wysocki, Nuria Lainez, Iria Gonzalez, Daniel E Castellano, Mustafa Ozguroglu, Iciar Garcia Carbonero, Aude Flechon, Pablo Borrega, Aline Guillot, Begona Campos Balea, Sylvestre Le Moulec, Emilio Esteban, Javier Munarriz, Gustavo Rubio, Alison J Birtle, Nicolas Delanoy, Joaquim Bellmunt, Stéphane Oudard
BACKGROUND: Several agents have demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, the optimal sequencing of these therapies is unknown as a result of a lack of prospective randomized controlled trials. This retrospective study aimed to identify clinical factors influencing outcomes and to determine optimal treatment sequencing in patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel (CABA) and/or androgen receptor-targeted agents (ART) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel (DOC)...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Wan Song, Seok Hwan Bang, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Han Yong Choi, Chan Kyo Kim, Hyun Moo Lee
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) on prediction of postoperative Gleason score (GS) upgrading for patients with biopsy GS 6 prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 443 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven GS 6 prostate cancer between January 2011 and December 2013. Preoperative clinical variables and pathologic GS were examined, and all MRI findings were assessed with PI-RADSv2...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Mariana Andozia Morini, Roberto Lodeiro Muller, Paulo César Barbosa de Castro Junior, Rafael José de Souza, Eliney Ferreira Faria
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PC) most of the time presents with an indolent course. Thus, delays in treatment due to any causes might not affect long-term survival and may not affect cancer cure rates. PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the effect of delay-time between PC diagnosis and radical prostatectomy regarding oncological outcomes: Gleason score upgrade on surgical specimen, pathologic extracapsular extension (ECE) on surgical specimen, and postoperative biochemical recurrence (BCR) on follow-up...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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