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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433238/pulmonary-rehabilitation-referral-and-participation-are-commonly-influenced-by-environment-knowledge-and-beliefs-about-consequences-a-systematic-review-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#1
Narelle S Cox, Cristino C Oliveira, Aroub Lahham, Anne E Holland
QUESTION: What are the barriers and enablers of referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative or quantitative studies reporting data relating to referral, uptake, attendance and/or completion in pulmonary rehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: People aged >18years with a diagnosis of COPD and/or their healthcare professionals...
April 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431345/insights-into-targeting-young-male-drivers-with-anti-speeding-advertising-an-application-of-the-step-approach-to-message-design-and-testing-satmdt
#2
I Lewis, K M White, B Ho, B Elliott, B Watson
In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430805/effect-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-ru486-on-mk-801-induced-behavioural-sensitisation
#3
Emilia M Lefevre, Gregory A Medley, Timothy Reeks, Suzy Alexander, Thomas H J Burne, Darryl W Eyles
Stress is known to modulate sensitisation to repeated psychostimulant exposure. However, there is no direct evidence linking glucocorticoids and sensitisation achieved by repeated administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We tested the hypothesis that co-administration of RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, prior to repeated daily MK-801 injections would block the expression of locomotor sensitisation due to its dual effects on corticosterone and dopamine. We employed a repeated MK-801 administration locomotor sensitisation paradigm in male Sprague Dawley rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427396/demdata-the-austrian-czech-institutional-long-term-care-project-design-and-protocol-of-a-two-centre-cross-sectional-study
#4
Stefanie Auer, Elisabeth Linsmayer, Anna Beránková, Patrick Pascher, Bernadette Firlinger, Doris Prischl, Paulina Ratajczak, Edith Span, Iva Holmerova
BACKGROUND: The organization of long-term care is one of the main challenges of public health and health policies in Europe and worldwide, especially in terms of care concepts for people with dementia. In Austria and the Czech Republic the majority of elderly institutionalized persons with dementia are cared for in nursing homes. It is however unclear, how many persons living in nursing homes in Austria and in the Czech Republic are suffering from cognitive impairment and dementia. In addition, basic information on the nutritional status, the status of mobility and the medication prescription patterns are often missing...
April 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427380/the-stepping-stones-and-creating-futures-intervention-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-in-durban-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial-and-baseline-characteristics
#5
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Samantha Willan, Nolwazi Ntini, Thobani Khumalo, Nompumelelo Mbatha, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Nwabisa Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Michael Strauss, Giulia Ferrari, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#6
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426909/nursing-and-pharmacy-students-use-of-emotionally-intelligent-behaviours-to-manage-challenging-interpersonal-situations-with-staff-during-clinical-placement-a-qualitative-study
#7
Andrea McCloughen, Kim Foster
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify challenging interpersonal interactions experienced by nursing and pharmacy students during clinical placement, and strategies used to manage those situations. BACKGROUND: Healthcare students and staff experience elevated stress when exposed to dynamic clinical environments, complex care, and challenging professional relationships. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are associated with appropriate recognition and management of emotions evoked by stressful experiences, and development of effective relationships...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425582/personality-immune-response-and-reproductive-success-an-appraisal-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome-hypothesis
#8
Karine Monceau, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jérôme Moreau, Camille Lucas, Rémi Capoduro, Sébastien Motreuil, Yannick Moret
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis is an extended concept of the life history theory that includes behavioural traits. The studies challenging the POLS hypothesis often focus on the relationships between a single personality trait and a physiological and/or life history traits. While pathogens represent a major selective pressure, few studies have been interested in testing relationships between behavioural syndrome, and several fitness components including immunity. The aim of this study is to address this question in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a model species in immunity studies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424357/thin-for-gestational-age-infants-are-at-increased-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-delay-at-2%C3%A2-years
#9
Sinéad M O'Neill, Geraldine Hannon, Ali S Khashan, J O'B Hourihane, Louise C Kenny, Mairead Kiely, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND: Infants born small-for-gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of developmental difficulties. Identifying those most at risk is challenging. We examined the effect of neonatal body composition and customised birthweight centiles on neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 2. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of term infants from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study classified into the following exposure groups: a birth weight <10th customised centile (SGA, n=51); body fat percentage at birth <10th centile (thin-for-gestational age (TGA, n=51)) or both SGA and TGA infants (small- and thin-for-gestational age (STGA), n=13)...
May 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424313/reduction-in-activity-by-noxious-chemical-stimulation-is-ameliorated-by-immersion-in-analgesic-drugs-in-zebrafish
#10
Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U Sneddon
Research has recently demonstrated that larval zebrafish show similar molecular responses to nociception to those of adults. Our study explored whether unprotected larval zebrafish exhibited altered behaviour after exposure to noxious chemicals and screened a range of analgesic drugs to determine their efficacy to reduce these responses. This approach aimed to validate larval zebrafish as a reliable replacement for adults as well as providing a high-throughput means of analysing behavioural responses. Zebrafish at 5 days post-fertilization were exposed to known noxious stimuli: acetic acid (0...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424057/personalized-medicine-in-europe-not-yet-personal-enough
#11
Antonello Di Paolo, François Sarkozy, Bettina Ryll, Uwe Siebert
BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine has the potential to allow patients to receive drugs specific to their individual disease, and to increase the efficiency of the healthcare system. There is currently no comprehensive overview of personalized medicine, and this research aims to provide an overview of the concept and definition of personalized medicine in nine European countries. METHODS: A targeted literature review of selected health databases and grey literature was conducted to collate information regarding the definition, process, use, funding, impact and challenges associated with personalized medicine...
April 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423749/monitoring-activities-related-to-medication-adherence-in-ambient-assisted-living-environments
#12
Patrice C Roy, Samina Raza Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
A recent trend in healthcare is to motivate patients to self-manage their health conditions in home-based settings. Medication adherence is an important aspect in disease self-management since sub-optimal medication adherence by the patient can lead to serious healthcare costs and discomfort for the patient. In order to alleviate the limitations of self-reported medication adherence, we can use ambient assistive living (AAL) technologies in smart environments. Activity recognition services allow to retrieve self-management information related to medication adherence in a less intrusive way...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#13
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420245/a-first-approach-to-a-neuropsychological-screening-tool-using-eye-tracking-for-bedside-cognitive-testing-based-on-the-edinburgh-cognitive-and-behavioural-als-screen
#14
Jürgen Keller, Amon Krimly, Lisa Bauer, Sarah Schulenburg, Sarah Böhm, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Ingo Uttner, Martin Gorges, Jan Kassubek, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Sharon Abrahams, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
OBJECTIVE: Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. METHODS: In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS...
April 19, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414723/prevalence-and-determinants-of-stereotypic-behaviours-and-physiological-stress-among-tigers-and-leopards-in-indian-zoos
#15
Janice Vaz, Edward J Narayan, R Dileep Kumar, K Thenmozhi, Krishnamoorthy Thiyagesan, Nagarajan Baskaran
India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414048/light-and-the-laboratory-mouse
#16
Stuart N Peirson, Laurence A Brown, Carina A Pothecary, Lindsay A Benson, Angus S Fisk
Light exerts widespread effects on physiology and behaviour. As well as the widely-appreciated role of light in vision, light also plays a critical role in many non-visual responses, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, pupil constriction, heart rate, hormone release and learning and memory. In mammals, responses to light are all mediated via retinal photoreceptors, including the classical rods and cones involved in vision as well as the recently identified melanopsin-expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412962/prospects-for-malaria-control-through-manipulation-of-mosquito-larval-habitats-and-olfactory-mediated-behavioural-responses-using-plant-derived-compounds
#17
REVIEW
Jackson M Muema, Joel L Bargul, Sospeter N Njeru, Joab O Onyango, Susan S Imbahale
Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle...
April 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412666/student-nurses-perceptions-of-clinical-placements-in-australian-prison-health-services-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Thea F van de Mortel, Judith Needham, Kate Barnewall, Ashleigh Djachenko, Jennifer Patrick
Increasing demands for clinical placements have forced tertiary institutions to look for alternative placements for third year nursing students. While Prison Health Services provide an opportunity for nursing students to engage in care of offender populations with significant chronic illnesses, there has been little evaluation of such placements. Third year undergraduate nurses (18/46) participated in a mixed methods study to provide evidence-based research on students' perceptions of clinical placements in Prison Health Services...
April 11, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408544/cost-and-outcome-of-behavioural-activation-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-depression-cobra-a-qualitative-process-evaluation
#19
Katie Finning, David A Richards, Lucy Moore, David Ekers, Dean McMillan, Paul A Farrand, Heather A O'Mahen, Edward R Watkins, Kim A Wright, Emily Fletcher, Shelley Rhodes, Rebecca Woodhouse, Faye Wray
OBJECTIVE: To explore participant views on acceptability, mechanisms of change and impact of behavioural activation (BA) delivered by junior mental health workers (MHWs) versus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by professional psychotherapists. DESIGN: Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using a framework approach. PARTICIPANTS: 36 participants with major depressive disorder purposively sampled from a randomised controlled trial of BA versus CBT (the COBRA trial)...
April 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407627/determining-factors-and-critical-periods-in-the-formation-of-eating-habits-results-from-the-habeat-project
#20
Sylvie Issanchou
BACKGROUND: Eating habits form early during childhood and are likely to track until the beginning of adulthood. Thus, understanding the formation of eating habits is important. Consequently, the population targeted in the European project Habeat comprised infants and young children up to 6 years of age. SUMMARY: Habeat mainly focused on the qualitative dimension of eating habits with a particular attention on vegetables and to a lesser extent on fruit. Food intake of young children was also studied in 2 challenging situations where overeating may occur and the relation between children's behaviour and feeding parental practices was examined...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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