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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925479/psychological-adjustment-to-craniofacial-conditions-excluding-oral-clefts-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Nicola Marie Stock
OBJECTIVE: A congenital craniofacial anomaly (CFA) is expected to impact upon several domains of psychological, emotional and social functioning, yet no recent reviews have comprehensively summarised the available literature. Further, existing reviews tend to draw upon literature in the field of cleft lip and palate, and do not give substantive attention to other types of CFAs. DESIGN: A review of 41 papers published between January 2000 and March 2016 pertaining to psychological adjustment to CFAs...
December 7, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925354/detecting-mental-health-problems-and-suicidal-motives-among-terrorists-and-mass-shooters
#2
Adam Lankford
BACKGROUND: For years, many scholars dismissed the possibility that terrorists - including suicide attackers - could be mentally ill or primarily suicidal. However, that view is gradually changing. AIM: Researchers continue to face significant challenges when attempting to detect mental health problems and suicidal motives among terrorists and mass shooters, because many offenders cannot easily be psychologically assessed. This article offers several specific recommendations for how researchers can better understand offenders' mental state by studying their life histories and behaviour...
December 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923111/evaluation-of-a-pilot-school-based-physical-activity-challenge-for-primary-students
#3
E Passmore, C Donato-Hunt, L Maher, R Havrlant, K Hennessey, A Milat, L Farrell
Issue addressed: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among children are growing public health concerns. The Culture Health Communities Activity Challenge (hereafter known as the Challenge) is a school-based pedometer program in which classes compete to achieve the highest class average daily steps in an 8-week period. The Challenge aims to encourage physical activity in primary school students, with a focus on engaging Aboriginal students. The program was piloted in 15 classes in New South Wales in 2014...
December 2, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922603/digital-footprints-facilitating-large-scale-environmental-psychiatric-research-in-naturalistic-settings-through-data-from-everyday-technologies
#4
N Bidargaddi, P Musiat, V-P Makinen, M Ermes, G Schrader, J Licinio
Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#5
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919233/sexual-health-questions-included-in-the-health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc-study-an-international-methodological-pilot-investigation
#6
Honor Young, András Költő, Marta Reis, Elizabeth M Saewyc, Nathalie Moreau, Lorraine Burke, Alina Cosma, Béat Windlin, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn, Emmanuelle Godeau
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919008/phenotype-analysis-of-male-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-mutant-igfbp-2-lacking-the-cardin-weintraub-sequence-motif-reduced-expression-of-synaptic-markers-and-myelin-basic-protein-in-the-brain-and-a-lower-degree-of-anxiety-like-behaviour
#7
N Schindler, J Mayer, S Saenger, U Gimsa, C Walz, J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Wirthgen, A Tuchscherer, V C Russo, M Frank, T Kirschstein, F Metzger, A Hoeflich
Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence...
November 16, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918855/best-practice-for-community-based-management-of-postnatal-depression-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#8
Sara Dixon, Jaya A R Dantas
Postnatal depression (PND) is a common disorder that can be profoundly disabling for affected mothers and their infants. We reviewed published articles on the community-based management of postnatal depression (PND) in developing countries. Our aim was to propose recommendations to help women with PND. Various databases were searched for English articles from 2000 - 2014. Twelve articles met the selection criteria. We found that interventions involving cognitive behavioural therapy, infant stimulation, and problem solving can improve outcomes for PND...
December 5, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#9
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914209/methodological-flaws-introduce-strong-bias-into-molecular-analysis-of-microbial-populations
#10
Niclas Krakat, Reshma Anjum, Burak Demirel, Patrick Schröder
AIMS: Here we report how different cell disruption methods, PCR primers and in-silico analyses can seriously bias results from microbial population studies, with consequences for the credibility and reproducibility of the findings. Our results emphasize the pitfalls of commonly used experimental methods that can seriously weaken the interpretation of results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four different cell lysis methods, three commonly used primer pairs and various computer-based analyses were applied to investigate the microbial diversity of a fermentation sample composed of chicken dung...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914190/culturally-competent-patient-provider-communication-in-the-management-of-cancer-an-integrative-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Ottilia Brown, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Dalena Rm van Rooyen, Colleen Aldous, Leonard Charles Marais
BACKGROUND: Managing cancer in a multicultural environment poses several challenges, which include the communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. Culture is an important consideration in clinical care as it contributes to shaping patients' health-related values, beliefs, and behaviours. This integrative literature review gathered evidence on how culturally competent patient-provider communication should be delivered to patients diagnosed with cancer. DESIGN: Whittemore and Knafl's approach to conducting an integrative literature review was used...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912955/we-think-you-can-dance-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-dance-for-nursing-home-residents-with-moderate-to-severe-dementia
#12
L F Low, S Carroll, D Merom, J R Baker, N Kochan, F Moran, H Brodaty
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of a dance program for people with moderate to severe dementia living in nursing homeswith regards to recruitment and retention, assessment tools, intervention safety, attendance and engagement. DESIGN: Pilot randomised controlled trial with assessments at weeks 0, 16 and 32. SETTING: A nursing home in Sydney, Australia. INTERVENTIONS: Experienced dance teachers conducted dance groups (intervention) or music appreciation and socialisation groups (control) for 45min, three times a week for 16 weeks...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911168/effectiveness-of-communication-specific-coping-intervention-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-results
#13
Jacinta M Douglas, Lucy Knox, Carren De Maio, Helen Bridge, Melanie Drummond, Joanne Whiteoak
People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) describe everyday interactions as a long-term challenge frequently associated with ongoing stress. Communication-specific Coping Intervention (CommCope-I) is a new treatment developed to target coping in the context of communication breakdown. The intervention incorporates principles of cognitive behavioural therapy, self-coaching and context-sensitive social communication therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of CommCope-I in a group of adults with severe TBI and ongoing functional communication difficulties...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911014/the-effectiveness-of-an-outdoor-adventure-programme-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-controlled-study
#14
Ditza A Zachor, Shira Vardi, Shani Baron-Eitan, Inbal Brodai-Meir, Noa Ginossar, Esther Ben-Itzchak
AIM: Outdoor adventure programmes aim to improve interpersonal relationships using adventurous activities. The current study examined the effectiveness of an outdoor adventure programme in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: The study included 51 participants (40 males, 11 females; age 3y 4mo-7y 4mo) enrolled in ASD special education kindergartens. Only the intervention group (n=30) participated in the outdoor adventure programme for 13 weeks, completing challenging physical activities that required cooperation and communication with peers and instructors...
December 2, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908721/stress-response-in-honeybees-is-associated-with-changes-in-task-related-physiology-and-energetic-metabolism
#15
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903825/synthetic-biology-routes-to-bio-artificial-intelligence
#16
REVIEW
Darren N Nesbeth, Alexey Zaikin, Yasushi Saka, M Carmen Romano, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Oleg Kanakov, Tetyana Laptyeva
The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903820/agent-based-modelling-in-synthetic-biology
#17
REVIEW
Thomas E Gorochowski
Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#18
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903317/laboratory-surveillance-of-arboviral-infections-in-a-southern-france-region-colonized-by-aedes-albopictus
#19
L Cadot, M Segondy, V Foulongne
The establishment of Aedes albopictus in southern France, a recognized competent vector for several arboviruses, represents a new threat for the local transmission and spread of what were until recently considered as tropical diseases. A preparedness and response plan, based on vigilance of both clinicians and laboratories, has introduced significant changes in guidelines and behaviour regarding patients' care specifically during the activity period of mosquitoes. In the present study, we report the results of a 1-year activity in arboviral infection diagnosis...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899689/herbal-medicine-for-management-of-the-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-bpsd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Anna J Hyde, Brian H May, Lin Dong, Mei Feng, Shaonan Liu, Xinfeng Guo, Anthony Lin Zhang, Chuanjian Lu, Charlie Changli Xue
Management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a challenge worldwide. Herbal medicines may play a role in the development of new interventions. To determine effects of herbal medicines for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, meta-analysis was conducted of 31 controlled trials (3613 participants). Frequently tested herbal medicines were the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761 (seven studies) and the multi-ingredient formula Yokukansan (eight studies)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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