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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328385/a-qualitative-study-exploring-women-s-journeys-to-becoming-smokers-in-the-social-context-of-urban-india
#1
Aarti Nagarkar, Devashri Salvi
In India, the prevalence of smoking among women is increasing, and the reasons behind this are unclear. We aimed to study the factors leading to initiation and maintenance of the smoking habit in women in Pune, India. Twenty-seven urban women-smokers, ranging from 21 to 60 years of age (31.96 ± 10.70 years), were interviewed from September 2015 to February 2016. The in-depth interviews consisted of questions on pre-decided categories, viz., initiation, motivation to continue smoking, and risk perception...
March 22, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315133/remembering-navasard-v-karapetyan-1936-2015
#2
Nadezhda P Yurina, Vladimir O Popov, Alexander A Krasnovsky, Govindjee
Navasard Vaganovich Karapetyan (September 6, 1936-March 6, 2015) began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and was associated with this institute for over 56 years. He worked in the area of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis and was especially known for his studies on chlorophyll a fluorescence in higher plants and cyanobacteria, molecular organization of Photosystem I, photoprotective energy dissipation, and dynamics of energy migration in the two photosystems...
March 17, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299288/food-safety-and-sustainable-nutrition-workshops-educational-experiences-for-primary-school-children-in-turin-italy
#3
Amaranta Traversa, Daniela Adriano, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Silvia Gallina, Clara Ippolito, Angelo Romano, Paola Durelli, Andrea Pezzana, Lucia Decastelli
European control and prevention policies are focused to guarantee a high level of protection of consumers' health. Food-borne diseases as obesity, diabetes, food allergy, and food-borne outbreaks are increasing. To prevent food-borne diseases, it is fundamental to involve consumers, in particular children, in educational experiences aimed to learn the proper behaviours to be applied. In this context, we designed and performed 5 educational workshops about food safety, hidden allergens in food and nutrition aimed to involve children attending primary and summer school...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295310/a-rare-case-of-plastid-protein-coding-gene-duplication-in-the-chloroplast-genome-of-euglena-archaeoplastidiata-euglenophyta
#4
Matthew S Bennett, Shin-Han Shiu, Richard E Triemer
Gene duplication is an important evolutionary process that allows duplicate functions to diverge, or, in some cases, allows for new functional gains. However, in contrast to the nuclear genome, gene duplications within the chloroplast are extremely rare. Here, we present the chloroplast genome of the photosynthetic protist Euglena archaeoplastidiata. Upon annotation it was found that the chloroplast genome contained a novel tandem direct duplication which encoded a portion of RuBisCO large subunit (rbcL) followed by a complete copy of ribosomal protein L32 (rpl32) as well as the associated intergenic sequences...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282220/identification-and-characterization-of-early-mission-phase-microorganisms-residing-on-the-mars-science-laboratory-and-assessment-of-their-potential-to-survive-mars-like-conditions
#5
Stephanie A Smith, James N Benardini, David Anderl, Matt Ford, Emmaleen Wear, Michael Schrader, Wayne Schubert, Linda DeVeaux, Andrzej Paszczynski, Susan E Childers
Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281691/monodomain-blue-phase-liquid-crystal-layers-for-phase-modulation
#6
E Oton, E Netter, T Nakano, Y D-Katayama, F Inoue
Liquid crystal "Blue Phases" (BP) have evolved, in the last years, from a scientific curiosity to emerging materials for new photonic and display applications. They possess attractive features over standard nematic liquid crystals, like submillisecond switching times and polarization- independent optical response. However, BPs still present a number of technical issues that prevent their use in practical applications: their phases are only found in limited temperature ranges, thus requiring stabilization of the layers; stabilized BP layers are inhomogeneous and not uniformly oriented, which worsen the optical performance of the devices...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277165/xenobiotic-c-sulfonate-derivatives-metabolites-or-metabonates
#7
Stephen C Mitchell
1. The production of sulfate conjugates is a well-known and established pathway within the field of xenobiotic metabolism. In addition to the usual attachment of a sulfonate grouping via an oxygen atom (O-sulfonates) to yield a sulfate conjugate, so-called "N-sulfates" (N-sulfonates) have been reported and "S-sulfates" (S-sulfonates) mooted to exist. 2. The few examples cited in the literature where the sulfur atom of the sulfonate group was attached directly to a carbon atom of the xenobiotic (C-sulfonates) and subsequently excreted as a metabolite have been collated, examined and reviewed...
February 28, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262844/sex-allocation-promotes-the-stable-co-occurrence-of-competitive-species
#8
Kazuya Kobayashi
Biodiversity has long been a source of wonder and scientific curiosity. Theoretically, the co-occurrence of competitive species requires niche differentiation, and such differences are well known; however, the neutral theory, which assumes the equivalence of all individuals regardless of the species in a biological community, has successfully recreated observed patterns of biodiversity. In this research, the evolution of sex allocation is demonstrated to be the key to resolving why the neutral theory works well, despite the observed species differences...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260751/sexual-lifestyle-risk-factors-and-socioeconomic-status-of-the-std-patients-in-bangladesh
#9
A K Nandi, K J Hossain, A S Islam
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing alarmingly with time among the young-adults in Bangladesh. The objective of the study was to investigate Sexual lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients. A total of 205 STD patients were selected following convenient method of sampling consistent with defined selection criteria from outpatient department of Skin and Venereal Disease of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Period of data collection was from July 2014 to June 2015...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251806/implications-of-vertebrate-craniodental-evo-devo-for-human-oral-health
#10
REVIEW
Julia C Boughner
Highly processed diets eaten by postindustrial modern human populations coincide with higher frequencies of third molar impaction, malocclusion, and temporomandibular joint disorders that affect millions of people worldwide each year. Current treatments address symptoms, not causes, because the multifactorial etiologies of these three concerns mask which factors incline certain people to malocclusion, impaction, and/or joint issues. Deep scientific curiosity about the origins of jaws and dentitions continues to yield rich insights about the developmental genetic mechanisms that underpin healthy craniodental morphogenesis and integration...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248411/reflective-journals-unmasking-student-perceptions-of-anatomical-education
#11
Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil Sewsaran Satyapal
In medical education, reflection has been considered to be a core skill in professional competence. The anatomy laboratory is an ideal setting for faculty/student interaction and provides invaluable opportunities for active learning and reflection on anatomical knowledge. This study was designed to record student attitudes regarding human cadaveric dissection, explore their experiences of anatomy through an analysis of their journal-reflective writings and determine whether this type of creative writing had a beneficial effect on those students who chose to complete them...
March 1, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241911/the-grateful-aging-program-a-naturalistic-model-of-transformation-and-healing-into-the-second-half-of-life
#12
Marilyn Schlitz
OBJECTIVES: Understanding and managing the process of aging is a central issue in modern society. This is a critical factor given the demographic shift toward an aging population and the negative stereotypes around aging that can limit people's worldview on aging with gratitude and well-being. METHODS: Building on three decades of qualitative and quantitative studies on positive worldview transformation at the California-based Institute of Noetic Sciences, this article applies an empirically derived naturalistic model of transformation to aging...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240037/meckel-s-diverticulum-perforated-by-a-fishbone-an-unusual-presentation
#13
Fernando Karel Fonseca Sosa
Finding a Meckel's diverticulum during a laparotomy is rare, operating on a patient for a complication of diverticulum is rare, but if this complication is the result of a perforation of the diverticulum by a foreign body, then we are in the presence of a medical curiosity. OBJECTIVE: To present the following case because despite being known, the etiological agent that caused the perforation is very unusual. METHOD: male 53 years old with a history of emergency surgically underwent surgery for acute appendicitis 10 years where he underwent an appendectomy and a non-complicated Meckel's diverticulum was identified...
February 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239226/temperature-and-moisture-dependent-studies-on-alunogen-and-the-crystal-structure-of-meta-alunogen-determined-from-laboratory-powder-diffraction-data
#14
Volker Kahlenberg, Doris E Braun, Hannes Krüger, Daniela Schmidmair, Maria Orlova
Starting from a synthetic sample with composition Al2(SO4)3·16.6H2O, the high-temperature- and moisture-dependent behavior of alunogen has been unraveled by TGA measurements, in situ powder X-ray diffraction as well as by gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies. Heating experiments using the different techniques show that alunogen undergoes a first dehydration process already starting at temperatures slightly above 40 °C. The crystalline product of the temperature-induced dehydration corresponds to the synthetic equivalent of meta-alunogen and has the following chemical composition: Al2(SO4)3·13...
2017: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223952/the-role-of-personality-traits-in-young-adult-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption
#15
Tamlin S Conner, Laura M Thompson, Rachel L Knight, Jayde A M Flett, Aimee C Richardson, Kate L Brookie
This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17-25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222824/curiosity-killed-the-cat-no-evidence-of-an-association-between-cat-ownership-and-psychotic-symptoms-at-ages-13-and-18-years-in-a-uk-general-population-cohort
#16
F Solmi, J F Hayes, G Lewis, J B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early life infection with Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia aetiology. Childhood cat ownership has been hypothesized as an intermediary marker of T. gondii infection and, by proxy, as a risk factor for later psychosis. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is, however, limited. METHOD: We used birth cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate whether cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood (ages 4 and 10 years) was associated with psychotic experiences (PEs) in early (age 13, N = 6705) and late (age 18, N = 4676) adolescence, rated from semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221086/cassandra-s-regret-the-psychology-of-not-wanting-to-know
#17
Gerd Gigerenzer, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
Ignorance is generally pictured as an unwanted state of mind, and the act of willful ignorance may raise eyebrows. Yet people do not always want to know, demonstrating a lack of curiosity at odds with theories postulating a general need for certainty, ambiguity aversion, or the Bayesian principle of total evidence. We propose a regret theory of deliberate ignorance that covers both negative feelings that may arise from foreknowledge of negative events, such as death and divorce, and positive feelings of surprise and suspense that may arise from foreknowledge of positive events, such as knowing the sex of an unborn child...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220373/body-dysmorphic-disorder-history-and-curiosities
#18
Katlein França, Maria Grazia Roccia, David Castillo, Mana ALHarbi, Georgi Tchernev, Anastasia Chokoeva, Torello Lotti, Massimo Fioranelli
Body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with an absent or minimal physical deformity. It causes severe distress and impairs normal functioning. In the last centuries, this disorder has been mentioned in the medical literature by important mental health practitioners by different names, such as "dysmorphophobia" or "dermatologic hypochondriasis". However, not until the last century was it included among the obsessive-compulsive disorders, although its classification has changed over time...
February 20, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209887/scientific-curiosity-versus-polarization
#19
Barbara R Jasny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206708/physiological-metabolic-and-biotechnological-features-of-extremely-thermophilic-microorganisms
#20
REVIEW
James A Counts, Benjamin M Zeldes, Laura L Lee, Christopher T Straub, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The current upper thermal limit for life as we know it is approximately 120°C. Microorganisms that grow optimally at temperatures of 75°C and above are usually referred to as 'extreme thermophiles' and include both bacteria and archaea. For over a century, there has been great scientific curiosity in the basic tenets that support life in thermal biotopes on earth and potentially on other solar bodies. Extreme thermophiles can be aerobes, anaerobes, autotrophs, heterotrophs, or chemolithotrophs, and are found in diverse environments including shallow marine fissures, deep sea hydrothermal vents, terrestrial hot springs-basically, anywhere there is hot water...
February 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
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