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Brad Bolman
Cold War curiosities about the dangers of radiation generated significant funding for an array of biomedical projects as enticing as they were unpredictable, introducing newly standardized experimental animals into laboratories and a novel merging of scientific disciplines. The desire to understand radiation's effects on human longevity spurred a multi-sited, multi-decade project that subjected beagle dogs to varying degrees of irradiation. One of those laboratories, located at the southern tip of the campus of the University of California, Davis, eventually hosted an elaborate experimental breeding kennel and a population of 'control' dogs that set new milestones for canine longevity...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
Matthew Chojnacki, Lori K Fenton
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity engaged in a monthlong campaign investigating the Bagnold dune field in Gale crater. What represents the first in situ investigation of a dune field on another planet has resulted in a number of discoveries. Collectively, the Curiosity rover team has compiled the most comprehensive survey of any extraterrestrial aeolian system visited to date with results that yield important insights into a number of processes, including sediment transport, bed form morphology and structure, chemical and physical composition of aeolian sand, and wind regime characteristics...
November 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Yu Peng, Min Fan, Jingyi Song, Tiantian Cui, Rui Li
Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R2  = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Klaus Griesar, John Bessant, Sabine Bernschneider-Reif
The elephant is in the room-a metaphorical idiom for an obvious problem or risk that nobody wants to discuss. This abstract is not intended to be a summary, to reveal major findings, or unveil conclusions. On the contrary, it is aimed to provoke curiosity as to the question of corporate survival. Is there any recipe to be followed for companies to achieve this? The answer comes neither from the modest and traditional study rooms of philosophers nor the recent fact-based studies from the offices (and well-paid opinions) of business consultants...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Zachary H Levine
A measurement of a thermophysical property of water is made using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the standard value of 5.5. The close agreement is not representative of the actual uncertainties in this simple experiment. Heating water in a microwave oven can let a student apply the techniques of quantitative science based on questions generated by his or her scientific curiosity...
February 2018: Phys Teach
Akhilesh S Pathipati, Christine K Cassel
Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Dolly A Parasrampuria, Leslie Z Benet, Amarnath Sharma
New drug development is both resource and time intensive, where later clinical stages result in significant costs. We analyze recent late-stage failures to identify drugs where failures result from inadequate scientific advances as well as drugs where we believe pitfalls could have been avoided. These can be broadly classified into two categories: 1) where science is mature and the failures can be avoided through rigorous and prospectively determined decision-making criteria, scientific curiosity, and discipline to follow up on emerging findings; and 2) where problems encountered in Phase 3 failures cannot be explained at this time, as the science is not sufficiently advanced and companies/investigators need to recognize the possibility of deficiency of our knowledge...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Li Jiang
Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology...
March 12, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Veni Kandasamy, Ashley H Hirai, Reem M Ghandour, Michael D Kogan
OBJECTIVE: Flourishing reflects positive mental health and thriving and is important for children's development and well-being. Few national studies of flourishing among school-aged children exist. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage is negatively associated with social and health outcomes, including flourishing. This analysis describes independent associations of the child, family, school, and neighborhood factors with flourishing, which we hypothesized may contribute to sociodemographic disparities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Felipe Fantuzzi, Caroline B Coutinho, Ricardo R Oliveira, Marco Antonio Chaer Nascimento
Different families of nanomaterials produced from the stabilization of diboryne (B≡B) units by multitopic N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), such as nanowires, nanorings, and nanotents, were studied by computational methods. Density functional theory calculations with and without periodic boundary conditions were applied to estimate the dependence of the electronic and thermochemical properties of different diboryne macromolecules with respect to the nature of the bridging ligand. Our results show that all diboryne nanostructures studied herein are viable candidates for synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature
Gerd Heusch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Alessandra Prioreschi, Thomas Nappey, Kate Westgate, Patrick Olivier, Soren Brage, Lisa Kim Micklesfield
Background: It is important to be able to reliably and feasibly measure infant and toddler physical activity in order to determine adherence to current physical activity guidelines and effects on early life development, growth and health. This study aimed to describe the development of an infant wearable wrist-worn band for the measurement of physical activity; to determine the feasibility of the device data for observational measurement of physical activity and to determine the caregiver reported acceptability of the infant wearable wrist band...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
R C Ewing, M G A Lapotre, K W Lewis, M Day, N Stein, D M Rubin, R Sullivan, S Banham, M P Lamb, N T Bridges, S Gupta, W W Fischer
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart...
December 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
B L Ehlmann, K S Edgett, B Sutter, C N Achilles, M L Litvak, M G A Lapotre, R Sullivan, A A Fraeman, R E Arvidson, D F Blake, N T Bridges, P G Conrad, A Cousin, R T Downs, T S J Gabriel, R Gellert, V E Hamilton, C Hardgrove, J R Johnson, S Kuhn, P R Mahaffy, S Maurice, M McHenry, P-Y Meslin, D W Ming, M E Minitti, J M Morookian, R V Morris, C D O'Connell-Cooper, P C Pinet, S K Rowland, S Schröder, K L Siebach, N T Stein, L M Thompson, D T Vaniman, A R Vasavada, D F Wellington, R C Wiens, A S Yen
The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover performed coordinated measurements to examine the textures and compositions of aeolian sands in the active Bagnold dune field. The Bagnold sands are rounded to subrounded, very fine to medium sized (~45-500 μm) with ≥6 distinct grain colors. In contrast to sands examined by Curiosity in a dust-covered, inactive bedform called Rocknest and soils at other landing sites, Bagnold sands are darker, less red, better sorted, have fewer silt-sized or smaller grains, and show no evidence for cohesion...
December 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Michael S Schuurman, Albert Stolow
The nonadiabatic coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is the defining feature of electronically excited states of polyatomic molecules. Once considered a theoretical curiosity, conical intersections (CIs) are now generally accepted as being the dominant source of coupled charge and vibrational energy flow in molecular excited states. Passage through CIs leads to the conversion of electronic to vibrational energy, which drives the ensuing photochemistry, isomerization being a canonical example...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
Josefine Atzendorf, Elena Gomes de Matos, Christoph Kröger, Ludwig Kraus, Daniela Piontek
AIM: Estimates of e-cigarette consumption in Germany vary considerably. The use of e-cigarettes for tobacco cessation is critically discussed. Based on current data, the distribution of the consumption of e-cigarettes and their use in the adult general population of Germany will be presented. METHODS: The 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse, a nationwide survey of 18 to 64 year-old people in Germany (n=9,204, response rate: 52,2%), was used as data basis...
February 27, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
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