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Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Peter J Pitts, Patrick Brady
A series of recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals (such as Sarepta's Exondys 51, Merck's Keytruda, and Portola's Bevyxxa) has generated significant interest within the drug development ecosystem. Facilitated regulatory pathways aimed toward expediting medicines to patients suffering from serious and life-threatening conditions are a good thing, even if it raises curiosity and introduces some degree of uncertainty. Over the last 20 years, two key words in drug development have been speed and innovation...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Suin Jo, Hye-Ran Kim, YeVin Mun, Chang-Duk Jun
Transgelin-2 is a small 22-kDa actin-binding protein implicated in actin dynamics, which stabilizes actin structures and participates in actin-associated signaling pathways. Much curiosity regarding transgelin-2 has centered around its dysregulation in tumor development and associated diseases. However, recent studies have shed new light on the functions of transgelin-2, the only transgelin family member present in leukocytes, in the context of various immune responses. In this review, we outlined the biochemical properties of transgelin-2 and its physiological functions in T cells, B cells, and macrophages...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Alexander P Christensen, Katherine N Cotter, Paul J Silvia
Openness to Experience is a complex trait, the taxonomic structure of which has been widely debated. Previous research has provided greater clarity of its lower order structure by synthesizing facets across several scales related to Openness to Experience. In this study, we take a finer grained approach by investigating the item-level relations of four Openness to Experience inventories (Big Five Aspects Scale, HEXACO-100, NEO PI-3, and Woo et al.'s Openness to Experience Inventory), using a network science approach, which allowed items to form an emergent taxonomy of facets and aspects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Marc B Schure, Tracy L Simpson, Michelle Martinez, George Sayre, David J Kearney
OBJECTIVE: U.S. veterans are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prior studies suggest a benefit of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for PTSD, but the mechanisms through which MBSR reduces PTSD symptoms and improves functional status have received limited empirical inquiry. This study used a qualitative approach to better understand how training in mindfulness affects veterans with PTSD. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews following participation in an MBSR intervention...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Sabrina Hoppe, Tobias Loetscher, Stephanie A Morey, Andreas Bulling
Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness) as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Diederik Roke, Sander J Wezenberg, Ben L Feringa
The field of synthetic molecular machines has quickly evolved in recent years, growing from a fundamental curiosity to a highly active field of chemistry. Many different applications are being explored in areas such as catalysis, self-assembled and nanostructured materials, and molecular electronics. Rotary molecular motors hold great promise for achieving dynamic control of molecular functions as well as for powering nanoscale devices. However, for these motors to reach their full potential, many challenges still need to be addressed...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Harley O'Connor Mount, Nicole M Revie, Robert T Todd, Kaitlin Anstett, Cathy Collins, Michael Costanzo, Charles Boone, Nicole Robbins, Anna Selmecki, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections caused by the pathogen Candida albicans have transitioned from a rare curiosity to a major cause of human mortality. This is in part due to the emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungals available to treat fungal infections. Azoles function by targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. Loss-of-function mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic gene ERG3 mitigate azole toxicity and enable resistance that depends upon fungal stress responses...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Luiz Carlos Pinho
Children curiosity about how taxonomy works led me to ask for their help to choose a name for a new species of Aedokritus Roback from Pará State (Brazilian Amazon). Aedokritus adotivae sp. n. is here described based on male adults. A key to species of the genus is provided.
March 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, R Jayachandra Babu, Nuggehally R Srinivas
The recent approval of edaravone has provided an intravenous option to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in addition to the existing oral agent, riluzole. The present work was primarily undertaken to provide a comprehensive clinical pharmacokinetic summary of the two approved ALS therapeutics. The key objectives of the review were to (i) tabulate the clinical pharmacokinetics of riluzole and edaravone with emphasis on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties; (ii) provide a comparative scenario of the pharmacokinetics of the two drugs wherever possible; and (iii) provide perspectives and introspection on the gathered clinical pharmacokinetic data of the two drugs with appropriate conjectures to quench scientific curiosity...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Paula M Procter, Marisa L Wilson
This paper describes work that has taken place over the past three years in the form of an annual deep dive study track within a national conference setting. The work explores the changing influence that big data, and in particular population and social determinants of health data, makes upon the generation of co-created eHealth within a nursing domain. Working with delegates, many of whom returned year after year, the paper reports the discussion themes and ideas that evolved over time. The paper is presented as an example of connected reasoning and personal development by all those involved and is offered as a distributed think tank for further discussion and debate...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Israel Terungwa Agaku, Satomi Odani, David Homa, Brian Armour, Rebecca Glover-Kudon
IMPORTANCE: Two components of social norms-descriptive (estimated prevalence) and injunctive (perceived acceptability)-can influence youth tobacco use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and cigarette descriptive norms and measure the associations between overestimation of e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: School-based, using paper-and-pencil questionnaires...
April 18, 2018: Tobacco Control
Katherine A Margolis, Elisabeth A Donaldson, David B Portnoy, Joelle Robinson, Linda J Neff, Ahmed Jamal
Understanding factors associated with youth e-cigarette openness and curiosity are important for assessing probability of future use. We examined how e-cigarette harm perceptions and advertising exposure are associated with openness and curiosity among tobacco naive youth. Findings from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were analyzed. The 2015 NYTS is a nationally representative survey of 17,711 U.S. middle and high school students. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of never users of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, waterpipe/hookah, smokeless tobacco, bidis, pipes, dissolvables, e-cigarettes) who were open to or curious about e-cigarette use, by demographics...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jeyaraj Vinoth Kumar, Raj Karthik, Shen-Ming Chen, Karikalan Natarajan, Chelladurai Karuppiah, Chun-Chen Yang, Velluchamy Muthuraj
Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured materials have received enormous curiosity in energy and environment remediation applications. Herein, we developed a novel 3D flower-like gadolinium molybdate (Gd2MoO6; GdM) and used as a bi-functional catalyst for the electrochemical detection and photocatalytic degradation of organophosphate pesticide fenitrothion (FNT). The flower-like GdM catalyst was prepared via simple sol-gel technique with the assistance of urea and ethylene glycol. The properties of GdM were confirmed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thomas E White
Iridescence, a change in hue with viewing or illumination geometry, is a common feature of colour patterns in nature, though its significance remains elusive. Recent studies of floral iridescence reveal its functional versatility in enhancing the detection and discrimination of resources by insect viewers, as well as augmenting higher-level processes of memory and perception. Coupled with a known evolutionary lability, these results suggest intriguing possibilities for how this optical curiosity may act as a key to diversification...
April 11, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
I S Pretorius, J D Boeke
Historians of the future may well describe 2018 as the year that the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome became a reality. Without the benefit of hindsight, it might be hard to completely grasp the long-term significance of a breakthrough moment in the history of science like this. The role of synthetic biology in the imminent birth of a budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell carrying 16 man-made chromosomes causes the world of science to teeter on the threshold of a future-defining scientific frontier...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Christopher J Stefan
It is well over half a century since contacts between organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and the plasma membrane (PM) were first observed in electron microscopy studies. Still, these early images of seemingly rare organelle interactions continue to capture the attention and curiosity of cell biologists even today. From seminal studies first proposing roles for organelle cross talk in excitable cells, the field has now expanded to cover nearly all aspects of eukaryotic cell biology, from calcium and membrane lipid transport to vesicular trafficking, cell signaling, metabolism, and homeostasis...
April 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Cheng-Shih Lin, Mei-Yuan Jeng, Tsu-Ming Yeh
This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Melissa A Brown
Like many of us who had the great fortune to work with Bill Paul, my science life was immeasurably altered by my interactions with him. Although intimidating at first because of his stature in the immunology world, it was soon clear that he not only truly cared about the specific research we were doing together, but he wished to convey to his trainees an approach to science that was open, always questioning, and infinitely fun. His enthusiasm was infectious and after my training with him, despite stresses due to funding and publishing hurdles, I never regretted the path I took...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Li Zhang, Hai-Dong Xu, Qi-Ying Leng, Yan-Fen Liu, Zhihui Zhao, Mei Xiao, Jiang Wu, Quan Zhang, Li-Long An
With the implementation of the "Education and Training Program for Outstanding Agricultural and Forestry Talents" in our country, our university established the "Outstanding Class" for students majoring in the animal science. We also carried out a series of educational management and curriculum reforms to cultivate students' systematic model of thinking and the ability of technology innovation. In this paper, we designed a comprehensive experiment that focused on analyzing early and late feather genetic traits of chicken...
March 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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