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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641938/administration-of-a-leptin-antagonist-during-the-neonatal-leptin-surge-induces-alterations-in-the-redox-and-inflammatory-state-in-peripubertal-adolescent-rats
#1
Virginia Mela, Oskarina Hernandez, Caroline Hunsche, Francisca Diaz, Julie A Chowen, Mónica De la Fuente
The importance of the neonatal leptin surge in rodents in neurodevelopmental processes has aroused curiosity in its implication in other physiological systems. Given the role of leptin in neuro-immune interactions, we hypothesized that the neonatal leptin surge could have an effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress situations of both systems. We blocked the neonatal leptin surge by a leptin antagonist and measured several parameters of oxidative and inflammatory stress in the spleen, hypothalamus and adipose tissue of peripubertal/adolescent rats...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639132/identifying-the-neural-substrates-of-intrinsic-motivation-during-task-performance
#2
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637487/the-nf1-somatic-mutational-landscape-in-sporadic-human-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Charlotte Philpott, Hannah Tovell, Ian M Frayling, David N Cooper, Meena Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia...
June 21, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626151/changes-in-social-interaction-over-20-years-and-the-effects-of-community-resources-use-among-community-dwelling-elderly-persons
#4
Kumi Watanabe, Emiko Tanaka, Bailiang Wu, Zyunko Kobayashi, Yukiko Mochizuki, Yeon Kim, Taeko Watanabe, Rika Okumura, Sumio Ito, Tokie Anme
Objectives Recently, social isolation has been reported to be a critical problem among Japanese elderly persons. However, few studies have compared social interaction in the past and the present or investigated its predictive factors. This study aimed to clarify the transitional changes in social interaction over 20 years and explore the factors related to social interaction focusing on the use of community resources.Methods The participants were community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#5
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601719/suicidality-psychopathology-and-the-internet-online-time-vs-online-behaviors
#6
Keith M Harris, Vladan Starcevic, Jing Ma, Wei Zhang, Elias Aboujaoude
This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales...
June 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592505/genome-diversity-and-evolution-in-the-budding-yeasts-saccharomycotina
#7
Bernard A Dujon, Edward J Louis
Considerable progress in our understanding of yeast genomes and their evolution has been made over the last decade with the sequencing, analysis, and comparisons of numerous species, strains, or isolates of diverse origins. The role played by yeasts in natural environments as well as in artificial manufactures, combined with the importance of some species as model experimental systems sustained this effort. At the same time, their enormous evolutionary diversity (there are yeast species in every subphylum of Dikarya) sparked curiosity but necessitated further efforts to obtain appropriate reference genomes...
June 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590712/structural-characterization-of-intermetallic-compounds-by-27-al-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#8
Christopher Benndorf, Hellmut Eckert, Oliver Janka
Intermetallic compounds are of broad interest for solid state chemists, condensed matter physicists, and material scientists due to their intriguing crystal chemistry, their physical properties, and their potential applications, ranging from lab curiosities to everyday objects. To characterize and understand the properties of new compounds and novel materials, the availability of structural information, particularly single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, is a mandatory prerequisite. Especially when it comes to the formation of compounds with deficient or mixed site occupancies, superstructures, or representatives crystallizing in other, thus far unknown structure types, a complementary method for structural analysis is of great value...
June 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583361/narrative-constructs-in-modern-clinical-case-reporting
#9
Brian Hurwitz
Modern clinical case reporting takes the form of problem-solution narratives that redescribe symptoms in terms of disease categories. Authored almost always by those who have played a part in the medical assessment of the patient, reports historicise the salient details of an individual's illness as a complex effect of identifiable antecedent causes. Candidate hypotheses linking illness to pathological mechanisms are suggested by the patient's experience, and by data that emerge from clinical examination and investigation...
April 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581531/genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-mood-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Serretti
Genetic research in Psychiatry is viewed by clinicians with both hope and curiosity sometimes mixed with disillusionment. Indeed, in the last 30 years many results have not been confirmed and clinical applications are still missing. However recent findings suggest that we are at the beginning of a new era. A set of variants within neuroplasticity and inflammation genes have been identified as a valid basis for both bipolar disorder and major depression. Similarly, a set of genes has been identified as a liability factor for response and tolerability to antidepressants and the first clinical applications are already in the market...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579442/phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-of-the-nasal-cavity-and-paranasal-sinuses-a-clinical-curiosity-presenting-a-diagnostic-challenge
#11
Shubhada V Kane, Aanchal Kakkar, Nikita Oza, Epari Sridhar, Prathamesh S Pai
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) and elevated serum FGF-23. Common in extremities, PMT rarely occurs in sinonasal region. We report a series of sinonasal PMT diagnosed at our institute over a 6-year period. Six cases of sinonasal PMT were identified during this period, of which five presented with features of TIO. Median age of patients was 45.5 years. All six tumors were composed of stellate to spindled cells, with prominent staghorn vasculature in four cases...
June 1, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575755/evaluation-of-an-online-master-s-programme-in-somaliland-a-phenomenographic-study-on-the-experience-of-professional-and-personal-development-among-midwifery-faculty
#12
Kerstin Erlandsson, Fatumo Osman, Mathias Hatakka, Jama Ali Egal, Ulrika Byrskog, Christina Pedersen, Marie Klingberg-Allvin
To record the variation of perceptions of midwifery faculty in terms of the possibilities and challenges related to the completion of their first online master's level programme in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Somaliland. The informants included in this phenomenongraphical focus group study were those well-educated professional women and men who completed the master's program. The informant perceived that this first online master's level programme provided tools for independent use of the Internet and independent searching for evidence-based information, enhanced professional development, was challenge-driven and evoked curiosity, challenged professional development, enhanced personal development and challenged context-bound career paths...
May 23, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572555/searching-for-stereoisomerism-in-crystallographic-databases-algorithm-analysis-and-chiral-curiosities
#13
E Grothe, H Meekes, R de Gelder
The automated identification of chiral centres in molecular residues is a non-trivial task. Current tools that allow the user to analyze crystallographic data entries do not identify chiral centres in some of the more complex ring structures, or lack the possibility to determine and compare the chirality of multiple structures. This article presents an approach to identify asymmetric C atoms, which is based on the atomic walk count algorithm presented by Rücker & Rücker [(1993), J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572336/redox-stratification-of-an-ancient-lake-in-gale-crater-mars
#14
J A Hurowitz, J P Grotzinger, W W Fischer, S M McLennan, R E Milliken, N Stein, A R Vasavada, D F Blake, E Dehouck, J L Eigenbrode, A G Fairén, J Frydenvang, R Gellert, J A Grant, S Gupta, K E Herkenhoff, D W Ming, E B Rampe, M E Schmidt, K L Siebach, K Stack-Morgan, D Y Sumner, R C Wiens
In 2012, NASA's Curiosity rover landed on Mars to assess its potential as a habitat for past life and investigate the paleoclimate record preserved by sedimentary rocks inside the ~150-kilometer-diameter Gale impact crater. Geological reconstructions from Curiosity rover data have revealed an ancient, habitable lake environment fed by rivers draining into the crater. We synthesize geochemical and mineralogical data from lake-bed mudstones collected during the first 1300 martian solar days of rover operations in Gale...
June 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568962/rhetoric-versus-reality-the-role-of-research-in-deconstructing-concepts-of-caring
#15
Dawn Freshwater, Jane Cahill, Philip Esterhuizen, Tessa Muncey, Helen Smith
Our aim was to employ a critical analytic lens to explicate the role of nursing research in supporting the notion of caring realities. To do this, we used case exemplars to illustrate the infusion of such discourses. The first exemplar examines the fundamental concept of caring: using Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, the case study surfaces caring as originally grounded in ritualized practice and subsequently describes its transmutation, via competing discourses, to a more holistic concept. It is argued that in the many and varied attempts to define the dynamic concept of care, caring has now become paradoxically, a more fragmented concept despite attempts to render it more holistic and inclusive...
May 31, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#16
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558603/social-media-awareness-and-implications-in-nursing-leadership
#17
Candace W Burton, Monica R McLemore, Laura Perry, Jenny Carrick, Mona Shattell
Many nursing professionals-may be reluctant to engage in or are confused about appropriate use of social media in a clinical, research, or policy context. To address this issue, we developed a study to enhance nurse leaders' facility with social media in the context of a national professional meeting. This study examined a social media campaign at the 2015 American Academy of Nursing conference. The campaign was intended to bridge the gap between active social media users and nonusers attending the conference...
November 2016: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551470/epidemiological-profile-of-smoking-and-nicotine-addiction-among-asthmatic-adolescents
#18
F Vázquez-Nava, E M Vázquez-Rodríguez, C F Vázquez-Rodríguez, O Castillo Ruiz, J Peinado Herreros
OBJECTIVE: Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, this habit in asthmatic adolescents continues to be a health problem worldwide. Our objectives were to determine the epidemiological profile of smoking and the degree of nicotine dependence among asthmatic adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Through a cross-sectional investigation, 3383 adolescents (13-19 years of age) were studied. METHODS: Information was collected using a previously validated questionnaire...
May 25, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547136/curiosities-of-x-chromosomal-markers-and-haplotypes
#19
Daniel Kling
Recent progress in forensic genetics has introduced a number of closely located short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome. Inevitably, dependencies arise that have to be accounted for. This paper will in detail explore the complex statistical interpretation of X-chromosomal STR markers, focusing on likelihood calculations. Specifically, we will investigate how the phase uncertainty of haplotypes comes into play in the statistical evaluations and what curious effects this phenomenon can have. The starting point is the different real cases where the weight of evidence has provided unexpected results that require further investigation in order to be fully understood...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#20
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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