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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926442/intrinsic-motivation-curiosity-and-learning-theory-and-applications-in-educational-technologies
#1
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905166/50-and-more-years-of-propellane-chemistry-from-a-chemical-curiosity-to-explosive-applications-in-material-sciences-and-natural-product-chemistry
#2
Alicia Merve Dilmac, Eduard Spuling, Armin de Meijere, Stefan Bräse
Propellanes are a unique class of compounds with well over 10000 members with an inverted tetrahedral configuration featuring a weak single bond between two carbon atoms linked by three additional bridge. Not only structurally interesting, these propella-type compounds exhibit unusual reactivities. In this review, we highlight their synthesis and applications in material sciences, natural product chemistry and medicinal chemistry. We feature the chemistry of [1.1.1]propellane like the synthesis of oligomeric and polymeric structures derived from it such as bicyclo[1...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899732/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-science-a-dialectic-of-scientific-fame
#3
Gregory J Feist
In this article, I argue that scientific fame and impact exists on a continuum from the mundane to the transformative/revolutionary. Ideally, one achieves fame and impact in science by synthesizing two extreme career prototypes: intrinsic and extrinsic research. The former is guided by interest, curiosity, passion, gut, and intuition for important untapped topics. The latter is guided by money, grants, and/or what is being published in top-tier journals. Assessment of fame and impact in science ultimately rests on productivity (publication) and some variation of its impact (citations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884015/joseph-fr%C3%A3-d%C3%A3-ric-beno%C3%A3-t-charri%C3%A3-re-how-to-explain-his-success-as-one-of-the-most-famous-surgical-instrument-makers-regarding-his-life-from-childhood-to-death
#4
Jasmin Katrin Badawi
INTRODUCTION: We use the name 'Charrière' every day as a unit of measurement. This article explains his success as one of the most famous instrument makers who ever lived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was completed using PubMed. Additionally, material of historical sources like the museum of Bulle was used. RESULTS: Joseph-Frédéric-Benoît Charrière was born in Switzerland in 1803. At the age of 13, he moved to Paris and learned the profession of a cutler...
November 25, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875641/saving-science-by-doing-less-of-it
#5
Gregory E Kaebnick
In the current issue of The New Atlantis, Daniel Sarewitz, professor of science and society at Arizona State University, argues that science is broken because it is managed and judged by scientists themselves, operating under Vannevar Bush's famous 1945 declaration that scientific progress depends on the "free play of free intellects … dictated by their curiosity." With that scientific agenda, society ends up with a lot of unnecessary, uncoordinated, and unproductive research. To save science, holds Sarewitz, we need to put it in the hands of people who are looking for practical solutions to specific problems...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872550/waterpipe-smoking-among-health-sciences-university-students-knowledge-attitude-and-patterns-of-use
#6
K H Awan, A Alrshedan, M Al Kahtani, S Patil
INTRODUCTION: Although waterpipe smoking is common in Gulf counties, its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among healthcare university students in Saudi Arabia and (b) to determine their attitudes and practices of waterpipe smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among university students of three different health sciences colleges, namely medical, dental, and pharmacy, of a public university, through random cluster sampling...
October 2016: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867788/the-stratigraphy-and-evolution-of-lower-mount-sharp-from-spectral-morphological-and-thermophysical-orbital-data-sets
#7
A A Fraeman, B L Ehlmann, R E Arvidson, C S Edwards, J P Grotzinger, R E Milliken, D P Quinn, M S Rice
We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1-3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate-bearing unit, (5) a hematite-capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near-infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit...
September 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857774/a-case-report-and-short-review-on-changing-trends-in-the-site-of-occurrence-of-adenomatoid-odontogenic-tumor-unravelling-the-past-15-years
#8
Sneha Sethi, Manish Kumar, Pratul Aggarwal, H S Indra Kumar, Chetan D Sugandhi, Silvie Singh
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion, with debatable histogenesis and variable histopathology. A systematic and diverse insight into the evolution, clinical presentation, histology, and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion is reviewed and presented. We reviewed the data published from 2000 to 2014 of approximately 255 cases that revealed a significant change in the incidence of predominant site involved, in contrast to the findings published by Reichart. We have also included the chronological order of events leading to the coining of the term AOT, which shows the curiosity that has been dedicated to understanding the lesion...
September 2016: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856701/40-years-of-medical-mycology-at-jac
#9
REVIEW
Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
In the past 40 years, medical mycology has gone from a curiosity in the basements of medical schools to a mainstream branch of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Long gone are the days of carefully curated collections of organisms identified purely based on morphology and skill, the lack of therapeutic interventions beyond amphotericin B and the occasional strange case in the ward of a diabetic patient with mucormycosis. We highlight advances in medical mycology as reflected in the past 40 years of JAC...
December 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854484/new-president-and-ceo-with-curiosity-and-determination-jensen-takes-reins-of-aami
#10
Amber Bauer, Sean Loughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848927/scientific-developments-of-liquid-crystal-based-optical-memory-a-review
#11
Jai Prakash, Achu Chandran, Ashok M Biradar
The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics...
November 16, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837526/liposomes-came-first-the-early-history-of-liposomology
#12
Volkmar Weissig
It has been a long journey from Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) to the FDA approval of the first injectable Nanomedicine in 1997. It has been a journey powered by intellectual curiosity, which began with sprinkling olive oil on seawater and culminated in playing around with smears of egg lecithin on microscopic slides. This brief review highlights how a few pairs of gifted hands attached to highly motivated brains have launched Liposome Technology.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834384/clinical-pancreatic-islet-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
A M James Shapiro, Marta Pokrywczynska, Camillo Ricordi
Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability)...
November 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834377/amazonian-chemical-weathering-rate-derived-from-stony-meteorite-finds-at-meridiani-planum-on-mars
#14
Christian Schröder, Phil A Bland, Matthew P Golombek, James W Ashley, Nicholas H Warner, John A Grant
Spacecraft exploring Mars such as the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, as well as the Mars Science Laboratory or Curiosity rover, have accumulated evidence for wet and habitable conditions on early Mars more than 3 billion years ago. Current conditions, by contrast, are cold, extremely arid and seemingly inhospitable. To evaluate exactly how dry today's environment is, it is important to understand the ongoing current weathering processes. Here we present chemical weathering rates determined for Mars...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829408/examining-the-effects-of-a-mindfulness-based-distance-learning-professional-training-module-on-personal-and-professional-functioning-a-qualitative-study
#15
Simon Whitesman, Robert Mash
BACKGROUND: Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826537/professor-rafael-rosell-curiosity-for-knowledge-and-passion-for-all-human-beings-keep-me-motivated
#16
Chao-Xiu Melanie He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813401/synthesis-of-corroles-and-their-heteroanalogs
#17
Rafał Orłowski, Dorota Gryko, Daniel T Gryko
Corroles have come a long way from being a curiosity to being a mainstream research topic. They are now regularly synthesized in numerous research laboratories worldwide with diverse specific aims in mind. In this review we present a comprehensive description of corroles' synthesis, developed both before and after 1999. To aid the investigator in developing synthetic strategies, some of the sections culminate in tables containing comparisons of various methodologies leading to meso-substituted corroles. The remaining challenges are delineated...
November 4, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799355/characterizing-young-adults-susceptibility-to-waterpipe-tobacco-use-and-their-reactions-to-messages-about-product-harms-and-addictiveness
#18
Isaac M Lipkus, Darren Mays, Kenneth P Tercyak
INTRODUCTION: There is very little insight into the psychosocial characteristics of young adults susceptible to waterpipe tobacco use and their reactions to messages about harms of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). We investigated how young adults who were or were not susceptible to WTS differed on various characteristics and their reactions to messages about WTS harms. METHODS: Young adults ages 18 to 30 who had never used waterpipe tobacco were recruited through an online crowdsourcing site...
October 31, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792537/nature-or-nurture-heritability-in-the-classroom
#19
Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore Garland
Understanding evolution is a necessary component of undergraduate education in biology, and evolution is difficult to explain without studying the heritability of traits. However, in most classes, heritability is presented with only a handful of graphs showing typical morphological traits, for example, beak size in finches and height in humans. The active-inquiry exercise outlined in the following pages allows instructors to engage students in this formerly dry subject by bringing their own data as the basis for estimates of heritability...
November 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784325/alcohol-consumption-and-accentuated-personality-traits-among-young-adults-in-romania-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Cornelia Rada, Alexandru Teodor Ispas
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to identify the frequency, quantity, occasions, reasons, type of AC, and correlation with accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania. METHODS: Participants were 1359 young adults aged 18-30 years (average age, 22.67 years; standard deviation [SD], 3...
October 27, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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