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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055147/cognitive-function-among-long-term-survivors-of-heart-transplantation
#1
Britta S Bürker, Einar Gude, Lars Gullestad, Ingelin Grov, Anne Relbo Authen, Arne K Andreassen, Odd E Havik, Mary Amanda Dew, Arnt E Fiane, Ira R Haraldsen, Ulrik F Malt, Stein Andersson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is documented early after heart transplantation (HTx), but we lack data on cognitive function beyond the fourth year posttransplant. Against the background of good long-term survival, this knowledge is necessary to improve clinical care throughout the entire posttransplant period. METHODS: We assessed cognitive function with a neuropsychological test battery in a sample of HTx recipients ≥16 years posttransplant. To improve clinical utility, we also applied adapted consensus criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055119/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-attenuates-early-eeg-components-associated-with-defective-sensory-gating-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-a-two-case-study
#2
Stefan Dürschmid, Christoph Reichert, Jens Kuhn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of Acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep Brain Stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD patients by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory relevant circuits...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054536/decreasing-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-alzheimer-s-pathology-in-mci-and-mild-dementia
#3
Jules Mathys, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Hugues Henry, Armin von Gunten, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified an association between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence and severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but this relationship is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the possible association between BMI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD pathology in subjects with normal cognition and cognitive impairment. The secondary objective was to test whether BMI may contribute to improve the accuracy of a clinical model to predict AD pathology in memory clinic patients with cognitive impairment...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054431/lesions-of-the-lateral-habenula-improve-working-memory-performance-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#4
Cheng Xue Du, Jian Liu, Yuan Guo, Li Zhang, Qiao Jun Zhang
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an important structure involved in various brain functions, because it controls the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the midbrain. The impairment of working memory commonly occurs in Parkinson's disease; however, it is not clear whether the LHb involves in the regulation of working memory in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In this study, we found that the MFB lesions in rats decreased choice accuracy as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation test compared to control rats, indicating the induction of working memory impairment, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and amygdala...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#5
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054290/addictive-behaviors-why-and-how-impaired-mental-time-matters
#6
Xavier Noël, Nematollah Jaafari, Antoine Bechara
Mental time travel (MTT) allows navigation into the past, the future, and the minds of others, and it subserves future-oriented decision-making. Impaired MTT has been associated with a tendency to over-rely on the present, which is a characteristic of addictive behaviors. We here discuss the possible relationship between impaired autographical memory, future-oriented MTT, shortened time horizons, suboptimal social cognition, and poor decision-making in individuals with drug and gambling use disorders. We elaborate on how impaired MTT could compromise the process of change in addiction recovery and the effectiveness of psychotherapy...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054287/differential-modulatory-effects-of-cocaine-on-marmoset-monkey-recognition-memory
#7
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Jéssica Aquino, Clarissa R S Vannuchi, Renata B M Duarte, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Marilia Barros
Acute and repeated exposure to cocaine alters the cognitive performance of humans and animals. How each administration schedule affects the same memory task has yet to be properly established in nonhuman primates. Therefore, we assessed the performance of marmoset monkeys in a spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition memory task after acute and repeated exposure to cocaine (COC; 5mg/kg, ip). Two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the 10-min sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced vs the stationary object was analyzed on the 10-min test trial...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053485/the-effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-augmentation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-on-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#8
Bjanka Vuksan Ćusa, Nataša Klepac, Nenad Jakšić, Zoran Bradaš, Marija Božičević, Natalia Palac, Marina Šagud
OBJECTIVES: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) continues to be a challenge in modern psychiatry. Most of these patients have severe neurocognitive deficits. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has proved effective and safe in the treatment of TRS, but because of potential neurocognitive adverse effects, it is associated with many controversies. The aim of this prospective, open study was to evaluate the effects of ECT augmentation of antipsychotics on cognitive functions in patients with TRS...
October 19, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053384/children-s-executive-function-attenuate-the-link-between-maternal-intrusiveness-and-internalizing-behaviors-at-school-entry
#9
Noa Gueron-Sela, Rachael Bedford, Nicholas J Wagner, Cathi B Propper
The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052802/the-development-of-episodic-future-thinking-in-middle-childhood
#10
F Ferretti, A Chiera, S Nicchiarelli, I Adornetti, R Magni, S Vicari, G Valeri, A Marini
The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j...
October 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052102/changes-in-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-and-autonomic-regulation-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-the-neuro-emotional-technique-for-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#11
Daniel A Monti, Anna Tobia, Marie Stoner, Nancy Wintering, Michael Matthews, Chris J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Inna Chervoneva, Andrew B Newberg
PURPOSE: A growing number of research studies have implicated the cerebellum in emotional processing and regulation, especially with regard to negative emotional memories. However, there currently are no studies showing functional changes in the cerebellum as a result of treatment for traumatic stress symptoms. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is an intervention designed to help improve symptoms related to traumatic stress using an integrative approach that combines emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, with a particular focus on autonomic nervous system regulation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051812/patients-perceptions-on-the-usability-of-the-surepal%C3%A2-self-injection-device-for-omnitrope-%C3%A2-a-questionnaire-based-observational-study-conducted-in-paediatric-patients-in-france
#12
Régis Coutant, Clémentine Dupuis, Patricia Pigeon, Phillipe Rebaud
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to evaluate attitudes towards a reusable self-injection system, SurePal™, among paediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with somatropin (Omnitrope(®)) as part of routine clinical practice. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was incorporated into the multinational, multi-centre, noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope(®) (PATRO) Children study. Questions were mainly focused on five areas: the attractiveness of SurePal™; training received; use of the device; opinion of the low-drug wastage system; experience compared with previous devices used (among pretreated patients)...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050849/neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-multi-day-brain-stimulation-and-memory-training
#13
Daria Antonenko, Nadine Külzow, Angelica Sousa, Kristin Prehn, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Strategies for memory enhancement, especially for the older population, are of great scientific and public interest. Here, we aimed at investigating neuronal and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with memory training. Young and older adults were trained on an object-location-memory task on 3 consecutive days with either anodal or sham tDCS. Recall performance was assessed immediately after training, 1 day and 1 month later, as well as performance on trained function and transfer task...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050391/psychogenic-amnesia-syndromes-outcome-and-patterns-of-retrograde-amnesia
#14
Neil A Harrison, Kate Johnston, Federica Corno, Sarah J Casey, Kimberley Friedner, Kate Humphreys, Eli J Jaldow, Mervi Pitkanen, Michael D Kopelman
There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050384/stimulating-thought-a-functional-mri-study-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-schizophrenia
#15
Natasza D Orlov, Owen O'Daly, Derek K Tracy, Yusuf Daniju, John Hodsoll, Lorena Valdearenas, John Rothwell, Sukhi S Shergill
Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050205/catalpol-protects-synaptic-proteins-from-beta-amyloid-induced-neuron-injury-and-improves-cognitive-functions-in-aged-rats
#16
Zhiming Xia, Fengfei Wang, Shuang Zhou, Rui Zhang, Fushun Wang, Jason H Huang, Erxi Wu, Yongfang Zhang, Yaer Hu
Synapse loss is one of the common factors contributing to cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is manifested by the impairment of basic cognitive functions including memory processing, perception, problem solving, and language. The current therapies for patients with cognitive disorders are mainly palliative; thus, regimens preventing and/or delaying dementia progression are urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of catalpol, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia glutinosa, on synaptic plasticity in aged rat models...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049509/prenatal-air-pollution-and-newborns-predisposition-to-accelerated-biological-aging
#17
Dries S Martens, Bianca Cox, Bram G Janssen, Diana B P Clemente, Antonio Gasparrini, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Harry A Roels, Michelle Plusquin, Tim S Nawrot
Importance: Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that may provide a cellular memory of exposures to oxidative stress and inflammation. Telomere length at birth has been related to life expectancy. An association between prenatal air pollution exposure and telomere length at birth could provide new insights in the environmental influence on molecular longevity. Objective: To assess the association of prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with newborn telomere length as reflected by cord blood and placental telomere length...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049429/correlation-of-handheld-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-with-radial-video-mosaicing-for-margin-mapping-of-lentigo-maligna-and-lentigo-maligna-melanoma
#18
Oriol Yélamos, Miguel Cordova, Nina Blank, Kivanc Kose, Stephen W Dusza, Erica Lee, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
Importance: The management of lentigo maligna (LM) and LM melanoma (LMM) is challenging because of extensive subclinical spread and its occurrence on cosmetically sensitive areas. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) improves diagnostic accuracy for LM and LMM and can be used to delineate their margins. Objectives: To evaluate whether handheld RCM with radial video mosaicing (HRCM-RV) offers accurate presurgical assessment of LM and LMM margins. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study included consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LM and LMM located on the head and neck area who sought consultation for surgical management from March 1, 2016, through March 31, 2017, at the Dermatology Service of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center...
October 11, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049307/dome-a-deduplication-optimization-method-for-the-newsql-database-backups
#19
Longxiang Wang, Zhengdong Zhu, Xingjun Zhang, Xiaoshe Dong, Yinfeng Wang
Reducing duplicated data of database backups is an important application scenario for data deduplication technology. NewSQL is an emerging database system and is now being used more and more widely. NewSQL systems need to improve data reliability by periodically backing up in-memory data, resulting in a lot of duplicated data. The traditional deduplication method is not optimized for the NewSQL server system and cannot take full advantage of hardware resources to optimize deduplication performance. A recent research pointed out that the future NewSQL server will have thousands of CPU cores, large DRAM and huge NVRAM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048606/contact-location-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#20
Darlene P Floden, Caio M Matias, Connor A Wathen, Grace E Ozinga, Olivia Hogue, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: A host of influences contribute to cognitive and behavioral changes following deep brain stimulation. The location of the active cathode is likely an important variable but it has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active contact location relative to the subthalamic nucleus and other neighboring structures is related to nonmotor outcomes. METHODS: We identified a retrospective, cross-sectional sample of 46 patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
October 18, 2017: Neurosurgery
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