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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679289/cross-state-dependency-of-learning-between-tramadol-and-mk-801-in-the-mouse-dorsal-hippocampus-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-no-signaling-pathway
#1
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Shiva Amiri, Ramin Ataee
RATIONALE: Tramadol, an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, as a psychoactive drug, is frequently abused by human beings. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of drug-associated learning and memory formation may help prevent drug addiction and relapse. Previous study revealed that dorsal hippocampus (CA1) plays a crucial role in the retrieval of tramadol-associated memory and that its role depends on the expression of CA1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Jafari-Sabet et al...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679197/neuropsychological-impacts-of-indirect-revascularization-for-pediatric-moyamoya-disease
#2
WooHyun Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Seong-Eun Park, Eun-Kyung Park, Ju-Seong Kim, Dong-Seok Kim, Kyu-Won Shim
PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease (MMD) commonly leads to neurocognitive impairment. This study was carried out to show that temporal encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) has a positive neuropsychological impact on pediatric MMD patients. METHODS: Fifty-five participants diagnosed with MMD from 2008 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study. The mean age at the preoperative evaluation was 9.5 years and the mean age at postoperative evaluation was 10.4. The average interval of initial and follow-up test was 10 months...
April 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#3
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678562/effects-of-postnatal-handling-on-adult-behavior-and-brain-mrna-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-gaba-a-receptor-subunit
#4
Haiyan Li, Chihiro Ishikawa, Takashi Shiga
Development of brain and behavior is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Postnatal handling, a manipulation that briefly separates mouse offspring from their mother during the postnatal period, has been reported to yield beneficial effects on the behavior of adult offspring. However, brain mechanisms underlying the effects on the behavior have not been well understood. Here we first examined effects of postnatal handling on the behavior of adult male BALB/c mice. Offspring were separated for 15 min every day between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P14 and then various behaviors were tested in the adulthood...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678164/unmet-healthcare-needs-of-elderly-people-in-korea
#5
Yoon-Sook Kim, Jongmin Lee, Yeonsil Moon, Kyoung Jin Kim, Kunsei Lee, Jaekyung Choi, Seol-Heui Han
BACKGROUND: Elderly people often have more complicated healthcare needs than younger adults due to additional functional decline, physical illness, and psychosocial needs. Unmet healthcare needs increase illness severity, complications, and mortality. Despite this, research on the unmet healthcare needs of elderly people is limited in Korea. This study analysed the effect of functional deterioration related to aging on unmet healthcare needs based on the Korea Health Panel Study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011-2013 survey of 8666 baseline participants aged 65 years and older...
April 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677942/insights-into-pharmacotherapy-management-for-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-wearables-activity-data
#6
Vincent Nguyen, Holger Kunz, Paul Taylor, Dionisio Acosta
We investigate what supervised classification models using clinical and wearables data are best suited to address two important questions about the management of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients: 1) does a PD patient require pharmacotherapy or not, and 2) whether therapies are having an effect. Currently, patient management is suboptimal due to using subjective patient reported episodes to answer these questions. METHODOLOGY: Clinical and real environment sensor data (memory, tapping, walking) was provided by the mPower study (6805 participants)...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677187/breastfeeding-during-infancy-and-neurocognitive-function-in-adolescence-16-year-follow-up-of-the-probit-cluster-randomized-trial
#8
Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Mikhail Hameza, Glen Doniger, Shimon Amit, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development is based almost exclusively on observational studies. In the 16-year follow-up study of a large, cluster-randomized trial of a breastfeeding promotion intervention, we evaluated the long-term persistence of the neurocognitive benefits of the breastfeeding promotion intervention previously observed at early school age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 13,557 participants (79...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675543/improved-vaccine-induced-immune-responses-via-a-ros-triggered-nanoparticle-based-antigen-delivery-system
#9
Xiaoyu Liang, Jianwei Duan, Xuanling Li, Xiaowei Zhu, Youlu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Hongfan Sun, Deling Kong, Chen Li, Jing Yang
Subunit vaccines that are designed based on recombinant antigens or peptides have shown promising potential as viable substitutes for traditional vaccines due to their better safety and specificity. However, the induction of adequate in vivo immune responses with appropriate effectiveness remains a major challenge for vaccine development. More recently, the implementation of a nanoparticle-based antigen delivery system has been considered a promising approach to improve the in vivo efficacy for subunit vaccine development...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674992/memory-modulation-self-improvement-or-self-depletion
#10
Andrea Lavazza
Autobiographical memory is fundamental to the process of self-construction. Therefore, the possibility of modifying autobiographical memories, in particular with memory-modulation and memory-erasing, is a very important topic both from the theoretical and from the practical point of view. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the state of the art of some of the most promising areas of memory-modulation and memory-erasing, considering how they can affect the self and the overall balance of the "self and autobiographical memory" system...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674988/a-virtual-object-location-task-for-children-gender-and-videogame-experience-influence-navigation-age-impacts-memory-and-completion-time
#11
David Rodriguez-Andres, Magdalena Mendez-Lopez, M-Carmen Juan, Elena Perez-Hernandez
The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5-12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674987/the-complex-interplay-between-depression-anxiety-and-executive-functioning-insights-from-the-ecas-in-a-large-als-population
#12
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#13
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674602/neuropsychological-performance-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-one-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Lucia Ioime, Riccardo Guglielmo, Giuseppe Fertonani Affini, Marianna Quatrale, Giovanni Martinotti, Antonino Callea, Evelina Savi, Luigi Janiri
Objective: Despite several studies that have highlighted the harmful effects of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions it remains unclear whether certain brain areas are more sensitive than others are or whether alcohol causes widespread cognitive deficit. Moreover, the role of continued abstinence has yet to be clarified regarding the quality of recovery on the different cognitive domains. The aim of this 1-year longitudinal study was to evaluate the recovery of cognitive deficits in the medium (6 months) and long term (12 months) after the interruption of drinking...
April 20, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674331/ono-8590580-a-novel-gaba-a-%C3%AE-5-negative-allosteric-modulator-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-preclinical-models
#15
Soichi Kawaharada, Miki Nakanishi, Nobuto Nakanishi, Keisuke Hazama, Masato Higashino, Arwel Lewis, Gary S Clark, Mark S Chambers, Scott A Maidment, Tetsuya Yasuhiro, Seishi Katsumata, Shuji Kaneko
GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits (GABAA α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABAA α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABAA α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABAA receptors with a Ki of 7...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674234/spiking-neural-networks-for-handwritten-digit-recognition-supervised-learning-and-network-optimization
#16
Shruti R Kulkarni, Bipin Rajendran
We demonstrate supervised learning in Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) for the problem of handwritten digit recognition using the spike triggered Normalized Approximate Descent (NormAD) algorithm. Our network that employs neurons operating at sparse biological spike rates below 300Hz achieves a classification accuracy of 98.17% on the MNIST test database with four times fewer parameters compared to the state-of-the-art. We present several insights from extensive numerical experiments regarding optimization of learning parameters and network configuration to improve its accuracy...
April 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674229/analytical-reverse-time-migration-an-innovation-in-imaging-of-infrastructures-using-ultrasonic-shear-waves
#17
Aziz Asadollahi, Lev Khazanovich
The emergence of ultrasonic dry point contact (DPC) transducers that emit horizontal shear waves has enabled efficient collection of high-quality data in the context of a nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures. This offers an opportunity to improve the quality of evaluation by adapting advanced imaging techniques. Reverse time migration (RTM) is a simulation-based reconstruction technique that offers advantages over conventional methods, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique. RTM is capable of imaging boundaries and interfaces with steep slopes and the bottom boundaries of inclusions and defects...
April 11, 2018: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673773/the-prevalence-and-cognitive-profile-of-sequence-space-synaesthesia
#18
Jamie Ward, Alberta Ipser, Eva Phanvanova, Paris Brown, Iris Bunte, Julia Simner
People with sequence-space synaesthesia visualize sequential concepts such as numbers and time as an ordered pattern extending through space. Unlike other types of synaesthesia, there is no generally agreed objective method for diagnosing this variant or separating it from potentially related aspects of cognition. We use a recently-developed spatial consistency test together with a novel questionnaire on naïve samples and estimate the prevalence of sequence-space synaesthesia to be around 8.1% (Study 1) to 12...
April 16, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673581/hoping-for-more-how-cognitive-science-has-and-hasn-t-been-helpful-to-the-ocd-clinician
#19
REVIEW
Allison J Ouimet, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Adam S Radomsky
Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673539/methodological-considerations-and-future-insights-for-24-hour-dietary-recall-assessment-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Emma Foster, Jennifer Bradley
Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
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