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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915077/how-do-government-regulations-influence-the-ability-to-practice-chinese-herbal-medicine-in-western-countries
#1
Tom Fleischer, Yi-Chang Su, Sunny Jui-Shan Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The regulation policies of substances used in Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), have a direct influence on the ability of health providers to practice in the clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: We set out to assess the truth behind the assumption that practice of CHM in the west is constrained by the regulations imposed by authorities in western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the first part of our study we surveyed and compiled lists of banned and restricted Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from six countries: USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada and Australia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912193/comparative-tissue-distribution-and-excretion-study-of-alkaloids-from-herba-ephedrae-radix-aconiti-lateralis-extracts-in-rats
#2
Mengyue Ren, Shuai Song, Dedong Liang, Weiting Hou, Xiaomei Tan, Jiabo Luo
Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis, composed of Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese), is a classical herbal combination proven to be effective in treating common cold, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Alkaloids, bioactive components of the herbal extract, have been associated with many side effects. Nine alkaloids, including norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine, were simultaneously quantified within 14...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832784/antitussive-anti-pyretic-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-ma-xing-gan-shi-tang-in-rodents
#3
Yu-Chin Lin, Ching-Wen Chang, Chi-Rei Wu
BACKGROUND: Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (abbreviated as MXGST), an important Chinese herbal prescribed for cough, bronchial inflammation and fever from pneumonia, consists of four medicinal herbs, including Ephedrae herb, Semen Pruni Armeniacae, licorice and Gypsum. These components, especially Ephedrae and Semen Pruni Armeniacae, possess antitussive activities, but they have severe adverse effects. METHODS: The pharmacological activities of MXGST extract in clinical use were investigated with citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine/histamine-induced bronchial contraction and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever in rodents...
November 10, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794230/dune-scale-distribution-pattern-of-herbaceous-plants-and-their-relationship-with-environmental-factors-in-a-saline-alkali-desert-in-central-asia
#4
Ye Tao, Gan-Lin Wu, Yuan-Ming Zhang
Sand dunes are the main landforms in modern deserts worldwide. As an important type of desert vegetation, herbaceous plants have long been acknowledged for their important ecological functions. We focus on the dune-scale distribution pattern of herbaceous plants and their relationship with the environment. During the early summer of 2010, the herbaceous plant density, coverage, aboveground biomass and eighteen environmental factors were surveyed from 214 plots (5m×5m) across two linear sand dunes (220m×110m) located in the Gurbantunggut Desert, China, a typical saline-alkali desert in Central Asia...
October 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733484/determination-of-the-metabolite-of-ephedrine-4-hydroxyephedrine-by-lc-ms-ms-in-rat-urine-and-its-application-in-excretion-profiles-after-oral-administration-of-ephedra-sinica-stapf-and-processing-ephedra-sinica-stapf
#5
Jie Xu, Rui Yan
This study aims to study the changes of metabolism of Ephedra sinica Stapf caused by processing. A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the quantitation of the major metabolite of ephedrine, 4-hydroxyephedrine, utilizing lidocaine as the internal standard in rat urine. Urine samples were precipitated with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Ultimate C18 analytical column. Detection was performed by a multiple reaction monitoring mode via an electrospray ionization source operating in the positive ionization mode...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695634/phenol-rich-compounds-sweet-gel-a-statistically-more-effective-antibiotic-than-cloxacillin-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Mehrab Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza Dashtdar, Babak Dashtdar, Gazala Afreen Khan, Karima Kardi
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. METHODS: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687002/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-data-points-an-imagery-dataset-of-paired-shrub-open-microsites-within-the-carrizo-plain-national-monument
#7
Taylor J Noble, Christopher J Lortie, Michael Westphal, H Scott Butterfield
BACKGROUND: Carrizo Plain National Monument (San Joaquin Desert, California, USA) is home to many threatened and endangered species including the blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila). Vegetation is dominated by annual grasses, and shrubs such as Mormon tea (Ephedra californica), which is of relevance to our target species, the federally listed blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and likely also provides key ecosystem services. We used relatively nonintrusive camera traps, or trail cameras, to capture interactions between animals and these shrubs using a paired shrub-open deployment...
September 27, 2016: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631428/ephedra-herb-extract-activates-desensitizes-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-reduces-capsaicin-induced-pain
#8
Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa, Yoshinori Kobayashi
Kampo medicines containing Ephedra Herb (EH) such as eppikajutsubuto and makyoyokukanto are used to treat myalgia, arthralgia, and rheumatism. The analgesic effects of these Kampo medicines are attributed to the anti-inflammatory action of EH. However, the molecular mechanism of the analgesic effect of EH remains to be clarified. In this study, the effects of EH extract (EHE) on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel, which plays an essential role in nociception on sensory neurons, were investigated using mTRPV1/Flp-In293 cells (stable mouse TRPV1-expressing transfectants)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625990/comparative-analysis-of-transcriptomes-in-aerial-stems-and-roots-of-ephedra-sinica-based-on-high-throughput-mrna-sequencing
#9
Taketo Okada, Hironobu Takahashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Masaaki Noji, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Masao Toyota, Shigehiko Kanaya, Nobuo Kawahara, Yoshinori Asakawa, Setsuko Sekita
Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579029/de-novo-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-pinellia-ternata-identify-the-candidate-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-benzoic-acid-and-ephedrine
#10
Guang-Hui Zhang, Ni-Hao Jiang, Wan-Ling Song, Chun-Hua Ma, Sheng-Chao Yang, Jun-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The medicinal herb, Pinellia ternata, is purported to be an anti-emetic with analgesic and sedative effects. Alkaloids are the main biologically active compounds in P. ternata, especially ephedrine that is a phenylpropylamino alkaloid specifically produced by Ephedra and Catha edulis. However, how ephedrine is synthesized in plants is uncertain. Only the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and relevant genes in this pathway have been characterized. Genomic information of P. ternata is also unavailable...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514823/pharmacokinetic-effects-of-cinnamic-acid-amygdalin-glycyrrhizic-acid-and-liquiritin-on-ephedra-alkaloids-in-rats
#11
Yinghong Tang, Mengkai Zheng, Yu-Lin Chen, Jianzhen Chen, Yu He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ephedra alkaloids, including ephedrine (EP), pseudoephedrine (PEP) and methylephedrine (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many Ephedra (Ephedrae herba) preparations, such as Ephedra decoction, have been clinically applied for centuries. In order to explore the possible detoxification mechanism of Ephedra alkaloids, four representative compounds in Ephedra decoction (cinnamic acid, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin) were studied for their pharmacokinetic effects on Ephedra alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 11, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475836/banned-and-discouraged-use-ingredients-found-in-weight-loss-supplements
#12
Sara Eichner, Michelle Maguire, Leticia A Shea, Matthew G Fete
OBJECTIVES: To identify banned and discouraged-use ingredients, such as ephedra, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, and beta-methyl-phenylethylamine, in readily available weight loss dietary supplements within a 10-mile radius of Regis University. METHODS: A list of banned and discouraged-use ingredients was compiled with the use of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dietary supplement website which provides information on supplement ingredients that are no longer legal or are advised against owing to adverse event reporting...
September 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376063/efficient-use-of-a-crude-drug-herb-library-reveals-ephedra-herb-as-a-specific-antagonist-for-th2-specific-chemokine-receptors-ccr3-ccr4-and-ccr8
#13
Kazuhiko Matsuo, Keiichi Koizumi, Mitsugu Fujita, Toshio Morikawa, Michiko Jo, Naotoshi Shibahara, Ikuo Saiki, Osamu Yoshie, Takashi Nakayama
Chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4 are preferentially expressed by TH2 cells, mast cells, and/or eosinophils, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Therefore, CCR3 and CCR4 have long been highlighted as potent therapeutic targets for allergic diseases. Japanese traditional herbal medicine Kampo consists of multiple crude drugs/herbs, which further consist of numerous chemical substances. Recent studies have demonstrated that such chemical substances appear to promising sources in the development of novel therapeutic agents...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359523/acute-effects-of-an-american-ephedra-ephedra-viridis-herbal-supplement-blend-268-board-105-june-1-11-00-am-12-30-pm
#14
Shawn M Talbott, Rachel Jones, Melanie Marshall, Bryan Baranowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351630/evolutionary-history-of-a-desert-shrub-ephedra-przewalskii-ephedraceae-allopatric-divergence-and-range-shifts-in-northwestern-china
#15
Zhi-Hao Su, Ming-Li Zhang
Based on two chloroplast DNA sequences, psbA-trnH and trnT-trnF, phylogeographical patterns of a desert shrub, Ephedra przewalskii, were examined across most of its geographic range in northwestern China. A total of sixteen haplotypes were detected. There was a common haplotype in each basin, that was haplotype A in Tarim Basin, haplotype G in Junggar Basin, and haplotype M in Qaidam Basin. Genetic variance mainly occurred among populations, geographic regions, and eleven geographic groups subdivided by SAMOVA analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348711/utilization-pattern-and-drug-use-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-western-medicine-and-integrated-chinese-western-medicine-treatments-for-allergic-rhinitis-under-the-national-health-insurance-program-in-taiwan
#16
Sheng-Kang Huang, Chih-Sung Lai, Yuan-Shiun Chang, Yu-Ling Ho
OBJECTIVES: Patients in Taiwan with allergic rhinitis seek not only Western medicine treatment but also Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment or integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Various studies have conducted pairwise comparison on Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. However, none conducted simultaneous analysis of the three treatments. This study analyzed patients with allergic rhinitis receiving the three treatments to identify differences in demographic characteristic and medical use and thereby to determine drug use patterns of different treatments...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259162/overview-of-regulation-of-dietary-supplements-in-the-usa-and-issues-of-adulteration-with-phenethylamines-peas
#17
Rahul S Pawar, Erich Grundel
The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994...
June 3, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245037/-determination-of-markers-from-characteristic-hplc-chromatogram-of-phenols-in-three-official-origins-of-ephedrae-herba-and-quantitative-analysis-of-four-phenols
#18
Xue Zuo, Hao Hong, Xin-yu Zang, Feng Xu, Ming-ying Shang, Xuan Wang, Shao-qing Cai
This study is to establish the characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in Ephedrae Herba, from which to pick out the marker peaks, followed by the analysis of the regularity of their distribution and content in the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, E. intermedia and E. equisetina. The HPLC-DAD method for the characteristic chromatogram as well as quantitative analysis was established. The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack ODS-A column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm), eluted with the mobile phases as 0...
December 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220077/characterization-of-the-xiap-inhibiting-proanthocyanidin-fraction-of-the-aerial-parts-of-ephedra-sinica
#19
S Schäfer, S Salcher, M Seiter, C Ranninger, M Möst, P Obexer, C G Huber, M J Ausserlechner, S Schwaiger, H Stuppner
The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein is a cellular protein that inhibits the activity of mammalian caspases and promotes resistance to apoptosis. The ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Ephedra sinica has been identified to possess inhibitory activity of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by an in vitro fluorescence polarization assay using the BIR3 domain of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identified proanthocyanidin-enriched fractions as the active principles...
July 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155666/exploring-an-herbal-wonder-cure-for-cancer-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#20
Eran Ben-Arye, Jamal Mahajna, Radi Aly, Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh, Yedidia Bentur, Efraim Lev, Gary Deng, Noah Samuels
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The unmonitored use of herbal medicinal remedies by patients with cancer presents a significant challenge to oncology healthcare professionals. We describe an increasingly popular herbal "wonder drug," Ephedra foeminea (Alanda in Arabic), whose use has spread from the Palestinian patient population throughout the Middle East. We conducted a multicentered and multidisciplinary collaborative research effort in order to understand the potential benefits and harms of this popular herbal remedy...
July 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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