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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899093/microbiological-profile-of-corneal-ulcer-cases-diagnosed-in-a-tertiary-care-ophthalmological-institute-in-nepal
#1
Sharmila Suwal, Dinesh Bhandari, Pratigya Thapa, Mohan Krishna Shrestha, Jyoti Amatya
BACKGROUND: Corneal ulcer, a major cause of monocular blindness in developing countries has consistently been listed as the major cause of blindness and visual disability in many of the developing nations in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, ranking second only to cataract. This study was carried out to determine the microbiological profile of corneal ulcer cases diagnosed among patients visiting Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (TIO), Nepal. METHODS: A total of 101 corneal scrapping samples were tested for routine culture and antibiotic susceptibility at the pathology department of TIO Nepal from April to October 2014...
November 29, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898445/pathologic-myopia
#2
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
Pathologic myopia (PM) is the only myopia that causes the loss of best-corrected visual acuity. The main reason for best-corrected visual acuity loss is complications specific to PM, such as myopic maculopathy, myopic traction maculopathy, and myopic optic neuropathy (or glaucoma). The meta-analyses of the PM study group (META-PM study) made a classification system for myopic maculopathy. On the basis of this study, PM has been defined as eyes having atrophic changes equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889535/does-temporomandibular-joint-pathology-with-or-without-surgical-management-affect-the-stability-of-counterclockwise-rotation-of-the-maxillomandibular-complex-in-orthognathic-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Essam Ahmed Al-Moraissi, Larry M Wolford
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the stability of counterclockwise rotation (CCWR) of the maxillomandibular complex (MMC) in orthognathic surgery with or without surgical correction of coexisting temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors implemented a systematic review and meta-analysis. A search of major databases through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL was performed. Inclusion criteria were studies that analyzed CCWR of the MMC in regard to skeletal stability after orthognathic surgery in patients with or without pre-existing TMJ pathology that was or was not surgically corrected concomitantly...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872777/optic-disk-pit-with-sudden-central-visual-field-scotoma
#4
Nikol Panou, Demetrios G Vavvas
Purpose. To describe a case of optic disk pit (ODP) with sudden central visual field scotoma. Methods. A 49-year-old woman presented, reporting sudden painless central visual field loss 3 months prior to presentation. Neuroophthalmologic, systematic, and laboratory evaluation and full imaging processes were performed. Results. Fundoscopy and color photography demonstrated an optic disk pit inferotemporally. Perimetry identified central visual field horizontal scotoma. OCT revealed absence of serous retinal detachment, but disclosed inner retina thinning corresponding to the area of the visual field loss...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871028/microstructure-analysis-method-for-evaluating-degenerated-intervertebral-disc-tissue
#5
Andrea Friedmann, Felix Goehre, Christopher Ludtka, Thomas Mendel, Hans-Joerg Meisel, Andreas Heilmann, Stefan Schwan
Degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue is characterized by several structural changes that result in variations in disc physiology and loss of biomechanical function. The complex process of degeneration exhibits highly intercorrelated biomechanical, biochemical, and cellular interactions. There is currently some understanding of the cellular changes in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, but microstructural changes and deterioration of the tissue matrix has previously been rarely explored. In this work, sequestered IVD tissue was successfully characterized using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantitatively evaluate parameters of interest for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) such as delamination of the collagenous matrix, cell density, cell size, and extra cellular matrix (ECM) thickness...
October 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864283/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-a-key-contributor-to-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#6
REVIEW
Cheng Wang, Xiaohua Yu, Yiguo Yan, Wei Yang, Shujun Zhang, Yongxiao Xiang, Jian Zhang, Wenjun Wang
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is the most common cause leading to low back pain (LBP), which is a highly prevalent, costly, and crippling condition worldwide. Current treatments for IDD are limited to treat the symptoms and do not target the pathophysiology. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is one of the most potent pro-inflammatory cytokines and signals through its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2. TNF-α is highly expressed in degenerative IVD tissues, and it is deeply involved in multiple pathological processes of disc degeneration, including matrix destruction, inflammatory responses, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell proliferation...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863890/normal-values-of-cervical-vertebral-measurements-according-to-age-and-sex-in-ct
#7
Serhad Omercikoglu, Erhan Altunbas, Haldun Akoglu, Ozge Onur, Arzu Denizbasi
INTRODUCTION: Atlantodental interval (ADI), basion-dental interval (BDI) and the thickness of prevertebral soft tissue (TOPST) measured in lateral cervical radiographs were reported to be useful indicators and indirect signs of underlying cervical spine injuries. However, cervical computed tomography (MDCT) is the first method of imaging used in all trauma patients and upper normal limits (UNLs) of cervical distances according to age and sex are undetermined. Therefore, we aimed to calculate these metrics...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862628/history-physical-exam-laboratory-testing-and-emergency-department-ultrasonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cholecystitis
#8
Ashika Jain, Ninfa Mehta, Michael Secko, Joshua Schecter, Dimitri Papanagnou, Shreya Pandya, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: Acute Cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical exam and bedside lab tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of History/Physical exam (H&P), Laboratory studies and Ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. METHODS: We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: Patients: ED patients suspected of AC...
November 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861250/mri-analysis-of-the-combined-prospectively-collected-aospine-north-america-and-international-data-the-prevalence-and-spectrum-of-pathologies-in-a-global-cohort-of-patients-with-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#9
Aria Nouri, Allan Martin, Lindsay Tetreault, Anick Nater, So Kato, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Hamed Reihani-Kermani, Michael G Fehlings
STUDY DESIGN: Ambispective Analysis OBJECTIVE.: To report the global prevalence of specific degenerative cervical pathologies in patients with DCM through detailed review of MRIs SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) encompasses a spectrum of age-related conditions that result in progressive spinal cord injury. METHODS: MRIs of 458 patients (age 56.4 +/-11.8, 285 Male, 173 Female) patients were reviewed for specific degenerative features, directionality of cord compression, levels of spinal cord compression, and signal changes on T2WI and T1WI...
November 16, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860316/prevalence-of-myopic-retinopathy-in-rural-central-india
#10
Jost B Jonas, Vinay Nangia, Rajesh Gupta, Krishna Bhojwani, Prabhat Nangia, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopic retinopathy (MR) in rural Central India. METHODS: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). The participants underwent a detailed eye examination, including fundus photography. Myopic retinopathy was defined according to the Pathologic Myopia Study Group. RESULTS: Readable fundus photographs were available on 4561 (96...
November 17, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859817/lncrnas-novel-players-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-and-osteoarthritis
#11
REVIEW
Wen-Kang Chen, Xiao-Hua Yu, Wei Yang, Cheng Wang, Wen-Si He, Yi-Guo Yan, Jian Zhang, Wen-Jun Wang
The term long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) refers to a group of RNAs with length more than 200 nucleotides, limited protein-coding potential, and having widespread biological functions, including regulation of transcriptional patterns and protein activity, formation of endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and natural microRNA (miRNA) sponges. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common chronic, prevalent and age-related degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. Numbers of lncRNAs are differentially expressed in human degenerative nucleus pulposus tissue and OA cartilage...
November 9, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857455/imaging-in-spinal-posterior-epidural-space-lesions-a-pictorial-essay
#12
Foram B Gala, Yashant Aswani
Spinal epidural space is a real anatomic space located outside the dura mater and within the spinal canal extending from foramen magnum to sacrum. Important contents of this space are epidural fat, spinal nerves, epidural veins and arteries. Due to close proximity of posterior epidural space to spinal cord and spinal nerves, the lesions present with symptoms of radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. In this pictorial essay, detailed anatomy of the posterior epidural space, pathologies affecting it along with imaging pearls to accurately diagnose them are discussed...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857031/experimental-application-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-intervertebral-disc-annulus-fibrosus
#13
Xiaohe Li, Yunfeng Zhang, Bing Song, He En, Shang Gao, Shaojie Zhang, Yongqiang Cai, Zhi-Jun Li, Cunbao Li, Weiping Wang, Xing Wang, Haiyan Wang, Zhiqiang Wang, Qi Zhang, Jierong Ma
BACKGROUND This study provides experimental results on the applicability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for the repair of intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus in rabbits. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty healthy rabbits were randomized into an observation group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Both groups underwent degeneration of intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus. The observation group was treated with a solution of BMSCs and dexamethasone sodium phosphate, while the control group was treated with dexamethasone sodium phosphate only...
November 18, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855674/disk-displacement-eccentric-condylar-position-osteoarthrosis-misnomers-for-variations-of-normality-results-and-interpretations-from-an-mri-study-in-two-age-cohorts
#14
Jens C Türp, Anna Schlenker, Johannes Schröder, Marco Essig, Marc Schmitter
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision-making and prognostic statements in individuals with manifest or suspected temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) may involve assessment of (a) the position of articular disc relative to the mandibular condyle, (b) the location of the condyle relative to the temporal joint surfaces, and (c) the depth of the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The aim of this study was twofold: (1) Determination of the prevalence of these variables in two representative population-based birth cohorts...
November 17, 2016: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848245/inflammatory-mediators-and-signalling-pathways-controlling-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#15
REVIEW
Stefania Elena Navone, Giovanni Marfia, Amedeo Giannoni, Matteo Beretta, Laura Guarnaccia, Roberta Gualtierotti, Daniele Nicoli, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is one of the major causes of back pain, a condition that represents a serious socio-economic burden. Deeper knowledge of the complex and fine relationship between IVD degeneration, tissue inflammation and pain, appears to be critical to improve the current therapies, which have so far proven themselves ineffective. Upon degeneration, IVD tissues become inflamed, and this inflammatory microenvironment is associated with a cascade of degenerative events that may eventually cause discogenic pain...
November 16, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843908/anterior-chamber-pathology-in-alagille-syndrome
#16
Derek K Ho, Alex V Levin, William V Anninger, David A Piccoli, Ralph C Eagle
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neonatal cholestasis, characteristic facies, and cardiac abnormalities. Ocular abnormalities include posterior embryotoxon, mosaic pattern of iris stromal hypoplasia, microcornea, optic disc drusen, and pigmentary retinopathy. We present the second report of ocular pathology in two cases of Alagille syndrome. METHODS: Gross and histologic preparations of four eyes of two patients. RESULTS: Posterior embryotoxon is seen in both cases, with iris processes extending to the embryotoxon in case 1...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843689/transition-of-a-herniated-lumbar-disc-to-lumbar-discal-cyst-a-case-report
#17
Rohit Bansil, Yoshitaka Hirano, Hideo Sakuma, Kazuo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Another rare cause of lower back pain with radiculopathy is the discal cyst. It is believed to arise from degeneration of a herniated disc, although many other theories of its origin have been proposed. Here, we report a patient with lower back pain/radiculopathy attributed originally to a herniated lumbar disc, which transformed within 6 months into a discal cyst. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old male had a magnetic resonance (MR) documented herniated lumbar disc at the L4-5 level...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803927/structural-preservation-percutaneous-endoscopic-lumbar-interlaminar-discectomy-for-l5-s1-herniated-nucleus-pulposus
#18
Jung-Sup Lee, Hyeun-Sung Kim, Jee-Soo Jang, Il-Tae Jang
Objective. Structures such as ligamentum flavum, annulus, and lamina play an important role in the segmental function. We proposed the surgical technique for achieving the sufficient preservation of segmental structures, in spite of sufficient removal of pathologic disc in the L5-S1 using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 80 cases that underwent percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for L5-S1 herniated nucleus pulposus, using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique between January 2011 and June 2013...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802252/interleukin-9-promotes-tnf-%C3%AE-and-pge2-release-in-human-degenerated-intervertebral-disc-tissues
#19
Yuanqiang Zhang, Yunpeng Zhao, Jingkun Li, Shuaishuai Wang, Yi Liu, Lin Nie, Lei Cheng
STUDY DESIGN: Based on human disc surgical samples and isolated cells in vitro, we undertook a descriptive and mechanistic investigation of proinflammatory effects of interleukin (IL)-9 in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proinflammatory role of IL-9 in the pathological process of IVD degeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: IL-9 is known as a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the human pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
November 1, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796166/sleep-and-awake-bruxism-in-adults-and-its-relationship-with-temporomandibular-disorders-a-systematic-review-from-2003-to-2014
#20
Antonio Jiménez-Silva, Consuelo Peña-Durán, Julio Tobar-Reyes, Raúl Frugone-Zambra
OBJECTIVE: In order to establish a relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), a systematic review was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic research was performed based on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, BIREME, Lilacs and Scielo data bases, between 2003 and 2014 including all languages. Descriptive clinical cases were identified. Two independent authors selected the articles. PICO format was used to analyse the studies and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to verify the quality of the evidence...
October 31, 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
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