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Toi Blakley Harris, William A Thomson, Nancy P Moreno, Sarah Conrad, S Elizabeth White, Geoffrey H Young, Erik D Malmberg, Bonnie Weisman, Alicia D H Monroe
PROBLEM: The challenges to developing a physician and scientific workforce that both reflects and provides quality care for the complex and richly diverse population of the United States are considerable. APPROACH: One medical school (Baylor College of Medicine) sought to adapt the Holistic Review in Admissions process developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and apply it to faculty. In the fall of 2016, academic leaders received on-site training and completed several workshop exercises...
July 17, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Xincheng Sui, Karlijn Massar, Loes T E Kessels, Priscilla S Reddy, Robert A C Ruiter, Kathy Sanders-Phillips
This study examined the associations between different types of violence victimization and psychological functioning in South African adolescents. Both differential and cumulative effects of violence were investigated. A multi-ethnic (Black, White, people of mixed heritage, and people of Indian/Asian descent) sample of adolescents in secondary schools in the Western Cape Province ( N = 1,574; boys = 46.5%, girls = 53.5%; Mage = 16 years) completed a survey on their experiences of exposure to violence (across different contexts and polyvictimization) and their levels of hopelessness, anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Veeramuthu Dharanishanthi, Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta
Suitability of wood biomass for pulp production is dependent on the cellular architecture and composition of secondary cell wall. Presently, systems genetics approach is being employed to understand the molecular basis of trait variation and co-expression network analysis has enabled holistic understanding of complex trait such as secondary development. Transcription factors (TFs) are reported as key regulators of meristematic growth and wood formation. The hierarchical TF network is a multi-layered system which interacts with downstream structural genes involved in biosynthesis of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Michelle K Wilson, Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Michael Friedlander
Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key priority for patients with ovarian cancer as there is significant morbidity associated with the disease and the treatment. It is therefore essential to include measures of HRQOL and patient reported outcomes (PROs) in all clinical trials and ideally report them in the initial manuscript. The results of these analyses help interpret the primary trial endpoints which are typically progression free survival and overall survival from the perspective of the patients, but can also assist with regulatory approval of new drugs and inform future patients regarding the potential benefits and downsides of the treatment as well as help support clinical recommendations...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Shannen Vallesi, Lisa Wood, Lyn Dimer, Michelle Zada
Despite growing acknowledgement of the socially determined nature of health disparities among Aboriginal people, how to respond to this within health promotion programs can be challenging. The legacy of Australia's assimilation policies have left profound consequences, including social marginalisation, limited educational opportunities, normalisation of premature death, and entrenched trauma. These social determinants, in conjunction with a reluctance to trust authorities, create barriers to accessing healthcare services for the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of chronic disease...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maho Yokoyama, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Leann Bacon, Kate Heesom, Sion Bayliss, Nicola Ooi, Alex J O'Neill, Ewan Murray, Paul Williams, Anneke Lubben, Shaun Reeksting, Guillaume Meric, Ben Pascoe, Samuel K Sheppard, Mario Recker, Laurence D Hurst, Ruth C Massey
BACKGROUND: Fitness costs imposed on bacteria by antibiotic resistance mechanisms are believed to hamper their dissemination. The scale of these costs is highly variable. Some, including resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the clinically important antibiotic mupirocin, have been reported as being cost-free, which suggests that there are few barriers preventing their global spread. However, this is not supported by surveillance data in healthy communities, which indicate that this resistance mechanism is relatively unsuccessful...
July 18, 2018: Genome Biology
Lucy Johnston, Karen Campbell
BACKGROUND: In 2012, approximately 14 million new cases of cancer were diagnosed. As a result of advances in treatment, screening and prevention programmes the number of people surviving cancer globally is also increasing. The growing understanding of the diversity and scale of the need for support, compounded by the increasing prevalence of cancer survivors has fuelled the development and evaluation of a range of services and models to meet them. A key intervention is the holistic needs assessment and care planning, however there is little homogeneity in its actual delivery to cancer survivors...
July 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Gwendolyn A R Donley, Eija Lönnroos, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jussi Kauhanen
Background: There remains a dearth of life-course studies analyzing childhood environment and late-life chronic illness. In particular, few have addressed possible early-life predictors of dementia. This study examines relationships between childhood stress and later-age dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: We used data from 2682 men in the population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study who participated in extensive baseline health examinations and interviews between 1984 and 1989, when they were between 42 and 61 years of age...
July 17, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Luciana Kase Tanno, Ignacio Ansotegui, Pascal Demoly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the impact of globalization in the management of anaphylaxis and identify potential strategies to improve patients' care and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments in the field of anaphylaxis have been consistently following these globalization trends offering possibilities of collaborations of the allergy community and integrated international initiatives to reach quality care of allergic patients worldwide. SUMMARY: Globalization is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Abbas Al Mutair, Abdulaziz Al Shaer, Fay Al Ghamdi, Arwa Al Ghamdi
The aim of this study was to identify the needs, beliefs, and practices of Muslim family members during the end-of-life care for a family member in the intensive care unit (ICU) in Saudi Arabia. This was a phenomenological study using in-depth individual interviews to gather data. Ten family members of adult ICU patients receiving end-of-life care were interviewed. The experiences of family members during end-of-life care were reflected in four major themes: (a) the spirituality of death, (b) family's need for information, (c) being there, and (d) the ICU environment...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
Yue Niu, Yun Xiang
Biological membranes are highly ordered structures consisting of mosaics of lipids and proteins. Elevated temperatures can directly and effectively change the properties of these membranes, including their fluidity and permeability, through a holistic effect that involves changes in the lipid composition and/or interactions between lipids and specific membrane proteins. Ultimately, high temperatures can alter microdomain remodeling and instantaneously relay ambient cues to downstream signaling pathways. Thus, dynamic membrane regulation not only helps cells perceive temperature changes but also participates in intracellular responses and determines a cell's fate...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
George Bramley, Catherine Mangan, Mervyn Conroy
Introduction We report on an evaluation of the Just Right approach for planning care for adults with learning disabilities and how it can support culture change. Just Right combines installing a telemonitoring system with training for care managers in person-centred care planning and the interpretation of charts that summarise activity data for their setting. By providing insights into the needs of individuals Just Right allows existing care provision to be reviewed to ensure it is 'just right'. The Just Right approach can also potentially identify over-care and resources that can released...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Oded Zafrani, Galit Nimrod
Background and Objectives: Implementation of robotics technology in eldercare depends on successful human-robot interaction (HRI). Relying on a systematic literature review, this article proposes a holistic approach to the study of such interaction. Research Design and Methods: A literature search was carried out in five databases. A Boolean phrase search included the term robot and at least one term referencing older age, leading to an initial corpus of 543 articles...
July 17, 2018: Gerontologist
Jean M Gunderson, Mark L Wieland, Onelis Quirindongo-Cedeno, Gladys B Asiedu, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Michael W OʼBrien, Tara M Nelson, Ron Buzard, Chad Campbell, Jane W Njeru
Community health workers (CHWs) bring their unique capacity as liaisons for patients, communities, and health care systems to health care teams. We describe the collaborative development of a community-based CHW program to address the social determinants of health that affect patients. This cosupervisory, generalist CHW model provides an innovative template for cocreation of patient-centered infrastructure and resourcing within an evolving and replicable holistic care continuum across patient ages, diagnoses, health care payers, and communities to promote health equity...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Nicole Brun-Cottan, Danny McMillian, Jennifer Hastings
The successful practice of physical therapy requires a professional culture that places value on the interpersonal relationships that foster healing, and the face time required to build those relationships. Pressures on current practice are not facilitating this approach. The drive for increased productivity, cost effectiveness and ultimately, profit, are changing the landscape in which we practice. This phenomenon is fueled by an overemphasis on quantitative research in evidence-based medicine and an underappreciation of clinical expertise and patient values...
July 17, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Matteo Chiesa, Chia-Yun Lai
The divergence in physical properties of surfaces exposed to airborne contaminants in the atmosphere has been widely investigated in recent years, but agreement regarding the role that airborne hydrocarbons and water contamination have on surface property evolution remains elusive. Here we investigate the evolution of a freshly grown highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface exposed to a controlled environment solely containing airborne water contamination, i.e. water vapor. Our approach combines standard electromagnetic spectrum-based spectrometry methods and atomic force microscopy based techniques to provide a holistic view of the surface properties...
July 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wei Ling Chin, Tiina Jaaniste, Susan Trethewie
Siblings of children with life limiting conditions (LLC) are an important part of the broader family system and require consideration in the holistic care of the family. There can be considerable variation in the functioning and adjustment of these siblings. The current paper explores the resilience paradigm, particularly in the context of siblings of children with LLC and serious medical conditions. The potential impact of children living with a seriously ill brother or sister will be overviewed, and a range of functional outcomes considered...
July 16, 2018: Children
Gianmarco Ingrosso, Marco Abbiati, Fabio Badalamenti, Giorgio Bavestrello, Genuario Belmonte, Rita Cannas, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, Marco Bertolino, Stanislao Bevilacqua, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Marzia Bo, Elisa Boscari, Frine Cardone, Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti, Alessandro Cau, Carlo Cerrano, Renato Chemello, Giovanni Chimienti, Leonardo Congiu, Giuseppe Corriero, Federica Costantini, Francesco De Leo, Luigia Donnarumma, Annalisa Falace, Simonetta Fraschetti, Adriana Giangrande, Maria Flavia Gravina, Giuseppe Guarnieri, Francesco Mastrototaro, Marco Milazzo, Carla Morri, Luigi Musco, Laura Pezzolesi, Stefano Piraino, Fiorella Prada, Massimo Ponti, Fabio Rindi, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Roberto Sandulli, Adriana Villamor, Lorenzo Zane, Ferdinando Boero
Marine bioconstructions are biodiversity-rich, three-dimensional biogenic structures, regulating key ecological functions of benthic ecosystems worldwide. Tropical coral reefs are outstanding for their beauty, diversity and complexity, but analogous types of bioconstructions are also present in temperate seas. The main bioconstructions in the Mediterranean Sea are represented by coralligenous formations, vermetid reefs, deep-sea cold-water corals, Lithophyllum byssoides trottoirs, coral banks formed by the shallow-water corals Cladocora caespitosa or Astroides calycularis, and sabellariid or serpulid worm reefs...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Thomas J Faulkenberry, Alexander Cruise, Samuel Shaki
Previous studies have found decomposed processes, as well as holistic processes, in the representation of two-digit numbers. The present study investigated the influence of task instruction on such processes. Participants completed both magnitude and parity tasks in one of three instructional conditions, where they were asked to either consider two-digit numbers as a whole or to focus on one specific digit. In two experiments, we found that when participants were asked to consider the two digits as an integrated number, they always exhibited a unit-decade compatibility effect, indicating a failure of selective attention on the digit relevant to the given task...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Research
Gloria Torres-Cortés, Sophie Bonneau, Olivier Bouchez, Clémence Genthon, Martial Briand, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Matthieu Barret
Microbial interactions occurring on and around seeds are especially important for plant fitness since seed-borne microorganisms are the initial source of inoculum for the plant microbiota. In this study, we analyze structural and functional changes occurring within the plant microbiota at these early stages of the plant cycle, namely germination and emergence. To this purpose, we performed shotgun DNA sequencing of microbial assemblages associated to seeds, germinating seeds and seedlings of two plant species: bean and radish...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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