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Vancomycin Antibiotic

Christoph Lübbert, Lisa Zimmermann, Julia Borchert, Bernd Hörner, Reinier Mutters, Arne C Rodloff
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhea. Recurrence rates are as high as 20-30% after standard treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, and appear to be reduced for patients treated with fidaxomicin. According to the literature, the risk of CDI recurrence increases after the second relapse to 30-65%. Accurate data for Germany are not yet available. METHODS: Based on the research database of arvato health analytics (Munich, Germany), a secondary data analysis for the incidence, treatment characteristics and course of CDI was performed...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shanshan Wang, Yinjuan Guo, Jingnan Lv, Xiuqin Qi, Dan Li, Zengqiang Chen, Xueqing Zhang, Liangxing Wang, Fangyou Yu
BACKGROUND: Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative antibiotic to vancomycin for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. However, resistance to Q/D in E. faecium clinical isolates and nosocomial dissemination of Q/D-resistant E. faecium have been reported in several countries and should be of concern. RESULTS: From January 2012 to December 2015, 911 E. faecium clinical isolates were isolated from various specimens of inpatients at the first Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University located in Wenzhou, east China...
October 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Rajeev Soman, Umang Agrawal, Mitesh Suthar, Ketan Desai, Anjali Shetty
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, formerly Chryseobacterium meningosepticum usually causes neonatal meningitis and is a rare cause of nosocomial meningitis in adults. E. meningoseptica is resistant to most antibiotics, and the use of inactive drugs as empirical therapy may contribute to poor outcome in many patients. Vancomycin, alone or in combination with rifampicin, has been successful in the treatment of meningitis in infants1. We present a case of E. meningoseptica meningitis in an adult who was treated initially with intravenous vancomycin and oral rifampicin, but did not respond to the treatment...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Michael G Ficklin, Michael P Kowaleski, Kevin A R Kunkel, Jonathan T Suber
A two-year-old, 44 kg dog with a right Helica cementless total hip replacement (THR) was radiographically diagnosed with implant loosening eight months after the index total hip replacement procedure. Subsequent synoviocentesis and synovial fluid culture revealed a methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp infection of the right THR. A one-stage revision using a hybrid BFX cementless acetabular cup and CFX cemented femoral stem was performed. Vancomycin and micro-silver antimicrobial powder impregnated cement were used in the revision...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Jonathan I Huz, Krishna Mukkamala, Ivelisse Rodriguez Pagan, David Ritterband, Mahendra Shah, Ronald C Gentile, Michael Engelbert
PURPOSE: To compare the antibiotic susceptibilities and visual acuity (VA) outcomes in endophthalmitis caused by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) versus methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). METHODS: The records of 34 cases of S. aureus endophthalmitis at The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary from Jan 1997 to June 2011 were reviewed. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles over time and VA at presentation and at 3, 6, and ≥12 months were recorded. S. aureus isolates were grouped based on oxacillin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Ajay Balakrishnan, Nathiya Marappan, Sabari Srinivasan Gajendran, Vinodhini Viswanathan
AIM/BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Asim V Farooq, Joshua H Hou, Sarmad Jassim, Zeeshan Haq, Elmer Y Tu, Jose de la Cruz, Maria S Cortina
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of biofilm formation on bandage contact lenses worn by patients with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (K-Pro) while on prophylactic topical vancomycin versus linezolid. METHODS: Patients wearing a bandage contact lens (BCL) with a K-Pro were eligible for enrollment. After irrigation of the ocular surface with 5% povidone-iodine solution, each patient was placed on either topical vancomycin 15 mg/mL or linezolid 0.2% BID for one month...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Emily S Wong, Claire W Y Chow, W K Luk, Kitty S C Fung, Kenneth K W Li
PURPOSE: To characterize epidemiological data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infections over a 10-year period in Hong Kong; to compare the characteristics between hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ocular infections; and to review the treatment regimen and outcome of identified cases. METHODS: A retrospective case review of ocular samples testing positive for MRSA at a tertiary eye center from July 2005 to June 2015 was performed...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Kunal Zaveri, Kiranmayi Patnala
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one most challenging task for treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To screen the potential MurE inhibitor...
October 10, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Steven Silverman, John Moses, K Barry Sharpless
Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort. Its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has had a profound effect on the treatment of life-threatening infections. However, the emergence of resistance to vancomycin is a cause for significant world-wide concern, prompting the urgent development of new effective treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Harnessing the benefits of multivalency and cooperativity against vancomycin-resistant strains, we report a Click Chemistry approach towards reengineered vancomycin derivatives and the synthesis of a number of dimers with increased potency against MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)...
October 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Giovanni Gasbarrini, Fiorenza Bonvicini, Annagiulia Gramenzi
Gut microbiota promotes healthy effects on the host and prevents diseases. Probiotic (probios, for life) are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." At the beginning of 1900s Louis Pasteur identified the microorganisms responsible for the process of fermentation, whereas E. Metchnikoff associated the enhanced longevity of Bulgarian rural people to the regular consumption of fermented dairy products such as yogurt. He suggested that lactobacilli might counteract the putrefactive effects of gastrointestinal metabolism that contributed to illness and aging...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yu-Chia Hsieh, Yu-Chun Lin, Yhu-Chering Huang
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates of different clones over an 11-year period.From 2000 to 2010, all bloodstream MRSA isolates from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan were prospectively collected. Three periods, namely 2000 to 2001, 2004 to 2005, and 2010, were included and 124 MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cynthia Buness, Keith D Lindor, Tamir Miloh
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare progressive liver disease characterized by cholestasis and bile duct fibrosis, has no accepted, effective therapy known to delay or arrest its progression. We report a 15 year old female patient diagnosed with PSC and moderate chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC) who achieved normalization of her liver enzymes and bile ducts, and resolution of her UC symptoms with colonic mucosal healing, after treatment with a single drug therapy of the antibiotic oral vancomycin...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Gamze Ozgurhan, Oznur Vermezoglu, Didem Ocal Topcu, Adem Karbuz, Aysel Vehapoglu, Bulent Hacihamdioglu
Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Constantin Hays, Mathilde Louis, Céline Plainvert, Nicolas Dmytruk, Gérald Touak, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Asmaa Tazi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and an emerging pathogen in the elderly. Our objectives were to describe the evolution of GBS resistance to antibiotics in France and to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant isolates. A total of 8,757 unrelated GBS isolates were collected and tested for antibiotic susceptibility from 2007 and 2014 according to EUCAST recommendations. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and vancomycin...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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