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Vancomycin Antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932966/broad-host-range-inc18-plasmids-occurrence-spread-and-transfer-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Verena Kohler, Ankita Vaishampayan, Elisabeth Grohmann
Conjugative plasmid transfer is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The incompatibility (Inc) 18 group of plasmids is a family of plasmids replicating by the theta-mechanism, whose members have been detected frequently in enterococci and streptococci. Inc18 plasmids encode a variety of antibiotic resistances, including resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol and the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramine (MLS) group of antibiotics. These plasmids comprising insertions of Tn1546 were demonstrated to be responsible for the transfer of vancomycin resistance encoded by the vanA gene from vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
June 19, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932037/what-about-urinary-tract-infections-and-its-antibiotic-resistance-bacteria-in-ilam-iran
#2
Reza Mohebi, Khadijeh Esmaili, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Iraj Pakzad, Sobhan Ghafourian
Because of unknown situation of antibiotic resistance pattern in main hospital in Ilam, Iran, in an attempt we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic bacteria obtained from referred patients to Imam Khomaini Hospital, Ilam, Iran. For this reason, 114 bacteria were collected during 9 month period and evaluated for their antibiotic resistance pattern. Our results demonstrated that E. coli as the dominant responsible for urinary tract infection. Our results demonstrated that 61.4 % (n = 70) of isolates were positive for E...
June 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930540/iterative-chemical-engineering-of-vancomycin-leads-to-novel-vancomycin-analogs-with-a-high-in-vitro-therapeutic-index
#3
Nigam M Mishra, Izabela Stolarzewicz, David Cannaerts, Joris Schuermans, Rob Lavigne, Yannick Looz, Bart Landuyt, Liliane Schoofs, Dominique Schols, Jan Paeshuyse, Peter Hickenbotham, Martha Clokie, Walter Luyten, Erik V Van der Eycken, Yves Briers
Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits transpeptidation during cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of lipid II. For long, it has been used as a last resort antibiotic. However, since the emergence of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 1987, vancomycin resistance has become widespread, especially in hospitals. We have synthesized and evaluated 110 vancomycin analogs modified at the C-terminal carboxyl group of the heptapeptide moiety with R2 NHR1 NH2 substituents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928268/a-small-molecule-screening-pipeline-to-evaluate-the-therapeutic-potential-of-2-aminoimidazole-molecules-against-clostridium-difficile
#4
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928049/synergy-between-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-biofilm-peptides-in-a-murine-sub-cutaneous-abscess-model-caused-by-recalcitrant-eskape-pathogens
#5
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924414/reduction-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-from-implant-materials-in-a-diffusion-dominated-environment
#6
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (CS-B) are used to treat biofilm-related periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). A previous study has shown that such beads are effective in reducing lawns biofilms grown on agar plates; however, the ability of CS-B to eradicate biofilms grown on solid orthopaedic material surfaces has not been investigated. We grew biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 and a USA300 MRSA Staphylococcus aureus SAP231 on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE), hydroxyapatite (HA), and 316L stainless steel (SS) coupons for three days under static growth conditions, with daily nutrient exchange...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924052/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-human-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-single-institution-in-northern-china
#7
Baoya Wang, Zhi Lv, Pingping Zhang, Jianrong Su
Because the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is region-specific, the present study was undertaken to examine the epidemiology of C difficile outbreaks in Beijing, China.Eighty nonduplicate isolates were collected from March, 2016 to December, 2016. The molecular type and phylogenetic analysis were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 11 antibiotics and the resistance mechanisms were investigated.Sixty-five toxigenic strains (81...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923989/occult-community-acquired-klebsiella-pneumoniae-purulent-meningitis-in-an-adult-a-case-report
#8
Kai-Chuang Yang, Tejashwi Shrestha, Manish Kolakshyapati, Ling-Fei Shi, Zheng Wang, Min Li, Lin Lou, Jia Zhou
RATIONALE: Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), primarily a hospital-acquired pathogen, can cause a variety of deep-seated infections with significant morbidities. However, in the current scenario of global rise in antibiotic abuse, unexpected infection could be caused by K. pneumoniae. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old male who presented with intermittent headache and low fever was admitted, he had transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma 3 years ago. Routine laboratory tests revealed an elevated WBC count of 10...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922571/careful-interpretation-of-the-wound-status-is-needed-with-use-of-antibiotic-impregnated-biodegradable-synthetic-pure-calcium-sulfate-beads-series-of-39-cases
#9
Aditya Menon, Rajeev Soman, Camilla Rodrigues, Sanjay Phadke, Vikas M Agashe
Introduction: The use of antibiotic impregnated biodegradable synthetic high purity calcium sulfate (SHPCS) beads is frequently reported as they offer increased concentration of antibiotics locally, without need for removal. However some wound discharge following their use has been noted. The purpose of this study was to determine any correlation between wound discharge and infection remission. Methodology: Retrospective study of 39 cases of Osteoarticular infections from April 2013 to November 2016 in whom SHPCS beads were used...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921060/-analysis-of-drug-sensitivity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-chronic-sinusitis
#10
Y Liu, L Fan, Y Q Tang, Z Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and drug sensitivity of nasal Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with chronic sinusitis and healthy controls. Method: Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test were performed in 71 patients with CRS (experimental group) and 103 healthy controls (control group). The infection rate of Staphylococcus aureus and the sensitivity of the drug were analyzed based on these results. Result: Twenty-nine Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 71 cases of patients in the experimental group, and the positive rate was 40...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916184/antibiotics-protect-against-eae-by-increasing-regulatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cells
#11
Hilary A Seifert, Gil Benedek, Ha Nguyen, Grant Gerstner, Ying Zhang, Gail Kent, Arthur A Vandenbark, Jürgen Bernhagen, Halina Offner
A seven day pretreatment course of an oral antibiotic cocktail (Ampicillin, Metronidazole, Neomycin Sulfate, and Vancomycin) was shown to induce changes in peripheral immune regulation and protect mice from signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To determine if a shorter course of antibiotic pretreatment could also protect the mice from EAE and induce regulatory immune cells, studies were conducted using the same oral antibiotic cocktail for three days. In addition, the CNS was examined to determine the effects of antibiotic pretreatment on EAE disease course and immune modulation within the affected tissue...
June 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915953/two-stage-approach-to-total-knee-arthroplasty-using-colistin-loaded-articulating-cement-spacer-for-vancomycin-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-an-arthritic-knee
#12
REVIEW
Moon Jong Chang, Min Kyu Song, Jae Hoon Shin, Chan Yoon, Chong Bum Chang, Seung-Baik Kang
BACKGROUND: A two-stage approach to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using an antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer is an option for an infected arthritic knee. Vancomycin combined with broad-spectrum antibiotics can be used to make an antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer. Causative organisms are sometimes not confirmed before surgery. Joint infections of multidrug-resistant organisms are increasing. Therefore, routine combinations of antibiotics may not be effective...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915752/prevalence-of-nasal-colonization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-schoolchildren-of-barabanki-district-uttar-pradesh-india
#13
Amit Kumar Singh, Loveleena Agarwal, Akash Kumar, Chandrim Sengupta, Ravinder Pal Singh
Introduction: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin and vancomycin, inducible clindamycin resistance, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus among children of Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: School-going children of age group of 5-15 years were identified and selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915116/resuscitation-promoting-factors-are-required-for-biofilm-formation-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#14
Christopher Ealand, Binayak Rimal, James Chang, Lethabo Mashigo, Melissa Chengalroyen, Lusanda Mapela, Germar Beukes, Edith Machowski, Sung Joon Kim, Bavesh Kana
Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) have previously been shown to act as growth stimulatory molecules via their lysozyme-like activity on peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall. In this study, we investigated the ability of Mycobacterium smegmatis strains lacking rpf genes to form biofilms and tested their susceptibility to cell wall targeting agents. M. smegmatis encodes four distinct rpf homologues, namely MSMEG_5700 ( rpfA ), MSMEG_5439 ( rpfB ), MSMEG_4640 ( rpfE2 ) and MSMEG_4643 ( rpfE ). During axenic growth of the wild type strain, all four mRNA transcripts were expressed to varying degrees but MSMEG_4643 was significantly greater during exponential growth...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913285/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#15
Fatma Ben Abid, Mohammed Abukhattab, Hafedh Ghazouani, Obada Khalil, Ahmed Gohar, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Eman Al Masalamani, Said Al Dhahry, Samar Hashim, Faraj Howadi, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar. DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Those with abnormal CSF finding were included in our study. We excluded those with missing medical records, no clinical evidence of viral CNS infection or proven bacterial, fungal or tuberculosis CNS infection...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912846/dissemination-of-the-methicillin-resistance-staphylococcus-aureus-pediatric-clone-st5-t002-iv-pvl-as-a-major-cause-of-community-associated-staphylococcal-infections-in-bedouin-children-southern-israel
#16
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910564/early-results-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-protocol-implementation-at-a-community-based-university-hospital
#17
Rodrigo Duarte-Chavez, Thomas R Wojda, Thomas B Zanders, Berhanu Geme, Gloria Fioravanti, Stanislaw P Stawicki
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a serious and increasingly prevalent healthcare-associated infection. The pathogenesis of CD infection (CDI) involves the acquisition of CD with a concurrent disruption of the native gut flora. Antibiotics are a major risk although other contributing factors have also been identified. Clinical management combines discontinuation of the offending antibiotic, initiation of CD-specific antibiotic therapy, probiotic agent use, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and surgery as the "last resort" option...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#18
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909695/anti-infective-treatment-of-brain-abscess
#19
Jacob Bodilsen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Henrik Nielsen, Diederik van de Beek
INTRODUCTION: Brain abscess is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening infection of the CNS that can be caused by a range of different pathogens including bacteria, fungi and parasites. A multidisciplinary approach is important and anti-infective treatment remains crucial. Here, we review anti-infective treatment of brain abscess. Areas covered: We used the terms '(Brain abscess[ti] AND (antibiotic* OR treatment)) NOT case report'), to conduct a search in the PubMed. Additional papers were identified by cross-reference checking and by browsing textbooks of infectious diseases and neurology...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909051/early-prophylactic-antibiotics-for-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-a-nationwide-database-in-japan
#20
Kazuhiko Nakaharai, Kojiro Morita, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies evaluating the clinical benefits of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have generated inconsistent results due to heterogeneities among the study settings. We determined if early prophylactic antibiotics improved the outcomes of SAP patients using a study designed to overcome these previous methodological weaknesses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SAP patients discharged between July 2010 and March 2016, using a Japanese nationwide inpatient database...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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