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Vancomycin Antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679194/posterior-cranial-fossa-and-spinal-local-infections
#1
Federico Bianchi, Gianpiero Tamburrini
OBJECT: The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the management of local infections in posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and spinal surgery; the center of our paper will be the diagnosis and management of infections of the wound, the subcutaneous tissue, and muscle strata. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Very few papers address the problem of local infections in posterior cranial fossa and spinal surgery. The largest amount of the literature data is indeed centered on how to deal with deep infections, CSF leak, and secondary meningitis or hardware infection...
April 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676703/effect-of-intraoperative-single-shot-application-of-vancomycin-in-liver-transplant-recipients-on-postoperative-infections-with-enterococcus-faecium-and-enterococcus-faecalis
#2
Christian Siebers, Johannes Kinzinger, Ludwig C Hinske, Andreas Bauer, Patrick Scheiermann, Michael Zoller, Markus Guba, Martin Angele, Sebastian Pratschke, Thomas Weig
OBJECTIVES: Infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the early postoperative period after liver transplant. We observed a high rate of enterococcal infections at our center. Therefore, we added an intraoperative single shot of vancomycin to the standard regimen of meropenem given over 5 days. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis infections during the first 28 days after surgery depending on the type of antibiotic prophylaxis and their implications on mortality and morbidity...
April 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#3
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670993/molecular-characteristics-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-from-hospitalized-patients-and-medical-staff-in-isfahan-iran
#4
S Moshtagheian, M Halaji, H Sedaghat, M Shahin, B N Esfahani, S R Havaei, S A Havaei
OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been accounted as one of the main risk factors for the development of complicated nosocomial infections. The present study aimed to determine nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed within 6 months period from July 2015 at 3 hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Totally, 326 nasal samples were collected by cotton sterile swab from the nasal cavity of participants...
May 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670404/evaluation-of-vancomycin-therapy-in-the-adult-icus-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-iran
#5
Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake
Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs) accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females) who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660749/antimicrobial-peptidomimetics-for-recurrent-septicemia-infections-in-vitro-study-for-immuno-compromised-disease-target
#6
Priyanka Sharma, Kandasamy Nagarajan, Bihu Prasad Panda
The frequency of Bacillus subtilis infection such as pneumonia pan-opthalmitis, visceral abscess or musculoskeletal infection etc. complications following bacteremia, meningitis in children & the infection associated with majority of motor vehicle accidents associated with trauma & gun shoot injury. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus. infection are clindamycin and vancomycin to which vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Our objective is to test the synthesized peptidomimetics with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds against recurrent septicemia infection...
April 16, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657682/the-relationship-between-prevalence-of-antibiotics-resistance-and-virulence-factors-genes-of-mrsa-and-mssa-strains-isolated-from-clinical-samples-west-iran
#7
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Sahar Rastiyani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Seyed Fazlullah Mousavi
Objectives: We sought to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of antibiotics resistance and virulence factors genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains from clinical samples taken in west Iran. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using 100 MRSA and 100 MSSA samples isolated from clinical specimens. We used biochemical methods to identify the isolates, which were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
March 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657463/survey-of-shoulder-arthroplasty-surgeons-methods-for-infection-avoidance-of-propionibacterium
#8
Stephen A Parada, K Aaron Shaw, Josef K Eichinger, Monica J Stadecker, Laurence D Higgins, Jon J P Warner
Introduction: Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder arthroplasty remains a source of morbidity. Determining practices amongst shoulder surgeons is the first step in developing infection-prevention best-practices. Methods: A survey was sent to a shoulder fellowship alumni group to determine their arthroplasty infection prevention methods. Results: 74% completed the survey. Cefazolin (90%), vancomycin (50%) and clindamycin (18%) were the most commonly used antibiotics, 61% utilized more than one antibiotic...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656981/dual-agent-antibiotic-prophylaxis-using-a-single-preoperative-vancomycin-dose-effectively-reduces-prosthetic-joint-infection-rates-with-minimal-renal-toxicity-risk
#9
John R Burger, Benjamin J Hansen, Emily V Leary, Ajay Aggarwal, James A Keeney
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to compare prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and renal toxicity rates following hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA) when a first-generation cephalosporin was administered either alone or in combination with a single preoperative vancomycin dose, whether vancomycin administration timing potentially influenced dual-antibiotic PJI prophylaxis approach effectiveness, and whether single-dose vancomycin use increased risk of renal impairment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 1977 consecutive primary TJAs (1871 patients) treated with cefazolin alone (1044 TJAs) or cefazolin with single-dose vancomycin (953 TJAs)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655497/the-aahks-clinical-research-award-intraosseous-regional-prophylaxis-provides-higher-tissue-concentrations-in-high-bmi-patients-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-trial
#11
Seung Joon Chin, Grant A Moore, Mei Zhang, Henry D Clarke, Mark J Spangehl, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for periprosthetic joint infections after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In obese patients, a larger dose of prophylactic vancomycin based on actual body weight is required to reach therapeutic concentrations. It is unclear how tissue concentrations are affected when intraosseous regional administration (IORA) is used in this population. This study compared tissue concentrations of low-dose vancomycin via IORA vs actual body weight-adjusted systemic intravenous (IV) dose in primary TKA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651860/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-baranya-county-southern-hungary
#12
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651842/oritavancin-retains-high-affinity-to-a-vancomycin-resistant-cell-wall-precursor-via-its-bivalent-motifs-of-interaction
#13
Sierra Bowden, Christine Joseph, Shengzhuang Tang, Jayme Cannon, Emily Francis, Michelle Zhou, James R Baker, Seok Ki Choi
Despite its potent antibacterial activities against drug-resistant Gram(+) pathogens, oritavancin remains partially understood in its primary mode of hydrogen bond interaction with a cell-wall peptide regarding the role of its lipophilic 4'-chlorobiphenyl moiety. Here we report a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) study performed in two cell-wall model surfaces, each prepared by immobilization with a vancomycin-susceptible Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala or vancomycin-resistant Lys-D-Ala-D-Lac peptide. Analysis of binding kinetics performed in the peptide surface showed that oritavancin bound ~100 to 1000-fold more tightly than vancomycin in each model surface...
April 13, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651552/prevention-of-high-level-daptomycin-resistance-emergence-in-vitro-in-streptococcus-mitis-oralis-by-using-combination-antimicrobial-strategies
#14
Brianne Zapata, Danya N Alvarez, Sabrina Farah, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Jose M Miro, George Sakoulas, Arnold S Bayer, Nagendra N Mishra
Among the viridans group streptococci, S. mitis-oralis strains are frequently resistant to multiple β-lactams and tolerant to vancomycin (VAN). This scenario has led to the proposed clinical use of newer agents, like daptomycin (DAP) for such S. mitis-oralis strains. However, recent recognition of the rapid and durable emergence of high-level DAP-resistance (DAP-R; DAP MICs > 256 µg/ml) induced by DAP exposures in vitro and in vivo has dampened enthusiasm for such approaches. In this study, we evaluated a broad range of DAP combination regimens in vitro for their capacity to prevent emergence of high-level DAP-R in a prototype S...
April 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649586/nephrotoxicity-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-combined-with-vancomycin-should-it-be-a-concern
#15
Cafer Balcı, Ömrüm Uzun, Mustafa Arıcı, Sibel Aşçıoğlu Hayran, Deniz Yüce, Serhat Ünal
The combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (pip-tazo) and vancomycin provides a wide spectrum of activity against many pathogens acquired in the health-care setting. However, there have been reports of increased potential for nephrotoxicity with this combination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of pip-tazo plus vancomycin and compare it with that of pip-tazo and vancomycin alone, and meropenem plus vancomycin, another broad-spectrum combination. A total of 402 patients receiving either antimicrobial regimen for more than 48 hours were evaluated retrospectively in a two-year period...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642744/evaluation-of-continuous-infusion-vancomycin-administration-in-a-critically-ill-trauma-population
#16
Brittany D Bissell, Gina Riggi, Christopher Morrison
Vancomycin is a first-line antibiotic for empiric treatment of gram-positive infections in the trauma intensive care unit. When dosed intermittently, difficulties arise from trough collection and drug monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to goal vancomycin levels comparing a continuous infusion protocol when compared to standard intermittent infusion dosing. This was a retrospective cohort of patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit between July 2011 and July 2015 receiving vancomycin for at least 48 hours...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642570/enhanced-efficacy-of-high-dose-oral-vancomycin-therapy-in-clostridium-difficile-diarrhea-for-hospitalized-adults-not-responsive-to-conventional-oral-vancomycin-therapy-antibiotic-stewardship-implications
#17
Burke A Cunha, Julia Sessa, Sharon Blum
Current therapy of Clostridium difficile diarrhea (CDD) is problematic. Optimal treatment for CDD remains oral vancomycin, but there is little data on oral vancomycin dosing regimens. The objective of this C. difficile diarrhea study was to compare the efficacy of "high dose" vancomycin, 500 mg (PO) q6h, as sole treatment and in those who after 72 h failed to respond to conventional doses of oral vancomycin, 125-250 mg (PO) q6h. Hospitalized adults with CDD were evaluated by various oral vancomycin regimens, i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642369/bis-indolyl-benzenoids-hydroxypyrrolidine-derivatives-and-other-constituents-from-cultures-of-the-marine-sponge-associated-fungus-aspergillus-candidus-kufa0062
#18
Suradet Buttachon, Alice A Ramos, Ângela Inácio, Tida Dethoup, Luís Gales, Michael Lee, Paulo M Costa, Artur M S Silva, Nazim Sekeroglu, Eduardo Rocha, Madalena M M Pinto, José A Pereira, Anake Kijjoa
A previously unreported bis -indolyl benzenoid, candidusin D ( 2e ) and a new hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid, preussin C ( 5b ) were isolated together with fourteen previously described compounds: palmitic acid, clionasterol, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxides, chrysophanic acid ( 1a ), emodin ( 1b ), six bis -indolyl benzenoids including asterriquinol D dimethyl ether ( 2a ), petromurin C ( 2b ), kumbicin B ( 2c ), kumbicin A ( 2d ), 2″-oxoasterriquinol D methyl ether ( 3 ), kumbicin D ( 4 ), the hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid preussin ( 5a ), (3 S , 6 S )-3,6-dibenzylpiperazine-2,5-dione ( 6 ) and 4-(acetylamino) benzoic acid ( 7 ), from the cultures of the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus candidus KUFA 0062...
April 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628915/gas-plasma-pre-treatment-increases-antibiotic-sensitivity-and-persister-eradication-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628696/do-local-antibiotics-reduce-periprosthetic-joint-infections-a-retrospective-review-of-744-cases
#20
Craig Winkler, Joel Dennison, Adam Wooldridge, Eneko Larumbe, Cyrus Caroom, Mark Jenkins, George Brindley
Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) are uncommon but not rare and have significant morbidity and financial implications. Local antibiotics have been used successfully in other areas of orthopedics to reduce postoperative infections, but this method has not been proven in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Beginning January 1, 2014, our primary investigators began using surgical site lavage with providone-iodine solution and administering 2 g of vancomcyin powder in the surgical wound prior to capsule closure for all primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasties...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
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