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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#1
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635907/-the-problem-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-asthmatic-patients
#2
E G Sheludko, D E Naumov, Yu M Perelman, V P Kolosov
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635498/effect-of-age-related-hearing-loss-on-the-click-rate-induced-facilitation-of-acoustic-reflex-thresholds
#3
Vishakha Waman Rawool
OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of age-related hearing loss on the click-rate-induced improvement in the acoustic reflex thresholds. DESIGN: Case-control study. STUDY SAMPLE: Data from five different adults ear-groups (15 ears each) were included in the study: 1. Younger with normal hearing. 2. Older with normal hearing. 3. Older with mild high-frequency loss. 4. Older with moderate high-frequency loss. 5...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635138/snake-spectacle-vessel-permeability-to-sodium-fluorescein
#4
Roy W Bellhorn, Ann R Strom, Monica J Motta, John Doval, Michelle G Hawkins, Joanne Paul-Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Assess vascular permeability of the snake spectacle to sodium fluorescein during resting and shedding phases of the ecdysis cycle. ANIMAL STUDIED: Ball python (Python regius). PROCEDURES: The snake was anesthetized, and spectral domain optic coherence tomography was performed prior to angiographic procedures. An electronically controlled digital single-lens reflex camera with a dual-head flash equipped with filters suitable for fluorescein angiography was used to make images...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634151/speech-and-swallowing-abnormalities-in-adults-with-polg-associated-ataxia-polg-a
#5
Adam P Vogel, Natalie Rommel, Andreas Oettinger, Marius Horger, Patrick Krumm, Eva-Maria Kraus, Ludger Schöls, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) can result in a wide spectrum of neurological deficits. A common presentation is progressive ataxia (POLG-A) which includes impaired speech and swallowing. The nature, severity and impact of these deficits in POLG-A is not known. A comprehensive quantitative and qualitative characterization of dysarthria and dysphagia in this recurrent ataxia disorder will assist in diagnostics, provide insights into the underlying pathology, and establish the foundation for future therapy trials...
June 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#6
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630681/imaging-optical-scattering-of-butterfly-wing-scales-with-a-microscope
#7
Jinxin Fu, Beom-Jin Yoon, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao
A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as Morpho butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of Morpho butterflies. We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629562/3t-mr-defecography-a-feasibility-study-in-sensorimotor-complete-spinal-cord-injured-patients-with-neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction
#8
Cornelia Putz, Celine D Alt, Cornelia Hensel, Björn Wagner, Simone Gantz, Hans-Jürgen Gerner, Norbert Weidner, Lars Grenacher
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether MR-defecography can be employed in sensorimotor complete spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects as a potential diagnostic tool to detect defecational disorders associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) using standard parameters for obstructed defecation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective single centre clinical trial, we developed MR-defecography in traumatic sensorimotor complete paraplegic SCI patients with upper motoneuron type injury (neurological level of injury T1 to T10) using a conventional 3T scanner...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629452/inhibitory-brainstem-reflexes-under-external-emotional-stimuli-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#9
Qisha Zhu, Jiawei Wang, Chanchan Shen, Hongying Fan, Bingren Zhang, Guorong Ma, Yanxia Lu, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) might present different dysfunctions of the cortex and brainstem, as reflected by the second exteroceptive suppression period of temporalis muscle activity (ES2) under different stimuli of external emotions. METHODS: This study included 30 BD I and 20 BD II patients, and 40 healthy volunteers. All participants were invited to answer the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression inventory, as well as to undergo the ES2 test under external emotional-stimuli (emotional pictures plus sounds) of Disgust, Erotica, Fear, Happiness, and Sadness...
June 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628505/central-connections-of-the-lacrimal-functional-unit
#10
Catherine Willshire, Roger J Buckley, Anthony J Bron
PURPOSE: To study the contribution of each eye to the reflex tear response, after unilateral and bilateral topical anesthesia. METHOD: A closed-eye, modified Schirmer test was performed bilaterally in 8 normal subjects, in a controlled environment chamber set to 23°C, 45% relative humidity, and 0.08 m/s airflow. Eye drops were instilled into each eye 10 minutes before the Schirmer test. Experiments were as follows: 1) bilateral saline (control), 2) unilateral anesthesia (ipsilateral anesthetic; contralateral saline), and 3) bilateral anesthesia...
June 14, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628425/fighting-the-reflux-reflex
#11
EDITORIAL
Brian F Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#12
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626413/the-crossed-flexor-plantar-response-in-patients-with-klippel-feil-syndrome
#13
Anna Sadnicka, Simon F Farmer
The plantar reflex is one of most important and widely tested components of the neurological examination. We describe 3 subjects with Klippel-Feil syndrome and mirror movements where unilateral cutaneous stimulation of the foot leads to flexor plantar responses in both feet. We discuss the evidence which suggests that this "crossed flexor" plantar response reveals a transcortical pathway for the flexor plantar response.
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#14
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626326/effects-of-measurement-posture-and-stimulation-intensity-on-the-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-riii-reflex
#15
Jeong-Woo Lee, Se-Won Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the measurement posture and stimulation intensity on the nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII reflex). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty normal female adult subjects were selected for this study. Their RIII reflexes were measured in three positions and with three degrees of stimulation intensity. The measurement posture was randomly selected. The analysis items were the stimulation intensity of the induced RIII reflex, the amplitude of the RIII reflex, and the numeric rating scale (NRS)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625944/intractable-ictal-vomiting-a-new-form-of-reflex-epilepsy
#16
Sachin Sureshbabu, Dinesh Nayak, Vikash Aggarwal, Sudhir Peter, Laxmi Khanna, Gaurav Mittal
In this description of the clinical course of a young female with persistent and protracted vomiting along with occasional loss of consciousness and subtle motor manifestations, the differential diagnosis is debated. The epileptic origin of her symptoms was substantiated by the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges and dramatic response to valproate monotherapy. Possible lobar localizations are discussed with the support of existing literature on this rare ictal manifestation [Published with video sequence on www...
June 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625576/mexiletine-co-injected-with-clonidine-increases-the-quality-and-duration-of-cutaneous-analgesia-in-response-to-skin-pinpricks-in-the-rat
#17
Ming-Ming Han, Chong-Chi Chiu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Yu-Wen Chen, Ching-Hsia Hung
The goal of the experimental design was to assess the cutaneous analgesic effect of mexiletine by co-injection with clonidine. The effect of nociceptive block was evaluated according to the inhibition of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in response to skin pinpricks in rats. The dose-related analgesic effect of mexiletine alone or mexiletine co-administrated with clonidine was constructed after subcutaneous injection. Subcutaneous injections of mexiletine elicited dose-related cutaneous analgesia. Compared with mexiletine (1...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#18
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624852/vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-in-contracting-human-muscle-influence-of-contraction-frequency-contractile-work-and-metabolic-rate
#19
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Darren P Casey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether independent effects exist between contractile work and metabolic demand (VO2m) on vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., functional sympatholysis) under different contraction durations matched for total contractile work in exercising human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Ten young men performed rhythmic forearm contractions at 10 and 15% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) which consisted of muscle contractions using the same duty cycle but altering the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycles of exercise and included: 1) fast frequency contractions at 10% MVC (FFC10%) using a contraction relaxation cycle at 1:2 s; 2) slow frequency contractions at 10% MVC (SFC10%) at 2:4 s; and 3) SFC at 15% MVC (SFC15%) at 2:4 s...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624592/post-anoxic-quantitative-mri-changes-may-predict-emergence-from-coma-and-functional-outcomes-at-discharge
#20
Alexandra S Reynolds, Xiaotao Guo, Elizabeth Matthews, Daniel Brodie, Leroy E Rabbani, David J Roh, Soojin Park, Jan Claassen, Mitchell S V Elkind, Binsheng Zhao, Sachin Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Traditional predictors of neurological prognosis after cardiac arrest are unreliable after targeted temperature management. Absence of pupillary reflexes remains a reliable predictor of poor outcome. Diffusion-weighted imaging has emerged as a potential predictor of recovery, and here we compare imaging characteristics to pupillary exam. METHODS: We identified 69 patients who had MRIs within seven days of arrest and used a semi-automated algorithm to perform quantitative volumetric analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) sequences at various thresholds...
June 15, 2017: Resuscitation
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