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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441453/brainstem-response-patterns-in-deeply-sedated-critically-ill-patients-predict-28-day-mortality
#1
Benjamin Rohaut, Raphael Porcher, Tarik Hissem, Nicholas Heming, Patrick Chillet, Kamel Djedaini, Guy Moneger, Stanislas Kandelman, Jeremy Allary, Alain Cariou, Romain Sonneville, Andréa Polito, Marion Antona, Eric Azabou, Djillali Annane, Shidasp Siami, Fabrice Chrétien, Jean Mantz, Tarek Sharshar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deep sedation is associated with acute brain dysfunction and increased mortality. We had previously shown that early-assessed brainstem reflexes may predict outcome in deeply sedated patients. The primary objective was to determine whether patterns of brainstem reflexes might predict mortality in deeply sedated patients. The secondary objective was to generate a score predicting mortality in these patients. METHODS: Observational prospective multicenter cohort study of 148 non-brain injured deeply sedated patients, defined by a Richmond Assessment sedation Scale (RASS) <-3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#2
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440501/transfer-of-cd11c-lamina-propria-mononuclear-phagocytes-from-post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-causes-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-recipient-mice
#3
Ya-Jun Ren, Lei Zhang, Tao Bai, Hong-Lu Yu, Ying Li, Wei Qian, Si Jin, Zhi-Fan Xiong, Huan Wang, Xiao-Hua Hou
The role of low-grade inflammation in the development of post‑infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI‑IBS) has attracted increasing attention. Abnormal CD11c+ mononuclear phagocytes, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and monocytes, are involved in the disruption of immune tolerance in organisms, which can lead to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that CD11c+ lamina propria mononuclear phagocytes (CD11c+ LPMPs) contribute to increased mucosal permeability and visceral hypersensitivity in a PI‑IBS mouse model...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440353/the-safety-and-feasibility-of-diagnostic-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-used-for-eyes-a-preliminary-in-vivo-study
#4
Li Zha, Ke Qi Chen, Xiao Zhi Zheng, Jing Wu
AIMS: To assess the safety and feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the eyes of rats. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty-six SD rats were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 was the control group and Group 2 to Group 7 were investigated by ARFI elastography using increased powers of 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100% and repetitions of 5 or 10. The changes of ocular architecture structures and functions were examined by phthalmoscopic, histopathologic, and light reflex examination, and the expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was determined in days 1, 3, and 7 after ARFI elastography, respectively...
April 22, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439720/the-impact-of-oral-promethazine-on-human-whole-body-motion-perceptual-thresholds
#5
Ana Diaz-Artiles, Adrian J Priesol, Torin K Clark, David P Sherwood, Charles M Oman, Laurence R Young, Faisal Karmali
Despite the widespread treatment of motion sickness symptoms using drugs and the involvement of the vestibular system in motion sickness, little is known about the effects of anti-motion sickness drugs on vestibular perception. In particular, the impact of oral promethazine, widely used for treating motion sickness, on vestibular perceptual thresholds has not previously been quantified. We examined whether promethazine (25 mg) alters vestibular perceptual thresholds in a counterbalanced, double-blind, within-subject study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439158/trigemino-cardiac-reflex-a-phenomenon-neglected-in-maxillofacial-surgery
#6
Udupikrishna M Joshi, Ashwini Munnangi, Kundan Shah, Satishkumar G Patil, Nitin Thakur
BACKGROUND: Trigemino-cardiac reflex is a physiologic response of the body to pressure effects in the region of distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures can induce the development of this reflex, which leads to significant changes in the heart rate and sinus rhythms. This study intends to evaluate the effects of this reflex in patients with facial fractures and its subsequent management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of thirty-seven patients with facial fractures who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Basaveswar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga during a period from July 2015-March 2016 were considered for the study...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437458/isomalto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-visceral-hyperalgesia-with-repair-damage-of-ileal-epithelial-ultrastructure-in-rats
#7
Weida Wang, Haiwei Xin, Xiucai Fang, Hongtao Dou, Fangyi Liu, Dan Huang, Shaomei Han, Guijun Fei, Liming Zhu, Shenghua Zha, Hong Zhang, Meiyun Ke
BACKGROUND: Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with probiotics has achieved effectiveness to a certain extent. Whether prebiotics will work is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the prebiotic isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in rats and to explore potential mechanism. METHODS: Water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce VHS in rats. The score for the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was determined while colorectal distension and compared between VHS group and control group in order to validate VHS preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436631/-video-head-impulse-test-for-evaluation-of-vestibular-function-in-patients-with-vestibular-neuritis-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#8
Qiongfeng Guan, Lisan Zhang, Wenke Hong, Yi Yang, Zhaoying Chen, Dan Zhang, Xingyue Hu
Objective: To assess the clinical application of video head impulse test (vHIT) for vestibular function in vestibular neuritis (VN) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients. Methods: Thirty-three patients with VN and 43 patients with BPPV were enrolled from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital and Ningbo Second Hospital from March 15 to September 10, 2015; and 50 healthy controls were also enrolled in the study. vHIT was used to quantitatively test the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains of a pair of horizontal semicircular canals...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436247/effects-of-peripheral-vestibular-dysfunction-on-dynamic-postural-stability-measured-by-the-functional-reach-test-and-timed-up-and-go-test
#9
Toshiko Nishi, Teru Kamogashira, Chisato Fujimoto, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435617/analysis-of-the-width-ratio-and-wear-rate-of-maxillary-anterior-teeth-in-the-korean-population
#10
Yeon-Ah Oh, Hong-So Yang, Sang-Won Park, Hyun-Pil Lim, Kwi-Dug Yun, Chan Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera...
April 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434578/50-years-ago-in-the-journal-of-pediatrics-the-normal-achilles-tendon-reflex-time-in-children-as-measured-with-the-photomograph
#11
Paul Graham Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434567/red-reflex-screening-highly-sensitive-for-anterior-segment-abnormalities
#12
Carlo Cagini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434472/tai-chi-with-mental-imagery-theory-improves-soleus-h-reflex-and-nerve-conduction-velocity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Abdulrahman Alsubiheen, Jerrold Petrofsky, Noha Daher, Everett Lohman, Edward Balbas, Haneul Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a disease that leads to damage to the peripheral nerves which may eventually cause balance instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves in people with diabetes. DESIGNS: Quasi-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. SETTING: Human Research Laboratory...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434057/predictive-control-of-intersegmental-tarsal-movements-in-an-insect
#14
Alicia Costalago-Meruelo, David M Simpson, Sandor M Veres, Philip L Newland
In many animals intersegmental reflexes are important for postural and movement control but are still poorly undesrtood. Mathematical methods can be used to model the responses to stimulation, and thus go beyond a simple description of responses to specific inputs. Here we analyse an intersegmental reflex of the foot (tarsus) of the locust hind leg, which raises the tarsus when the tibia is flexed and depresses it when the tibia is extended. A novel method is described to measure and quantify the intersegmental responses of the tarsus to a stimulus to the femoro-tibial chordotonal organ...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434022/effects-of-vestibular-disorders-on-vestibular-reflex-and-imagery
#15
B S Cohen, J Provasi, P Leboucher, I Israël
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of vestibular lesion on vestibular imagery. Subjects were required to estimate verbally their passively travelled rotation angles in complete darkness, i.e., to activate vestibular imagery. During motion, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured. Thus, we examined the coherence between the vestibulo-ocular reflex and self-rotation imagery, with vestibular-lesioned patients and healthy participants. Unilateral acute and chronic patients, bilateral patients, and healthy subjects were compared...
April 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433541/the-impact-of-2013-updated-asco-cap-her2-guidelines-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-invasive-breast-cancer-a-single-center-study-of-1739-cases
#16
Xiaofei Zhang, Ira Bleiweiss, Shabnam Jaffer, Anupma Nayak
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of revised ASCO/CAP 2013 HER2 guidelines on the clinical practice of pathologists and oncologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 1739 patients with invasive breast carcinoma who underwent reflex HER2 (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) testing, using both 2007 and 2013 guidelines (2007-2014). RESULTS: Using 2013 guidelines, 255 (15%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-16%) cases were classified as HER2(+) as opposed to 186 (11%; 95% CI, 9%-12%) by 2007 guidelines (odds ratio [OR] 1...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433421/strain-specific-programming-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-across-generations
#17
Daniel O Popoola, Michael E Nizhnikov, Nicole M Cameron
Behavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be transmitted from in utero-exposed F1 generation to their F2 offspring. This type of transmission is modulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. This study investigated the intergenerational consequences of prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose (1 g/kg) during gestational days 17-20, on ethanol-induced hypnosis in adolescent male F1 and F2 generations, in two strains of rats. Adolescent Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley male rats were tested for sensitivity to ethanol-induced hypnosis at a 3...
January 4, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#18
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#19
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#20
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
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