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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147116/influence-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-practices-on-common-infections-among-under-five-children-in-longido-and-monduli-districts-of-arusha-tanzania
#1
Hoyce Amini Mshida, Neema Kassim, Martin Epafras Kimanya, Emmanuel Mpolya
The study aimed at assessing water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their influence on infectious diseases among under-five children in semipastoral communities of Arusha. The study was cross-sectional in design. Prevalence of infectious diseases among under-five children was derived from patients' attendance register. Mothers randomly sampled from households were interviewed using questionnaire. Information regarding child morbidity and sociodemographic and WASH characteristics was gathered. Hospital data revealed that 2/3 of under-five patients visited the hospitals annually were suffering from infectious diseases...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143638/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-for-acute-childhood-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-to-provide-estimates-for-the-lives-saved-tool
#2
Nazia Darvesh, Jai K Das, Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Kumanan Rasanathan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing recognition of the responsibilities of non-health sectors in improving the health of children. Interventions to improve access to clean water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene behaviours (WASH) represent key opportunities to improve child health and well-being by preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving nutritional status. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the effects of WASH interventions on childhood diarrhea in children 0-5 years old...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142392/quantitative-analysis-of-benzyl-isothiocyanate-in-salvadora-persica-extract-and-dental-care-herbal-formulations-using-reversed-phase-c18-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#3
Maged Saad Abdel-Kader, Y T Kamal, Prawez Alam, Mohammed Hamed Alqarni, Ahmed Ibrahim Foudah
Context: Benzyl isothiocyanate is the active antimicrobial agent in Salvadora persica (siwak) widely used in Islamic countries for oral hygiene. Aims: Quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate in the ethanol extract of S. persica and some dental care herbal formulations labeled to contain siwak. Settings and Design: Simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was designed. Subjects and Methods: Separation was achieved on reverse phase C18 (250 mm × 4...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141703/pilot-of-an-elementary-school-cough-etiquette-intervention-acceptability-feasibility-and-potential-for-sustainability
#4
Farhana Sultana, Fosiul A Nizame, Dorothy L Southern, Leanne Unicomb, Peter J Winch, Stephen P Luby
Schools convene many people together for a prolonged time, facilitating spread of respiratory pathogens and amplifying epidemics. Crowded Bangladeshi schools lack the infrastructure to support optimal cough etiquette behaviors. We collected formative data on current practices from four elementary schools, and developed and piloted a low-cost cough etiquette intervention, promoting coughing and sneezing into upper sleeves at four additional schools. We trained teachers to lead behavior change sessions during regular hygiene classes for 4 weeks...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#5
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136625/caries-preventive-effect-of-salt-fluoridation-in-preschool-children-in-the-gambia-a-prospective-controlled-interventional-study
#6
Rainer A Jordan, Andreas Schulte, Alexander C Bockelbrink, Sarah Puetz, Ella Naumova, Lars G Wärn, Stefan Zimmer
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticaries effect of fluoridated salt in a communal feeding program for preschool children. In the Gambian city of Brikama, drinking water had a low fluoride content (0.1 mg F-/L) and young children did not use toothpaste for oral hygiene. Its 2 preschools served as clusters for the trial. Random allocation of the kindergartens was performed by one person not involved in the study, and the clinical examinations were carried out using the envelope method. Meals were prepared with fluoridated salt (250 mg F-/kg salt) in the intervention group but not in the control group...
November 15, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127921/greywater-characterization-and-generation-rates-in-a-peri-urban-municipality-of-a-developing-country
#7
M Oteng-Peprah, N K de Vries, M A Acheampong
The quantity and quality of combined greywater from houses with in-house water supply and houses that rely on external sources of a peri-urban area in a developing country were determined. Data for quantity of greywater was collected from 36 households while 180 samples of greywater were collected from 60 households between December 2016 and February 2017. The results indicate that, average water consumption from households with in-house access was 82.51 ± 12.21 Lc(-1)d(-1) while households which rely on external sources was 36...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127641/technical-hygiene-economic-and-life-cycle-assessment-of-full-scale-moving-bed-biofilm-reactors-for-wastewater-treatment-in-india
#8
Anju Singh, Sheetal Jaisingh Kamble, Megha Sawant, Yogita Chakravarthy, Absar Kazmi, Enrique Aymerich, Markus Starkl, Makarand Ghangrekar, Ligy Philip
Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126213/comparison-of-respondent-reported-and-sensor-recorded-latrine-utilization-measures-in-rural-bangladesh-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Maryann G Delea, Corey L Nagel, Evan A Thomas, Amal K Halder, Nuhu Amin, Abul K Shoab, Matthew C Freeman, Leanne Unicomb, Thomas F Clasen
Background: Health improvements realized through sanitation are likely achieved through high levels of facilities utilization by all household members. However, measurements of sanitation often rely on either the presence of latrines, which does not guarantee use, or respondent-reported utilization of sanitation facilities, which is prone to response bias. Overstatement of sanitation metrics limits the accuracy of program outcome measures, and has implications for the interpretation of related health impact data...
November 3, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125849/effect-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-active-trachoma-in-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-quasi-experimental-study
#10
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124826/comparing-the-behavioral-impact-of-a-nudge-based-handwashing-intervention-to-high-intensity-hygiene-education-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-bangladesh
#11
Elise Grover, Mohammed Kamal Hossain, Saker Uddin, Mohini Venkatesh, Pavani K Ram, Robert Dreibelbis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of environmental nudges on handwashing behaviors among primary school children as compared to a high-intensity hygiene education intervention. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized trial (CRT), we compared the rates of handwashing with soap (HWWS) after a toileting event among primary school students in rural Bangladesh. Eligible schools (government run, on-site sanitation and water, no hygiene interventions in last year, fewer than 450 students) were identified and 20 schools were randomly selected and allocated without blinding to one of four interventions, five schools per group: simultaneous handwashing infrastructure and nudge construction, sequential infrastructure then nudge construction, simultaneous infrastructure and high-intensity hygiene education (HE) and sequential handwashing infrastructure and HE...
November 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122606/foodborne-cryptosporidiosis
#12
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122414/the-effect-of-hydration-on-voice-quality-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Maxine Alves, Esedra Krüger, Bhavani Pillay, Kristiane van Lierde, Jeannie van der Linde
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to critically appraise scientific, peer-reviewed articles, published in the past 10 years on the effects of hydration on voice quality in adults. STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review. METHODS: Five databases were searched using the key words "vocal fold hydration", "voice quality", "vocal fold dehydration", and "hygienic voice therapy". The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116887/wash-and-gender-in-health-care-facilities-the-uncharted-territory
#14
Petra Kohler, Samuel Renggli, Christoph Lüthi
Health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries are high risk settings, and face special challenges to achieving sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Our applied interdisciplinary research conducted in India and Uganda analysed six dimensions of WASH services in selected health care facilities, including menstrual hygiene management. To be effective, WASH monitoring strategies in health care facilities must include gender sensitive measures. We present a novel strategy, showing that applied gender sensitive multi-tool assessments are highly productive in assessments of WASH services and facilities from user and provider perspectives...
November 8, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115288/child-environmental-exposures-to-water-and-sand-at-the-beach-findings-from-studies-of-over-68-000-subjects-at-12-beaches
#15
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Benjamin F Arnold, Elizabeth A Sams, Alfred P Dufour, John M Colford, Steven B Weisberg, Kenneth C Schiff, Timothy J Wade
Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children may be at greater risk of illness following such exposures. These effects might be due to differences in immunity or differing behavioral factors such as poorer hygiene, longer exposures to, and greater ingestion of potentially contaminated water and sand. We pooled data from 12 prospective cohorts (n=68,685) to examine exposures to potentially contaminated media such as beach water and sand among children compared with adults, and conducted a simulation using self-reported time spent in the water and volume of water swallowed per minute by age to estimate the total volume of water swallowed per swimming event by age category...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114120/free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-resources-of-iran-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Ehsan Saburi, Toktam Rajaii, Asma Behdari, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Hossein Vazini
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111195/giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-rural-communities-in-yemen-a-community-based-assessment-of-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors
#17
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among rural communities among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 605 stool samples were collected and screened for the presence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) cysts and/or trophozoites by using three different diagnostic methods: direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, and trichrome staining. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental characteristics of the participants...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109670/assessment-of-hygiene-habits-in-acrylic-denture-wearers-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Georges Aoun, Elie Gerges
Objectives: To assess the denture hygiene habits in a population of Lebanese denture wearers. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-two (132) patients [71 women (53.8%) and 61 men (46.2%)] wearing their acrylic dentures for more than two years were included in this study. The hygiene methods related to their dentures were evaluated and the data obtained were analyzed statistically using the IBM(®) SPSS(®) statistics 20.0 (USA) statistical package. Results: Regardless of the cleaning technique, the big majority of our participants [123 out of 132 (93...
September 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108003/schistosoma-other-helminth-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-in-preschool-aged-children-in-urban-tanzania
#19
Khadija Said, Jerry Hella, Stefanie Knopp, Tatu Nassoro, Neema Shija, Fatma Aziz, Francis Mhimbira, Christian Schindler, Upendo Mwingira, Anna M Mandalakas, Karim Manji, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of helminth infections among preschool-aged children, control programs in sub-Saharan countries primarily focus on school-aged populations. We assessed the prevalence of helminth infections and determined risk factors for infection among preschool-aged children in the urban setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Starting in October 2015, we conducted a 12-month prospective study among tuberculosis (TB)-exposed children under the age of 5 years and unexposed controls from neighboring households...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105042/towards-a-renewed-public-health-regulatory-and-surveillance-role-in-water-sanitation-and-hygiene
#20
EDITORIAL
Hamed Bakir, Mahdi Hadi, Mey Jurdi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
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