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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916635/studies-on-the-effects-of-titanate-and-silane-coupling-agents-on-the-performance-of-poly-methyl-methacrylate-barium-titanate-denture-base-nanocomposites
#1
Nidal W Elshereksi, Mariyam J Ghazali, Andanastuti Muchtar, Che H Azhari
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. METHODS: Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914021/surface-modified-cobalt-ferrite-nanoparticles-for-rapid-capture-detection-and-removal-of-pathogens-a-potential-material-for-water-purification
#2
Raghvendra A Bohara, Nanasaheb D Throat, Nayeem A Mulla, Shivaji H Pawar
Enteric infections resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water, inadequate supply of water for personal hygiene, and poor sanitation take a heavy toll worldwide, and developing countries are the major sufferers. Consumption of microbiologically contaminated water leads to diseases such as amoebiasis, cholera, shigellosis, typhoid, and viral infections leading to gastroenteritis and hepatitis B. The present investigation deals with the development of effective method to capture and eliminate microbial contamination of water and improve the quality of water and thus decreasing the contaminated waterborne infections...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913579/risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-seropositivity-in-slaughterhouse-workers-in-western-kenya
#3
Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook, William Anson de Glanville, Lian Francesca Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Eric Maurice Fèvre
OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis has been documented in slaughterhouse workers around the world. Risk factors include smoking and drinking at work, and performing tasks such as cleaning offal. This paper examined risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. METHODS: The study was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012. Questionnaires were used to collect information from workers on demographic data, health and hygiene practices in the slaughterhouse...
December 2, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904542/the-effect-of-brushing-with-a-soft-toothbrush-and-distilled-water-on-the-incidence-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#4
Khadijeh Nasiriani, Fakhri Torki, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection, which results in longer hospitalization, increased treatment costs, and higher mortality rates. One major cause of VAP is colonization and microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions following the formation of dental plaque, which is due to poor oral hygiene and failure to mechanically remove these microorganisms from the teeth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of brushing teeth with distilled water on the incidence of VAP in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU)...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890664/do-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-reduce-the-incidence-of-acute-diarrhea-during-military-deployments-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#5
Tiphanie Succo, Franck De Laval, Sébastien Sicard, Didier Belleoud, Catherine Marimoutou, Aurélie Mayet, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Rémy Michel
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions. METHOD: A prospective randomized trial was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among French military troops deployed in Africa to compare a group of soldiers receiving usual hand hygiene recommendations (control group), to a group of soldiers who received ABHR in addition to usual hand hygiene recommendations (intervention group)...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876961/intestinal-helminth-infections-among-children-of-district-shopian-of-kashmir-valley-india
#6
Showkat Ahmad Wani, Ayshia Amin
Intestinal helminth infections are amongst the most common infections worldwide. Studies in other districts of Kashmir Valley revealed a high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among the children. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among children of Shopian district and to identify associated socio-demographic and environmental actors, behavioral habits and also related complaints. Stool samples were collected from 352 children and a questionnaire was filled for each case...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866386/hand-hygiene-program-decreases-school-absenteeism-due-to-upper-respiratory-infections
#7
Ernestina Azor-Martinez, Elena Cobos-Carrascosa, Maria Luisa Seijas-Vazquez, Carmen Fernández-Sánchez, Jenna M Strizzi, Pilar Torres-Alegre, Joaquin Santisteban-Martínez, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, together with using hand sanitizer, and the control group followed their usual handwashing procedures...
December 2016: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864517/an-extensive-burden-of-giardiasis-associated-with-intestinal-schistosomiasis-and-anaemia-in-school-children-on-the-shoreline-of-lake-albert-uganda
#8
Hajri Al-Shehri, Michelle C Stanton, James E LaCourse, Aaron Atuhaire, Moses Arinaitwe, Aida Wamboko, Moses Adriko, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Water-borne parasitic diseases associated with poverty still blight the lives of African school children. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is still common along the shoreline of Lake Albert, despite ongoing control, and co-infection with giardiasis and malaria is poorly described. To shed light on putative interactions between diseases, a prospective cross-sectional parasitological survey was undertaken in five primary schools. METHODS: Stool samples from 254 school children, aged 5-10 years, were examined by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), with additional real-time PCR assays for detection of Giardia DNA...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862001/can-water-disinfection-prevent-the-transmission-of-infectious-koi-herpesvirus-to-na%C3%A3-ve-carp-a-case-report
#9
S M Bergmann, E S Monro, J Kempter
Hygienic measures such as disinfection are important tools for the maintenance of fish health in aquaculture. While little information is available on the disinfection of water intended for fish containment, Huwa-San(®) , a disinfectant used in food and water industries, was used for daily treatment at concentrations of approximately 60 ppm over a total period of 3 months (experiment 1) with a 3-week treatment-free interval after 2 months (experiment 2). During this period, koi herpesvirus (KHV) was added to the water of two aquaria, one used as a normal contact control, the other one receiving daily water disinfectant treatments that prevented KHV infection of carp...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857768/comparative-assessment-of-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-different-hand-sanitizers-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Vishwakarma K Prashanth, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms...
September 2016: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853715/differences-in-chemical-physical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-italian-burrata-cheeses-made-in-artisanal-and-industrial-plants-of-apulia-region
#11
Stefano Rea, Leonardo Marino, Roberta Stocchi, Raffaella Branciari, Anna Rita Loschi, Dino Miraglia, David Ranucci
The burrata cheese is a traditional product from Southern Italy, consisting of an envelope of pasta filata (stretched curd) filled with cream and pasta filata strips (usually leftovers from mozzarella production). Physical [water activity (aw), pH], chemical (moisture, NaCl content) and microbiological [total viable count (TVC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci] characteristics of burrata cheeses manufactured in artisanal and industrial plants were evaluated...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846369/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-bauchi-state-nigeria-results-of-20-local-government-area-level-surveys
#12
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Mohammed Abdull, Joel Alada, Musa Goyol, Uwaezuoke Onyebuchi, Francisca Olamiju, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Benjamin C Nwobi, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca Mann Flueckiger, Alex Pavluck, Brian K Chu, Nicholas Olobio, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each of the 20 local government areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State, Nigeria. METHODS: We undertook a population-based prevalence survey in each LGA in Bauchi State, employing the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 2-stage, systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy. Using probability proportional to size, we selected 25 clusters, in each of which 25 households were selected by random walk...
November 15, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845476/are-liquids-an-efficient-vehicle-of-healthcare-associated-infections-a-review-of-reported-cases-in-italy-2000-2014
#13
D D'Alessandro, A Nusca, C Napoli
INTRODUCTION: In the field of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), one of the most reported, studied and discussed sources of infections is water, partly due to its controllability, but also because healthcare facilities, especially hospitals, require a significant quantity of water per day. In addition to water, during healthcare procedures, other liquids can serve as source of infections. The present study reports a review of those HCAIs associated to liquid vehicles occurred in Italy during the period 2000-2014...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836512/improving-community-health-through-marketing-exchanges-a-participatory-action-research-study-on-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-three-melanesian-countries
#14
D J Barrington, S Sridharan, S G Saunders, R T Souter, J Bartram, K F Shields, S Meo, A Kearton, R K Hughes
Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are major causes of mortality and morbidity. While pursuing marketing approaches to WaSH to improve health outcomes is often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, marketing theory recognises four broad marketing exchange archetypes: market-based, non-market-based, command-based and culturally determined. This diversity reflects the need for parameters broader than monetary exchange when improving WaSH. This study applied a participatory action research process to investigate how impoverished communities in Melanesian urban and peri-urban informal settlements attempt to meet their WaSH needs through marketing exchange...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828768/clinical-comparison-of-two-photosensitizers-for-oral-cavity-decontamination
#15
Hérica Adad Ricci Donato, Sebastião Pratavieira, Clovis Grecco, Aldo Brugnera-Júnior, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Cristina Kurachi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to compare the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) effects of two different photosensitizers (PS), Photogem(®) and Natural Curcumin, irradiated with light-emitted diodes (LED) at 630 and 450 nm, respectively. BACKGROUND: The current antimicrobial mouthwash for oral hygiene has several drawbacks. In this context, PDI is an alternative technique to inactivate pathogenic microbes in mucosa and in periodontal tissue. Furthermore, there are numerous infectious diseases that may affect the oral cavity, motivating the use of PDI in dentistry...
November 7, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826443/belgian-hand-hygiene-campaigns-in-icu-2005-2015
#16
Sylvanus Fonguh, Annie Uwineza, Boudewijn Catry, Anne Simon
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are still a major problem especially in most intensive care units (ICU). Incompliance by clinical staff with hand hygiene (HH) increases rates of preventable infections. We report the outcome of the Belgian national hand hygiene campaign from 2005 to 2015 with focus on intensive care units. METHODS: Using the World Health organisation (WHO) standardised observation roster, trained infection control teams measured adherence to HH guidelines by direct observation...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818376/improving-household-air-drinking-water-and-hygiene-in-rural-peru-a-community-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-integrated-environmental-home-based-intervention-package-to-improve-child-health
#17
S M Hartinger, C F Lanata, J Hattendorf, H Verastegui, A I Gil, J Wolf, D Mäusezahl
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, which can be prevented by simple low-cost interventions. Integrated strategies can provide additional benefits by addressing multiple health burdens simultaneously. METHODS: We conducted a community-randomized-controlled trial in 51 rural communities in Peru to evaluate whether an environmental home-based intervention package, consisting of improved solid-fuel stoves, kitchen sinks, solar disinfection of drinking water and hygiene promotion, reduces lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and improves growth in children younger than 36 months...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813703/achievements-and-challenges-for-the-use-of-killed-oral-cholera-vaccines-in-the-global-stockpile-era
#18
Sachin N Desai, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Kathryn P Alberti, Stephen Martin, Alejandro Costa, William Perea, Dominique Legros
Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of an affordable cholera vaccine for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for oral cholera vaccine (OCV)...
November 4, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802834/assessment-of-the-response-to-cholera-outbreaks-in-two-districts-in-ghana
#19
Sally-Ann Ohene, Wisdom Klenyuie, Mark Sarpeh
BACKGROUND: Despite recurring outbreaks of cholera in Ghana, very little has been reported on assessments of outbreak response activities undertaken in affected areas. This study assessed the response activities undertaken in two districts, Akatsi District in Volta Region and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA) Municipal in Central Region during the 2012 cholera epidemic in Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective assessment of the events, strengths and weaknesses of the cholera outbreak response activities in the two districts making use of the WHO cholera evaluation tool...
November 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801802/water-related-impacts-of-climate-change-on-agriculture-and-subsequently-on-public-health-a-review-for-generalists-with-particular-reference-to-pakistan
#20
REVIEW
Toqeer Ahmed, Miklas Scholz, Furat Al-Faraj, Wajeeha Niaz
Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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