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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732304/outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-pt14b-gastroenteritis-at-a-restaurant-in-england-the-use-of-molecular-typing-to-achieve-a-successful-prosecution
#1
C Chatt, D Nicholds-Trainor, A Scrivener, S Suleman, M Harvey, T Dallman, J Hawker, B Sibal
OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b in people who had eaten at a restaurant, and the investigation and subsequent prosecution of the food business operator (FBO). STUDY DESIGN: The local health protection team and environmental health department formed an outbreak control team to investigate the outbreak. METHODS: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722585/school-children-s-intestinal-parasite-and-nutritional-status-1-year-after-complementary-school-garden-nutrition-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-in-burkina-faso
#2
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Andrea Leuenberger, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722575/household-and-individual-risk-factors-for-cholera-among-cholera-vaccine-recipients-in-rural-haiti
#3
Wilfredo R Matias, Jessica E Teng, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Molly F Franke, Louise C Ivers
Oral cholera vaccination was used as part of cholera control in Haiti, but the vaccine does not provide complete protection. We conducted secondary data analyses of a vaccine effectiveness study in Haiti to evaluate risk factors for cholera among cholera vaccine recipients. Individuals vaccinated against cholera that presented with acute watery diarrhea and had a stool sample positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 were included as cases. Up to four vaccinated individuals who did not present for treatment of diarrhea were included as controls for each case, and matched by location of residence, enrollment time, and age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722574/intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-noninfected-persons-in-a-high-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevalence-region-of-cameroon
#4
Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Sandrine Mboula Tchameni, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Patrice Djataou, Ulrich Florian Simo, Alexandre Benjamin Nkoum, William Estrin
The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721297/potential-application-of-bacillus-subtilis-spb1-lipopeptides-in-toothpaste-formulation
#5
Mouna Bouassida, Nada Fourati, Fatma Krichen, Raida Zouari, Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi
Toothpaste is a gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean, keep and promote oral hygiene. The literature review suggests that there are many different formulations of toothpastes and that each of their individual components present specific functions. The concentration of the toothpaste ingredients must be appropriately chosen taking into account the purposes of the toothpaste. Biosurfactants are considered as suitable molecules for application in many formulations such as in toothpaste one...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719285/trial-of-a-novel-intervention-to-improve-multiple-food-hygiene-behaviors-in-nepal
#6
Om Prasad Gautam, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sandy Cairncross, Sue Cavill, Valerie Curtis
AbstractIn this study, we report on the results of a trial of an intervention to improve five food hygiene behaviors among mothers of young children in rural Nepal. This novel intervention targeted five behaviors; cleanliness of serving utensils, handwashing with soap before feeding, proper storage of cooked food, and thorough reheating and water treatment. Based on formative research and a creative process using the Behavior-Centered Design approach, an innovative intervention package was designed and delivered over a period of 3 months...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715656/the-prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-ziway-dugda-district-arsi-zone-oromia-regional-state-ethiopia
#7
Abebe Ferede, Firaol Lemessa, Mesfin Tafa, Solomon Sisay
OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m(2)) among women remained between 10% and 40% in most low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age...
July 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714493/handwashing-practices-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-and-neonatal-nurseries-in-patan-hospital
#8
S Joshi, P Amatya, B Poudel, S A Yadav
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene has been identified as the single most important factor in minimising hospital acquired infections. However, compliance of handwashing guidelines has remained low. The aim of this study was to study the handwashing practices in the Paediatric and Neonatal intensive care units and Neonatal nurseries in Patan Hospital, and secondly to re-evaluate the improvement on compliance of handwashing guidelines after intervention. METHODS: Pre-intervention study was conducted by covertly observing the handwashing practices by the healthcare workers...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708615/treatment-of-poultry-slaughterhouse-wastewater-using-a-static-granular-bed-reactor-sgbr-coupled-with-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-system
#9
M Basitere, Z Rinquest, M Njoya, M S Sheldon, S K O Ntwampe
The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701058/attitudes-and-behavioural-factors-relating-to-toothbrushing-and-the-use-of-fluoride-toothpaste-among-caries-active-swedish-adolescents-a-questionnaire-study
#10
Anna Nordström, Dowen Birkhed
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify attitudes and behaviour relating to fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushing habits among caries-active Swedish adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on an earlier clinical, two-year toothpaste intervention study. At the last appointment, 206 adolescents (of 211) answered a questionnaire comprising nine semi-closed questions. RESULTS: The majority (93%) brushed their teeth every day, while 7% did so only occasionally...
July 12, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700953/comparative-assessment-of-local-tolerance-of-alcohols-commonly-used-in-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-for-hand-hygiene
#11
Monique Manche, Benoît Foligné, Mathieu Sauty, Anne Platel, Eric Vercauteren, Gaétan Rauwel, Sophie Catoire, Hervé Ficheux, Jacques Criquelion, Fabrice Nesslany
Hand hygiene plays a key role in nosocomial infection prevention. To achieve users' adherence, products' dermal tolerance is essential. We aimed at making a comparative assessment of skin irritation and phototoxicity of the 3 alcohols commonly used in alcohol-based hand rubs (Ethanol, Propan-2-ol, Propan-1-ol) at 60, 70, 80 or 85% w/w in water or with co-formulates (hydrating, emollient and skin protective agents). In vitro validated OECD methods 439 and 432 were used. For irritation, EpiSkin™ Small Model was the chosen Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RhE)...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698518/challenges-and-opportunities-for-mainstreaming-climate-change-adaptation-into-wash-development-planning-in-ghana
#12
Salley Alhassan, Wade L Hadwen
Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697975/effects-of-sanitation-on-cognitive-development-and-school-absence-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
G D Sclar, J V Garn, G Penakalapati, K T Alexander, J Krauss, M C Freeman, S Boisson, K O Medlicott, T Clasen
OBJECTIVE: We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. METHODS: We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688261/effect-of-long-term-chilled-up-to-5weeks-then-frozen-up-to-12months-storage-at-two-different-sub-zero-holding-temperatures-on-beef-1-meat-quality-and-microbial-loads
#14
Benjamin W B Holman, Cassius E O Coombs, Stephen Morris, Matthew J Kerr, David L Hopkins
Beef loins (LL) stored under different chilled-then-frozen storage combinations (up to 5 and 52weeks, respectively) and two frozen holding temperatures were evaluated for microbial load and meat quality parameters. We found holding temperature effects to be negligible, which suggest -12°C could deliver comparable quality LL to -18°C across these same storage periods. Meat quality parameters varied significantly, but when compared to existing consumer thresholds these may not be perceptible, colour being the exception which proved unacceptable, earlier into retail display when either chilled and subsequent frozen storage periods were increased...
June 30, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685039/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-1-rationale-methods-and-database-description
#15
Henry B Perry, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Jess Wilhelm, Paul A Freeman
BACKGROUND: Community-based primary health care (CBPHC) is an approach used by health programs to extend preventive and curative health services beyond health facilities into communities and even down to households. Evidence of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) has been summarized by others, but our review gives particular attention to not only the effectiveness of specific interventions but also their delivery strategies at the community level along with their equity effects...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681324/how-do-people-gain-access-to-water-resources-in-the-brazilian-semiarid-caatinga-in-times-of-climate-change
#16
Evaldo de Lira Azevêdo, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, Thelma Lúcia Pereira Dias, Joseline Molozzi
Climate change is becoming an imminent reality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, it is essential to understand the relationships between humans and aquatic ecosystems in order to devise efficient management and conservation strategies. We conducted 126 interviews using a semi-structured form to record water sources, transport strategies, and the use and treatment of water by communities surrounding four reservoirs within two drainage basins in the semiarid region of Brazil. These factors were then compared to the mean water volumes of the respective reservoirs from 2013 to 2015, a period of severe drought in that area...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679422/prevalence-of-diarrhoea-and-risk-factors-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-mbour-senegal-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Sokhna Thiam, Aminata N Diène, Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S Winkler, Ibrahima Sy, Jacques A Ndione, Christian Schindler, Penelope Vounatsou, Jürg Utzinger, Ousmane Faye, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeal diseases remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Senegal, diarrhoea is responsible for 15% of all deaths in children under the age of five and is the third leading cause of childhood deaths. For targeted planning and implementation of prevention strategies, a context-specific understanding of the determinants of diarrhoeal diseases is needed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five in Mbour, Senegal...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676340/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-isolated-from-corneal-scrapes-and-contact-lens-wearers-in-argentina
#18
Rodolfo D Casero, Florencia Mongi, Laura Laconte, Fernando Rivero, Dario Sastre, Aníbal Teherán, Giovanny Herrera, Juan David Ramírez
In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study...
July 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#19
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670635/variability-of-urine-parameters-in-children-infected-with-schistosoma-haematobium-in-ukawu-community-onicha-local-government-area-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#20
Juliana Eze Elom, Oliver O Odikamnoro, Agwu Ulu Nnachi, Ifeanyi Ikeh, John O Nkwuda
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a chronic, debilitating and neglected tropical and sub-tropical water-borne ailment, is highly endemic in Nigeria, especially among primary school children in rural communities. The study on the variability of urine parameters in children infected with Schistosomahaematobium in Ukawu community, Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, was undertaken. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples were aseptically collected from 400 primary school children in the community and analysed using chemical reagent strips and sedimentation techniques...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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