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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#1
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351741/risk-factors-for-mycobacterium-ulcerans-infection-buruli-ulcer-in-togo-%C3%A2-a-case-control-study-in-zio-and-yoto-districts-of-the-maritime-region
#2
Issaka Maman, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Abiba Banla Kere, Ebekalisai Piten, Marcus Beissner, Yiragnima Kobara, Komlan Kossi, Kossi Badziklou, Franz Xaver Wiedemann, Komi Amekuse, Gisela Bretzel, Damintoti Simplice Karou
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected mycobacterial skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease mostly affects poor rural populations, especially in areas with low hygiene standards and sanitation coverage. The objective of this study was to identify these risk factors in the districts of Zio and Yoto of the Maritime Region in Togo. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Zio and Yoto, two districts proved BU endemic from November 2014 to May 2015...
January 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351066/contamination-of-swimming-pools-and-hot-tubs-biofilms-with-acanthamoeba
#3
Behroz Mahdavi Poor, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Fariba Khoshzaban, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
The members of Acanthamoeba genus are ubiquitous amoeba which could be a pathogenic parasite. The amoeba is resistant to the common chlorine concentration that used for disinfecting the swimming pool water. Therefore, the pools can be suitable environments for the survival and multiplication of the amoeba. In this cross sectional study, 10 indoor recreational water centers from different regions of Tabriz city were selected and sampling was done from fixed and floating biofilms of the swimming pools and hot tubs...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346385/combined-effectiveness-of-anthelmintic-chemotherapy-and-wash-among-hiv-infected-adults
#4
Arianna R Means, Lisette van Lieshout, Eric Brienen, Krista Yuhas, James P Hughes, Paul Ndungu, Benson Singa, Judd L Walson
INTRODUCTION: Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338801/how-immediate-and-significant-is-the-outcome-of-training-on-diversified-diets-hygiene-and-food-safety-an-effort-to-mitigate-child-undernutrition-in-rural-malawi
#6
Anitha Seetha, Takuji W Tsusaka, Timalizge W Munthali, Maggie Musukwa, Agnes Mwangwela, Zione Kalumikiza, Tinna Manani, Lizzie Kachulu, Nelson Kumwenda, Mike Musoke, Patrick Okori
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the impacts of training on nutrition, hygiene and food safety designed by the Nutrition Working Group, Child Survival Collaborations and Resources Group (CORE). DESIGN: Adapted from the 21d Positive Deviance/Hearth model, mothers were trained on the subjects of appropriate complementary feeding, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, and aflatoxin contamination in food. To assess the impacts on child undernutrition, a randomised controlled trial was implemented on a sample of 179 mothers and their children (<2 years old) in two districts of Malawi, namely Mzimba and Balaka...
January 17, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336229/parasites-of-importance-for-human-health-on-edible-fruits-and-vegetables-in-nigeria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-published-data
#7
Solomon Ngutor Karshima
Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness the extent of parasitic contaminations will ensure public health protection. Here, the prevalence and distribution of parasites of importance for human health on fruits and vegetables in Nigeria were determined through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence estimate (PPE)...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319200/the-rise-and-fall-of-peptic-ulceration-a-disease-of-civilization
#8
REVIEW
Ian C Roberts-Thomson
Humans and Helicobacter pylori have evolved and adapted over tens of thousands of years. Yet peptic ulcer disease appeared to be rare prior to the 19th century. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease increased between 1850 and 1900 and culminated in a cohort at high risk that was born at the end of the 19th century. This coincided with the provision of safe water and improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene. One hypothesis for the emergence of peptic ulcer disease focuses on the rate of development of atrophic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304780/the-influence-of-maternal-psychosocial-circumstances-and-physical-environment-on-the-risk-of-severe-wasting-in-rural-gambian-infants-a-mixed-methods-approach
#9
Helen M Nabwera, Sophie E Moore, Martha K Mwangome, Sassy C Molyneux, Momodou K Darboe, Nyima Camara-Trawally, Bakary Sonko, Alhagie Darboe, Seedy Singhateh, Anthony J Fulford, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Severe wasting affects 16 million under 5's and carries an immediate risk of death. Prevalence remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa and early infancy is a high-risk period. We aimed to explore risk factors for severe wasting in rural Gambian infants. METHODS: We undertook a case-control study from November 2014 to June 2015, in rural Gambia. Cases had WHO standard weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) < -3 on at least 1 occasion in infancy...
January 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298699/menstrual-health-and-school-absenteeism-among-adolescent-girls-in-uganda-meniscus-a-feasibility-study
#10
George Miiro, Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Kevin Nakuya, Saidat Musoke, Juliet Namakula, Suzanna Francis, Belen Torondel, Lorna J Gibson, David A Ross, Helen A Weiss
BACKGROUND: Management of menstruation can present substantial challenges to girls in low-income settings. In preparation for a menstrual hygiene intervention to reduce school absenteeism in Uganda, this study aimed to investigate menstruation management practices, barriers and facilitators, and the influence of menstruation on school absenteeism among secondary school students in a peri-urban district of Uganda. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted among consenting girls and boys aged 14-17 years in four secondary schools in Entebbe sub-District, Uganda...
January 3, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284003/identifying-cholera-hotspots-in-uganda-an-analysis-of-cholera-surveillance-data-from-2011-to-2016
#11
Godfrey Bwire, Mohammad Ali, David A Sack, Anne Nakinsige, Martha Naigaga, Amanda K Debes, Moise C Ngwa, W Abdullah Brooks, Christopher Garimoi Orach
BACKGROUND: Despite advance in science and technology for prevention, detection and treatment of cholera, this infectious disease remains a major public health problem in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive. The aim of this study was to identify cholera hotspots in Uganda to guide the development of a roadmap for prevention, control and elimination of cholera in the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We obtained district level confirmed cholera outbreak data from 2011 to 2016 from the Ministry of Health, Uganda...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281659/immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccine-rotarixtm-in-infants-with-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#12
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280539/bacteriological-evaluation-of-composted-manure-solids-prepared-from-anaerobic-digested-slurry-for-hygienic-recycled-bedding-materials-for-dairy-cows
#13
Eiryu Okamoto, Hiroki Miyanishi, Akinobu Nakamura, Tomoyuki Kobayashi, Norihiko Kobayashi, Yoshinori Terawaki, Hajime Nagahata
Changes in mastitis-causing pathogens, pH and water content in composted manure solids (CMS) prepared from digested slurry were evaluated during turning at 2-day intervals for 8 days (C1-C4). The numbers of streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms were 2.6 × 101 , 1.7 × 102 and 1.0 × 101  colony-forming units (cfu)/g in CMS (C4) (summer), and these counts were markedly lower (P < 0.05) than those in CMS (C0 and C1). The bacterial counts ranged from 101 to 1.7 × 102  cfu/g in CMS (C4) (summer) and were within approved levels, <1 × 106  cfu/g, indicating a minimal mastitis risk...
December 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261335/development-of-a-checklist-for-assessing-good-hygiene-practices-of-fresh-cut-fruits-and-vegetables-using-focus-group-interviews
#14
Jane A M Araújo, Erick A Esmerino, Verônica O Alvarenga, Leandro P Cappato, Iracema C Hora, Marcia Cristina Silva, Monica Q Freitas, Tatiana C Pimentel, Eduardo H M Walter, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Adriano G Cruz
This study aimed to develop a checklist for good hygiene practices (GHP) for raw material of vegetable origin using the focus groups (FGs) approach (n = 4). The final checklist for commercialization of horticultural products totaled 28 questions divided into six blocks, namely: water supply; hygiene, health, and training; waste control; control of pests; packaging and traceability; and hygiene of facilities and equipment. The FG methodology was efficient to elaborate a participatory and objective checklist, based on minimum hygiene requirements, serving as a tool for diagnosis, planning, and training in GHP of fresh vegetables, besides contributing to raise awareness of the consumers' food safety...
December 20, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260884/engagement-of-stakeholders-in-the-development-of-a-theory-of-change-for-handwashing-and-sanitation-behaviour-change
#15
Emmy De Buck, Karin Hannes, Margaret Cargo, Hans Van Remoortel, Axel Vande Veegaete, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Thashlin Govender, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Taryn Young
A Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach to map programmes aimed at inducing change in a specific context, with the goal of increasing their impact. We applied this approach to the specific case of handwashing and sanitation practices in low- and middle-income countries and developed a ToC as part of a systematic review exercise. Different existing sources of information were used to inform the initial draft of the ToC. In addition, stakeholder involvement occurred and peer review took place. Our stakeholders included methodological (ToC/quantitative and qualitative research) and content experts (WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)/behaviour change), as well as end-users/practitioners, policy-makers and donors...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258549/effectiveness-of-home-based-nutritional-counselling-and-support-on-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-urban-poor-settings-in-nairobi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Paula L Griffiths, Frederick Murunga Wekesah, Milka Wanjohi, Nelson Muhia, Peter Muriuki, Thaddaeus Egondi, Catherine Kyobutungi, Alex C Ezeh, Stephen T McGarvey, Rachel N Musoke, Shane A Norris, Nyovani J Madise
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) improves infant health and survival. We tested the effectiveness of a home-based intervention using Community Health Workers (CHWs) on EBF for six months in urban poor settings in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. We recruited pregnant women and followed them until the infant's first birthday. Fourteen community clusters were randomized to intervention or control arm...
December 19, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258505/malaria-prevalence-in-mangaluru-city-area-in-the-southwestern-coastal-region-of-india
#17
Kiran K Dayanand, Kishore Punnath, Valleesha Chandrashekar, Rajeshwara N Achur, Srinivas B Kakkilaya, Susanta K Ghosh, Suchetha Kumari, D Channe Gowda
BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly prevalent in many parts of India and the Indian subcontinent. Mangaluru, a city in the southwest coastal region of Karnataka state in India, and surrounding areas are malaria endemic with 10-12 annual parasite index. Despite high endemicity, to-date, very little has been reported on the epidemiology and burden of malaria in this area. METHODS: A cross-sectional surveillance of malaria cases was performed among 900 febrile symptomatic native people (long-time residents) and immigrant labourers (temporary residents) living in Mangaluru city area...
December 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243917/high-antimicrobial-activity-of-mof-templated-porphyrin-polymer-thin-films
#18
Wencai Zhou, Salma Begum, Zhengbang Wang, Peter Krolla, Danny Wagner, Stefan Bräse, Christof Wöll, Manuel Tsotsalas
Development of surface coatings with high antimicrobial activity is urgently required to fight bacteria and other microorganisms on technical and hygiene relevant surfaces. Control over structure and topology of the surface coatings, combined with the ability to include functional molecules within the structure is crucial for optimizing their performance. Herein, we describe a novel strategy to synthesize structurally well-defined porphyrin polymer thin films via a template approach. In this approach bis-azido functionalized porphyrin molecules are preorganized within a metal-organic framework (MOF) structure...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241191/evaluation-of-behavioral-and-susceptibility-patterns-in-premenopausal-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-a-case-control-study
#19
Saddam Al Demour, Mera A Ababneh
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major source of morbidity and healthcare costs. Risk factors associated with recurrence rates in premenopausal women can be attributed to patient lifestyle behavior. The aim of this study was to assess hygienic risk factors, determine pathogen distribution, and susceptibility patterns in premenopausal women with recurrent UTI. This was case-control study in which a face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain information from premenopausal women with recurrent UTI...
December 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238326/a-probabilistic-decision-making-scoring-system-for-quality-and-safety-management-in-alore%C3%A3-a-de-m%C3%A3-laga-table-olive-processing
#20
Miguel Á Ruiz Bellido, Antonio Valero, Eduardo Medina Pradas, Verónica Romero Gil, Francisco Rodríguez-Gómez, Guiomar D Posada-Izquierdo, Francisco Rincón, Aricia Possas, Rosa M García-Gimeno, Francisco N Arroyo-López
Table olives are one of the most representatives and consumed fermented vegetables in Mediterranean countries. However, there is an evident lack of standardization of production processes and HACCP systems thus implying the need of establishing decision-making tools allowing their commercialization and shelf-life extension. The present work aims at developing a decision-making scoring system by means of a probabilistic assessment to standardize production process of Aloreña de Málaga table olives based on the identification of potential hazards or deficiencies in hygienic processes for the subsequent implementation of corrective measures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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