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Yuru Wang, SeHee Park, Peter A Beal
Adenosine deamination is one of the most prevalent post-transcriptional modifications in mRNA and is catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 in humans. ADAR1 and ADAR2 have different substrate selectivity, which is believed to mainly originate from the proteins' deaminase domains (hADAR1d and hADAR2d, respectively). RNA-seq of the S. cerevisiae transcriptome subjected to ADAR-catalyzed RNA editing identified substrates with common secondary structure features preferentially edited by hADAR1d over hADAR2d. The relatively small size and efficient reaction of one of these substrates suggested it could be useful for further study of the hADAR1d reaction...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
Simon D Goldenberg, Rahul Batra, Ian Beales, Jonathan Leith Digby-Bell, Peter Miles Irving, Lee Kellingray, Arjan Narbad, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Katiuscha Merath, Fabio Bagante, Eliza W Beal, Alexandra G Lopez-Aguiar, George Poultsides, Eleftherios Makris, Flavio Rocha, Zaheer Kanji, Sharon Weber, Alexander Fisher, Ryan Fields, Bradley A Krasnick, Kamran Idrees, Paula M Smith, Cliff Cho, Megan Beems, Carl R Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Shishir K Maithel, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence after resection of non-metastatic gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is poorly defined. We developed/validated a nomogram to predict risk of recurrence after curative-intent resection. METHODS: A training set to develop the nomogram and test set for validation were identified. The predictive ability of the nomogram was assessed using c-indices. RESULTS: Among 1477 patients, 673 (46%) were included in the training set and 804 (54%) in y the test set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Clarice Noleto-Dias, Jane L Ward, Alice Bellisai, Charlotte Lomax, Michael H Beale
Willow (Salix sp.) is a historically well-known herbal medicine that provided the lead compound (salicin) for the discovery of aspirin, one of the most successful plant derived drugs in human medicine. During a metabolomics screen of 86 Salix species contained in the UK National Willow Collection, we have discovered, isolated and fully characterised a new natural salicinoid - salicin-7-sulfate. This molecule may have important human pharmacological actions that need to be considered in determining the efficacy and safety of willow herbal medicines...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Emily A Armstrong, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Anghela Z Paredes, Demetrios Moris, Timothy M Pawlik, Carl R Schmidt, Mary E Dillhoff
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most fatal forms of cancer worldwide with incidence nearly equal to mortality. This is often attributed to the fact that diagnosis is often not made until later disease stages when treatment proves difficult. Efforts have been made to reduce the mortality of PC through improvements in early screening techniques and treatments of late-stage disease. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles involved in cellular communication, have shown promise in helping understand PC disease biology...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Rachel Tillery, Sarah J Beal, Aimee N Thompson, Ahna L H Pai
Late physical and emotional effects of cancer treatment pose a burden for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer, including family milestone achievement. This brief report examined links between ongoing cancer-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS) and family milestone achievement. Survivors (n = 51; Mage  = 24.73, SD = 8.20) completed CR-PTSS and family formation questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariate parameter-constraints, and correlation analyses examined relations among study variables...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Rashmi Seneviratne, Sanobar Khan, Ellen Moscrop, Michael Rappolt, Stephen P Muench, Lars J C Jeuken, Paul A Beales
Hybrid vesicles composed of lipids and block copolymers hold promise for increasing liposome stability and providing a stable environment for membrane proteins. Recently we reported the successful functional reconstitution of the integral membrane protein cytochrome bo3 (ubiquinol oxidase) into hybrid vesicles composed of a blend of phospholipids and a block copolymer (PBd-PEO). We demonstrated that these novel membrane environments stabilise the enzymes' activity, prolonging their functional lifetime [Chem Commun...
January 31, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Safa Mujahid, Katharine F Hunt, Yee S Cheah, Elizabeth Forsythe, Jonathan M Hazlehurst, Kathryn Sparks, Shehla Mohammed, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Stephanie A Amiel, Paul V Carroll, Phillip L Beales, Mohammed S B Huda, Barbara M McGowan
Context: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which previous reports have described obesity and a metabolic syndrome. Objective: Describe the endocrine and metabolic characteristics of a large BBS population compared with matched controls. Design: Case-control. Setting: Hospital clinic. Patients: A clinical/genetic diagnosis of BBS. Intervention: None...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xu-Feng Zhang, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Qinyu Chen, Yi Lv, Cecilia G Ethun, Ahmed Salem, Sharon M Weber, Thuy Tran, George Poultsides, Andre Y Son, Ioannis Hatzaras, Linda Jin, Ryan C Fields, Stefan Buettner, Charles Scoggins, Robert C G Martin, Chelsea A Isom, Kamron Idrees, Harveshp D Mogal, Perry Shen, Shishir K Maithel, Carl R Schmidt, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Time to tumor recurrence may be associated with outcomes following resection of hepatobiliary cancers. The objective of the current study was to investigate risk factors and prognosis among patients with early versus late recurrence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) after curative-intent resection. METHODS: A total of 225 patients who underwent curative-intent resection for HCCA were identified from 10 academic centers in the USA. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, pre-, intra-, and postoperative details and overall survival (OS) were analyzed...
February 5, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Nathan Beals, Michael Model, Matt Worden, Torsten Hegmann, Soumitra Basu
Over the past decade, nanomedicine has gained considerable traction through its relevance, for example in "smart" delivery, thus creating platforms for novel treatments. Here we report a natural polymer-DNA conjugate that undergoes self-assembly in a K+ dependent fashion to form a G-quadruplex (GQ) and generate superpolymeric structures. We derivatized the naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan polymer hyaluronic acid (HA) with short G-rich DNA (HASH-DNA) that can form intermolecular non-canonical GQ structure...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rohan M Modi, Dmitry Tumin, Andrew J Kruger, Eliza W Beal, Don Hayes, James Hanje, Anthony J Michaels, Kenneth Washburn, Lanla F Conteh, Sylvester M Black, Khalid Mumtaz
AIM: To examine the effect of center size on survival differences between simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT) and liver transplantation alone (LTA) in SLKT-listed patients. METHODS: The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for patients ≥ 18 years of age listed for SLKT between February 2002 and December 2015. Post-transplant survival was evaluated using stratified Cox regression with interaction between transplant type (LTA vs SLKT) and center volume...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Xu-Feng Zhang, Fabio Bagante, Qinyu Chen, Eliza W Beal, Yi Lv, Matthew Weiss, Irinel Popescu, Hugo P Marques, Luca Aldrighetti, Shishir K Maithel, Carlo Pulitano, Todd W Bauer, Feng Shen, George A Poultsides, Olivier Soubrane, Guillaume Martel, B Groot Koerkamp, Alfredo Guglielmi, Endo Itaru, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with hepatic hilus involvement has been either classified as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and short- and long-term outcomes after curative resection for hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in comparison with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 912 patients with mass-forming peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 101 patients with hilar type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 159 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing curative resection from 2000 to 2015 were included from two multi-institutional databases...
February 1, 2018: Surgery
Tasha M Hughes, Katiuscha Merath, Qinyu Chen, Steven Sun, Elizabeth Palmer, Jay J Idrees, Victor Okunrintemi, Malcolm Squires, Eliza W Beal, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a process that respects the rights of patients to be fully involved in decisions about their care. By evaluating all available healthcare options and weighing patients' personal values and preferences against available unbiased evidence, patients and healthcare professionals can make health-related decisions together, as partners. We sought to evaluate the impact of perceived SDM on patient-reported outcomes, healthcare quality, and healthcare utilization...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Carine Rosignoli, Séverine Thibaut de Ménonville, Danielle Orfila, Méline Béal, Béatrice Bertino, Jérôme Aubert, Annick Mercenier, David Piwnica
Staphylococcus aureus colonization is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). AD patients exhibit reduced levels of cutaneous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which may explain their increased susceptibility to infections. Using an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model, we sought to determine whether topical application of a non-replicating probiotic, heat-treated Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (HT La1), could inhibit S. aureus adhesion to skin and boost cutaneous innate immunity...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Jennifer Y F Lau, Lauren C Heathcote, Sarah Beale, Suzy Gray, Konrad Jacobs, Nick Wilkinson, Geert Crombez
Cognitive biases that emphasise bodily harm, injury, and illness could play a role in the maintenance of chronic pain, by facilitating fear and avoidance. Whereas extensive research has established attention, interpretation, and memory biases in adults with chronic pain, far less is known about these same biases in children and adolescents with pain. Studying cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory in relation to pain occurring in youth is important because youth is a time when pain can first become chronic, and when relationships between cognitive biases and pain outcomes emerge and stabilise...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Bo Gao, Yi Lu, Annemieke J M Nieuweboer, Hongmei Xu, Jonathan Beesley, Ingrid Boere, Anne-Joy M de Graan, Peter de Bruijn, Howard Gurney, Catherine J Kennedy, Yoke-Eng Chiew, Sharon E Johnatty, Philip Beale, Michelle Harrison, Craig Luccarini, Don Conroy, Ron H J Mathijssen, Paul R Harnett, Rosemary L Balleine, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Stuart Macgregor, Anna de Fazio
Identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence chemotherapy disposition may help to personalize cancer treatment and limit toxicity. Genome-wide approaches are unbiased, compared with candidate gene studies, but usually require large cohorts. As most chemotherapy is given cyclically multiple blood sampling is required to adequately define drug disposition, limiting patient recruitment. We found that carboplatin and paclitaxel disposition are stable phenotypes in ovarian cancer patients and tested a genome-wide association study (GWAS) design to identify SNPs associated with chemotherapy disposition...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aki Morikawa, Rui Wang, Sujata Patil, Adi Diab, Jonathan Yang, Clifford A Hudis, Heather L McArthur, Kathryn Beal, Andrew D Seidman
BACKGROUND: Although brain metastases (BM) are associated with poor prognosis, patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) with BM who are treated with anti-HER2 therapy have a relatively longer survival after BM diagnosis compared with other subtypes and HER2+ patients previously untreated with anti-HER2 therapy. It is unclear if previously reported prognostic factors are applicable to patients with HER2+ BC in the era of HER2-targeted therapy...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
Katherine Fletcher, Rachel Ulferts, Elise Jacquin, Talitha Veith, Noor Gammoh, Julia M Arasteh, Ulrike Mayer, Simon R Carding, Thomas Wileman, Rupert Beale, Oliver Florey
A hallmark of macroautophagy is the covalent lipidation of LC3 and insertion into the double-membrane phagophore, which is driven by the ATG16L1/ATG5-ATG12 complex. In contrast, non-canonical autophagy is a pathway through which LC3 is lipidated and inserted into single membranes, particularly endolysosomal vacuoles during cell engulfment events such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. Factors controlling the targeting of ATG16L1 to phagophores are dispensable for non-canonical autophagy, for which the mechanism of ATG16L1 recruitment is unknown...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Natalí P Debia, Maiara Torchelsen Saraiva, Bruna Simões Martins, Roiney Beal, Paulo F B Goncalves, Fabiano Severo Rodembusch, Diego Alves, Diogo S Lüdtke
A series of amino acid-derived 1,2,3-triazoles presenting the amino acid and the aromatic moieties connected by a triazole-4-carboxylate spacer is discussed in this work. These compounds were achieved in good yields by organocatalytic enamine-azide [3+2] cycloadditions. One of the molecules obtained, bearing a 7-chloroquinoline moiety was photoactive in the UV-violet region and was successfully employed as a probe for substrate-specific enantiomeric sensing using D-(-)-arabinose and L-(+)-arabinose. The potential application as fluorescent probe to detect protein in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was also explored using as model bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Griffin Olsen, Eliza W Beal, Sheryl Pfeil, Mary Dillhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
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