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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050357/oncomir-17-5p-alarm-signal-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Robert M Mader, Johannes Grillari, Hanna Dellago
Soon after microRNAs entered the stage as novel regulators of gene expression, they were found to regulate -and to be regulated by- the development, progression and aggressiveness of virtually all human types of cancer. Therefore, miRNAs in general harbor a huge potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers as well as potential therapeutic targets in cancer. The miR-17-92 cluster was found to be overexpressed in many human cancers and to promote unrestrained cell growth, and has therefore been termed onco-miR-1...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050295/a-comprehensive-study-of-circulating-tumour-cells-at-the-moment-of-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-biological-and-clinical-implications-of-egfr-ar-and-snps
#2
Ignacio Puche-Sanz, María J Alvarez-Cubero, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodríguez-Martínez, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, José L García-Puche, José Expósito, Inmaculada Robles-Fernández, Carmen Entrala-Bernal, José A Lorente, José M Cózar-Olmo, María J Serrano
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been recently accepted as prognostic markers in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, very few studies have analyzed their role in early-stage PCa. The aim of this research is to study the value of CTCs at the moment of PCa diagnosis and to identify different subpopulations of CTCs. Patients with PSA value > 4 ng/ml and clinical suspicion of PCa were included. Samples were collected immediately before prostatic biopsy. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic technique using a multi-CK specific antibody...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036567/extra-pituitary-expressed-fsh-is-it-physiologically-important
#3
Anushka Jayaraman, T Rajendra Kumar
Pituitary gonadotropes synthesize and secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is a heterodimer that consists of an α-and a β-subunit. The α - subunit is common to other pituitary and placental glycoprotein hormones and the β-subunit is the hormone/receptor specific subunit. Although the pituitary is the main tissue that accounts for circulating hormone, previous and recent reports indicate extra-pituitary sources of FSH production including mouse gonads, human stomach, prostate, umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, uterine myometrium, placenta and chicken abdominal adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958406/clinical-utility-of-emerging-liquid-biomarkers-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Gillian Vandekerkhove, Kim N Chi, Alexander W Wyatt
The therapeutic landscape of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) has rapidly expanded in recent years. Despite significant improvements in patient overall survival, it remains challenging to determine the optimal therapy and sequence of therapies for individual patients. The development of molecular biomarkers will be key for patient stratification, and for monitoring response and resistance to therapy. In this context, minimally-invasive blood-based "liquid" biopsies are attractive as a practical surrogate for solid tumor tissue, providing a window into metastatic disease...
August 25, 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945432/using-flash-nanoprecipitation-to-produce-highly-potent-and-stable-cellax-nanoparticles-from-amphiphilic-polymers-derived-from-carboxymethyl-cellulose-polyethylene-glycol-and-cabazitaxel
#5
Joseph Bteich, Simon A McManus, Mark J Ernsting, Mohammed Z Mohammed, Robert K Prud'homme, Kenneth K Sokoll
We report the use of Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) as an efficient and scalable means of producing Cellax nanoparticles. Cellax polymeric conjugates consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose functionalized with PEG and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, such as cabazitaxel (coined Cellax-CBZ), have been shown to have high potency against several oncology targets, including prostate cancer. FNP, a robust method used to create nanoparticles through rapid mixing, has been used to encapsulate several hydrophobic drugs with block co-polymer stabilizers, but has never been used to form nanoparticles from random copolymers, such as Cellax-CBZ...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924064/circulating-steroid-hormone-variations-throughout-different-stages-of-prostate-cancer
#6
Gido Snaterse, Jenny A Visser, Wiebke Arlt, Johannes Hofland
Steroid hormones play a central role in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. The androgen receptor is the primary driver of tumor cell proliferation and is activated by the androgens testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Inhibition of this pathway through medical or surgical castration improves survival in the majority of advanced prostate cancer patients. However, conversion of adrenal androgen precursors and alternative steroidogenic pathways have been found to contribute to tumor progression and resistance to treatment...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921841/in-a-randomized-trial-in-prostate-cancer-patients-dietary-protein-restriction-modifies-markers-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-plasma-extracellular-vesicles
#7
Erez Eitan, Valeria Tosti, Caitlin N Suire, Edda Cava, Sean Berkowitz, Beatrice Bertozzi, Sophia M Raefsky, Nicola Veronese, Ryan Spangler, Francesco Spelta, Maja Mustapic, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Mark P Mattson, Luigi Fontana
Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hyperleptinemia are associated with aging and age-associated diseases including prostate cancer. One experimental approach to inhibit tumor growth is to reduce dietary protein intake and hence levels of circulating amino acids. Dietary protein restriction (PR) increases insulin sensitivity and suppresses prostate cancer cell tumor growth in animal models, providing a rationale for clinical trials. We sought to demonstrate that biomarkers derived from plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) reflect systemic leptin and insulin signaling and respond to dietary interventions...
September 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904887/biology-and-clinical-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cell-subpopulations-in-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Linda O'Flaherty, Harriet Wikman, Klaus Pantel
By identifying and tracking genetic changes in primary tumors and metastases, patients can be stratified for the most efficient therapeutic regimen by screening for known biomarkers. However, retrieving tissues biopsies is not always feasible due to tumor location or risk to patient. Therefore, a liquid biopsies approach offers an appealing solution to an otherwise invasive procedure. The rapid growth of the liquid biopsy field has been aided by improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of enrichment assays for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from normal surrounding blood cells...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903376/improving-circulating-tumor-cells-enumeration-and-characterization-to-predict-outcome-in-first-line-chemotherapy-mcrpc-patients
#9
Luis León-Mateos, Helena Casas, Alicia Abalo, María Vieito, Manuel Abreu, Urbano Anido, Antonio Gómez-Tato, Rafael López, Miguel Abal, Laura Muinelo-Romay
INTRODUCTION: There is a critical need of new surrogate markers for improving the therapeutic selection and monitoring of metastatic prostate cancer patients. Nowadays clinical management of these patients is been driven by biochemical and clinical parameters without enough accuracy to allow a real personalized medicine. The present study was conducted to go insight the molecular profile of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with the aim of identifying prognostic marker with potential utility for therapy selection and monitoring...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894840/cell-line-dependent-expression-of-epcam-influences-the-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-with-cellsearch
#10
Gustaf Lindgren, Johan Wennerberg, Lars Ekblad
OBJECTIVES: The existence of circulating tumor cells has emerged as an important factor for prognosis and survival. The CellSearch method is the only circulating tumor cell detection method approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. It relies on the detection of EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) and is approved for colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We now investigated whether CellSearch can be used to quantify circulating tumor cells in head and neck squamous cell cancer...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883519/monolithic-chip-for-high-throughput-blood-cell-depletion-to-sort-rare-circulating-tumor-cells
#11
Fabio Fachin, Philipp Spuhler, Joseph M Martel-Foley, Jon F Edd, Thomas A Barber, John Walsh, Murat Karabacak, Vincent Pai, Melissa Yu, Kyle Smith, Henry Hwang, Jennifer Yang, Sahil Shah, Ruby Yarmush, Lecia V Sequist, Shannon L Stott, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber, Ravi Kapur, Mehmet Toner
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a treasure trove of information regarding the location, type and stage of cancer and are being pursued as both a diagnostic target and a means of guiding personalized treatment. Most isolation technologies utilize properties of the CTCs themselves such as surface antigens (e.g., epithelial cell adhesion molecule or EpCAM) or size to separate them from blood cell populations. We present an automated monolithic chip with 128 multiplexed deterministic lateral displacement devices containing ~1...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882555/treatment-induced-changes-in-the-androgen-receptor-axis-liquid-biopsies-as-diagnostic-prognostic-tools-for-prostate-cancer
#12
S Prekovic, T Van den Broeck, L Moris, E Smeets, F Claessens, S Joniau, C Helsen, G Attard
Prostate cancer progression and treatment relapse is associated with changes in the androgen receptor axis, and analysis of alternations of androgen receptor signaling is valuable for prognostics and treatment optimization. The profile of androgen receptor axis is currently obtained from biopsy specimens, which are not always easy to obtain. Moreover, the information acquired only provides a snapshot of the tumor biology, with strict spatial and temporal limitations. On the other hand, circulation is easily accessible source of both circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA, which can be sampled at numerous time points...
September 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868131/circulating-tumor-cells-silent-predictors-of-metastasis
#13
REVIEW
LanLan Zhou, David T Dicker, Elizabeth Matthew, Wafik S El-Deiry, R Katherine Alpaugh
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were added to the arsenal of clinical testing in 2004 for three cancer types: metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. CTCs were found to be an independent prognostic indicator of survival for these three diseases. Multiple enrichment/isolation strategies have been developed and numerous assay applications have been performed using both single and pooled captured/enriched CTCs. We have reviewed the isolation techniques and touched on many analyses. The true utility of a CTC is that it acts as a "silent" predictor of metastatic disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856701/extracellular-vesicles-for-personalized-therapy-decision-support-in-advanced-metastatic-cancers-and-its-potential-impact-for-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Carolina Soekmadji, Niall M Corcoran, Irina Oleinikova, Lidija Jovanovic, Grant A Ramm, Colleen C Nelson, Guido Jenster, Pamela J Russell
The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression...
October 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851578/moving-towards-precision-urologic-oncology-targeting-enzalutamide-resistant-prostate-cancer-and-mutated-forms-of-the-androgen-receptor-using-the-novel-inhibitor-darolutamide-odm-201
#15
Hendrik Borgmann, Nada Lallous, Deniz Ozistanbullu, Eliana Beraldi, Naman Paul, Kush Dalal, Ladan Fazli, Axel Haferkamp, Pascale Lejeune, Artem Cherkasov, Martin E Gleave
Darolutamide (ODM-201) is a novel androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with a chemical structure distinctly different from currently approved AR antagonists that targets both wild-type and mutated ligand binding domain variants to inhibit AR nuclear translocation. Here, we evaluate the activity of darolutamide in enzalutamide-resistant castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as well as in AR mutants detected in patients after treatment with enzalutamide, abiraterone, or bicalutamide. Darolutamide significantly inhibited cell growth and AR transcriptional activity in enzalutamide-resistant MR49F cells in vitro, and led to decreased tumor volume and serum prostate-specific antigen levels in vivo, prolonging survival in mice bearing enzalutamide-resistant MR49F xenografts...
August 26, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851363/the-oncogenic-role-of-the-in1-ghrelin-splicing-variant-in-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#16
Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Manuel D Gahete, Juan M Jiménez-Vacas, Enrique Gómez-Gómez, Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Fernando L-López, Esther Rivero-Cortés, André Sarmento-Cabral, José Valero-Rosa, Julia Carrasco-Valiente, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Rosa Ortega-Salas, María M Moreno, Natia Tsomaia, Steve M Swanson, Michael D Culler, María J Requena, Justo P Castaño, Raúl M Luque
BACKGROUND: The Ghrelin-system is a complex, pleiotropic family composed of several peptides, including native-ghrelin and its In1-ghrelin splicing variant, and receptors (GHSR 1a/b), which are dysregulated in various endocrine-related tumors, where they associate to pathophysiological features, but the presence, functional role, and mechanisms of actions of In1-ghrelin splicing variant in prostate-cancer (PCa), is completely unexplored. Herein, we aimed to determine the presence of key ghrelin-system components (native-ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, GHSR1a/1b) and their potential pathophysiological role in prostate cancer (PCa)...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836508/circulating-tumor-cells-and-their-role-in-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Moritz Maas, Miriam Hegemann, Steffen Rausch, Jens Bedke, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have become an important biomarker in patients with advanced prostate cancer. CTC count has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In localized prostate cancer, a clear correlation between CTC counts and clinicopathological risk parameters and outcome has not been observed. Currently, the focus of research is shifting from CTC enumeration towards molecular characterization of CTC leading to the discovery of markers predicting treatment response...
August 22, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819847/negative-enrichment-and-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-whole-genome-amplification
#18
Nisha Kanwar, Susan J Done
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a rare population of cells found in the peripheral blood of patients with many types of cancer such as breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancers. Higher numbers of these cells in blood are associated with a poorer prognosis of patients. Genomic profiling of CTCs would help characterize markers specific for the identification of these cells in blood, and also define genomic alterations that give these cells a metastatic advantage over other cells in the primary tumor. Here, we describe an immunomagnetic method to enrich CTCs from the blood of patients with breast cancer, followed by single-cell laser capture microdissection to isolate single CTCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819021/phenotypic-heterogeneity-of-circulating-tumor-cells-informs-clinical-decisions-between-ar-signaling-inhibitors-and-taxanes-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#19
Howard I Scher, Ryon P Graf, Nicole A Schreiber, Brigit McLaughlin, Adam Jendrisak, Yipeng Wang, Jerry Lee, Stephanie Greene, Rachel Krupa, David Lu, Pascal Bamford, Jessica E Louw, Lyndsey Dugan, Hebert A Vargas, Martin Fleisher, Mark Landers, Glenn Heller, Ryan Dittamore
The heterogeneity of an individual patient's tumor has been linked to treatment resistance, but quantitative biomarkers to rapidly and reproducibly evaluate heterogeneity in a clinical setting are currently lacking. Using established tools available in a College of American Pathologists-accredited and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified clinical laboratory, we quantified digital pathology features on 9,225 individual circulating tumor cells (CTC) from 179 unique metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients to define phenotypically distinct cell types...
October 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818355/ar-v7-in-peripheral-whole-blood-of-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-association-with-treatment-specific-outcome-under-abiraterone-and-enzalutamide
#20
Anna Katharina Seitz, Silvia Thoene, Andreas Bietenbeck, Roman Nawroth, Robert Tauber, Mark Thalgott, Sebastian Schmid, Ramona Secci, Margitta Retz, Jürgen E Gschwend, Jürgen Ruland, Christof Winter, Matthias M Heck
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) predicts poor treatment response in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. OBJECTIVE: To develop a practical and robust liquid profiling approach for direct quantification of AR-V7 in peripheral whole blood without the need for CTC capture and to determine its potential for predicting treatment response in mCRPC patients...
November 2017: European Urology
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