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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206995/concordance-of-circulating-tumor-dna-and-matched-metastatic-tissue-biopsy-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Alexander W Wyatt, Matti Annala, Rahul Aggarwal, Kevin Beja, Felix Feng, Jack Youngren, Adam Foye, Paul Lloyd, Matti Nykter, Tomasz M Beer, Joshi J Alumkal, George V Thomas, Robert E Reiter, Matthew B Rettig, Christopher P Evans, Allen C Gao, Kim N Chi, Eric J Small, Martin E Gleave
Background: Real-time knowledge of the somatic genome can influence management of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). While routine metastatic tissue biopsy is challenging in mCRPC, plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive tool to sample the tumor genome. However, no systematic comparisons of matched "liquid" and "solid" biopsies have been performed that would enable ctDNA profiling to replace the need for direct tissue sampling...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198331/biomarkers-in-prostate-cancer-current-clinical-utility-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Kretschmer, Derya Tilki
Current tendencies in the treatment course of prostate cancer patients increase the need for reliable biomarkers that help in decision-making in a challenging clinical setting. Within the last decade, several novel biomarkers have been introduced. In the following comprehensive review article, we focus on diagnostic (PHI®, 4K score, SelectMDx®, ConfirmMDx®, PCA3, MiPS, ExoDX®, mpMRI) and prognostic (OncotypeDX GPS®, Prolaris®, ProMark®, DNA-ploidy, Decipher®) biomarkers that are in widespread clinical use and are supported by evidence...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170762/clinical-utility-of-clia-grade-ar-v7-testing-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
Mark C Markowski, John L Silberstein, James R Eshleman, Mario A Eisenberger, Jun Luo, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Purpose: A splice variant of the androgen receptor, AR-V7, confers resistance to AR-targeted therapies (ATTs) but not taxane chemotherapies in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Since August 2015, a clinical-grade assay to detect AR-V7 messenger RNA expression in circulating tumors cells (CTCs) has been available to providers through a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. Methods: We contacted ordering providers of the first 150 consecutive tests by using a questionnaire-based survey to determine how the results of AR-V7 testing were used to influence clinical practice...
2017: JCO Precision Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170510/whole-blood-stabilization-for-the-microfluidic-isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#4
Keith H K Wong, Shannon N Tessier, David T Miyamoto, Kathleen L Miller, Lauren D Bookstaver, Thomas R Carey, Cleo J Stannard, Vishal Thapar, Eric C Tai, Kevin D Vo, Erin S Emmons, Haley M Pleskow, Rebecca D Sandlin, Lecia V Sequist, David T Ting, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran, Shannon L Stott, Mehmet Toner
Precise rare-cell technologies require the blood to be processed immediately or be stabilized with fixatives. Such restrictions limit the translation of circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based liquid biopsy assays that provide accurate molecular data in guiding clinical decisions. Here we describe a method to preserve whole blood in its minimally altered state by combining hypothermic preservation with targeted strategies that counter cooling-induced platelet activation. Using this method, whole blood preserved for up to 72 h can be readily processed for microfluidic sorting without compromising CTC yield and viability...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158826/label-free-biochips-for-accurate-detection-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-clinic-dual-biomarkers-and-circulating-tumor-cells
#5
Lung-Hsuan Pan, See-Tong Pang, Po-Yu Fang, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Hung-Wei Yang
Purpose: Early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is essential for the prevention of metastasis and for early treatment; therefore, we aimed to develop a simple, accurate, and multi-analyte assay system for early PCa diagnosis in this study. Experimental design: We fabricated three kinds of biochips then integrated into microfluidic device for simultaneous detection of vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and PCa circulating tumor cells (CTC) in human serum for accurate diagnosis of PCa...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143114/cancer-vaccine-strategies-translation-from-mice-to-human-clinical-trials
#6
REVIEW
Jay A Berzofsky, Masaki Terabe, Jane B Trepel, Ira Pastan, David F Stroncek, John C Morris, Lauren V Wood
We translated two cancer vaccine strategies from mice into human clinical trials. (1) In preclinical studies on TARP, an antigen expressed in most prostate cancers, we mapped epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201, modified them to increase affinity and immunogenicity in HLA transgenic mice, and induced human T cells that killed human cancer cells ("epitope enhancement"). In a clinical trial, HLA-A2(+) prostate cancer patients with PSA biochemical recurrence (Stage D0) were vaccinated with two peptides either in Montanide-ISA51 or on autologous dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138500/circulating-androgen-receptor-combined-with-18f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-metabolic-activity-and-outcome-to-androgen-receptor-signalling-directed-therapies-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
V Conteduca, E Scarpi, P Caroli, S Salvi, C Lolli, S L Burgio, C Menna, G Schepisi, S Testoni, G Gurioli, G Paganelli, V Casadio, F Matteucci, U De Giorgi
The association between choline uptake and androgen receptor (AR) expression is suggested by the upregulation of choline kinase-alpha in prostate cancer. Recently, detection of AR aberration in cell-free DNA as well as early 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) were associated with outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide. We aimed to make a direct comparison between circulating AR copy number (CN) and choline uptake at FCH-PET/CT...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122836/multiplex-gene-expression-profiling-of-in-vivo-isolated-circulating-tumor-cells-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-patients
#8
Athina Markou, Marifili Lazaridou, Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos, Shukun Chen, Monika Świerczewska, Joanna Budna, Andra Kuske, Tobias M Gorges, Simon A Joosse, Thomas Kroneis, Maciej Zabel, Peter Sedlmayr, Catherine Alix-Panabières, Klaus Pantel, Evi S Lianidou
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is important for selecting patients for targeted treatments. We present, for the first time, results on gene expression profiling of CTCs isolated in vivo from high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared with CTC detected by 3 protein-based assays-CellSearch®, PSA-EPISPOT, and immunofluorescence of CellCollector® in vivo-captured CTCs-using the same blood draw. METHODS: EpCAM-positive CTCs were isolated in vivo using the CellCollector from 108 high-risk PCa patients and 36 healthy volunteers...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122834/liquid-biopsy-in-prostate-cancer-a-case-for-comprehensive-genomic-characterization-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#9
EDITORIAL
Debasish Boral, Dario Marchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121805/prostate-cancer-xenograft-inhibitory-activity-and-pharmacokinetics-of-decursinol-a-metabolite-of-angelica-gigas-pyranocoumarins-in-mouse-models
#10
Wei Wu, Su-Ni Tang, Yong Zhang, Manohar Puppala, Timothy K Cooper, Chengguo Xing, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lü
We have previously shown that the ethanol extract of dried Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root exerts anticancer activity against androgen receptor (AR)-negative human DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts and primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The major pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), when provided at equi-molar intake to that provided by AGN extract, accounted for the inhibitory efficacy against precancerous epithelial lesions in TRAMP mice...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105802/circulating-micrornas-and-treatment-response-in-the-phase-ii-swog-s0925-study-for-patients-with-new-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer
#11
Heather H Cheng, Melissa Plets, Hongli Li, Celestia S Higano, Catherine M Tangen, Neeraj Agarwal, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Maha Hussain, Ian M Thompson, Muneesh Tewari, Evan Y Yu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest circulating, blood-based microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as minimally invasive prostate cancer biomarkers, however there is limited data from prospective clinical trials. Here, we explore the role of candidate plasma miRNAs as potential biomarkers in the SWOG 0925 randomized phase II study of androgen deprivation combined with cixutumumab versus androgen deprivation alone in patients with new metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: Correlative biospecimens, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and plasma for miRNA analysis, were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks on treatment from 50 patients enrolled on SWOG 0925...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069824/sensitive-detection-of-pd-l1-expression-on-circulating-epithelial-tumor-cells-cetcs-could-be-a-potential-biomarker-to-select-patients-for-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-early-and-metastatic-solid-tumors
#12
Dorothea Sonja Schott, Monika Pizon, Ulrich Pachmann, Katharina Pachmann
BACKGROUND: The current cancer research strongly focuses on immune therapies, where the PD-1, with its ligands plays an important role. It is known that PD-L1 is frequently up-regulated in a number of different cancers and the relevance of this pathway has been extensively studied and therapeutic approaches targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed. We used a non-invasive, real-time biopsy for determining PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in CETCs of solid cancer patients. METHODS: CETCs were determined from blood of 128 patients suffering from breast (72), prostate (27), colorectal (18) and lung (11) cancer...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069718/androgen-receptor-amplification-is-concordant-between-circulating-tumor-cells-and-biopsies-from-men-undergoing-treatment-for-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#13
Jennifer Podolak, Kristi Eilers, Timothy Newby, Rachel Slottke, Erin Tucker, Susan B Olson, Hui-Wen Lue, Jack Youngren, Rahul Aggarwal, Eric J Small, Julie N Graff, Joshi J Alumkal, Tomasz M Beer, George V Thomas
Increased AR activity has been shown to be preserved in spatially distinct metastatic tumors from the same patient suggesting the requirement for lineage-specific dependencies for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Amplification of the AR gene is a common mechanism by which mCRPC increase AR activity. To determine whether AR amplification in circulating tumor cells (CTC) could complement metastatic tissue biopsies in men undergoing treatment for mCRPC, we developed a novel two-step assay to isolate CTCs and subsequently analyzed AR amplification status in CTCs and matched biopsy tissue from the same patient by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062164/bioconjugated-graphene-oxide-based-raman-probe-for-selective-identification-of-skbr3-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Afua A Antwi-Boasiako, Derrick Dunn, Samuel S R Dasary, Yolanda K Jones, Sandra L Barnes, Anant K Singh
In this article, we demonstrate the use of bio-conjugated 2D graphene oxide (bio-GO) nanostructure to probe breast cancer cell (SKBR3) with excellent discrimination over other types of circulating tumor cells. We distinctly observed that bio-GO nanostructure targets and bind SKBR3 cell selectively in the cell mixture. Longer incubation of SKBR3 cell with bio-GO causes Raman signal "turn off" when excited with 532 nm laser. This is attributed to penetration of the bio-GO through the plasma membrane of the cell by generating transient hole...
August 2017: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: JRS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050357/oncomir-17-5p-alarm-signal-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Robert M Mader, Johannes Grillari, Hanna Dellago
Soon after microRNAs entered the stage as novel regulators of gene expression, they were found to regulate -and to be regulated by- the development, progression and aggressiveness of virtually all human types of cancer. Therefore, miRNAs in general harbor a huge potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers as well as potential therapeutic targets in cancer. The miR-17-92 cluster was found to be overexpressed in many human cancers and to promote unrestrained cell growth, and has therefore been termed onco-miR-1...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050295/a-comprehensive-study-of-circulating-tumour-cells-at-the-moment-of-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-biological-and-clinical-implications-of-egfr-ar-and-snps
#16
Ignacio Puche-Sanz, María J Alvarez-Cubero, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodríguez-Martínez, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, José L García-Puche, José Expósito, Inmaculada Robles-Fernández, Carmen Entrala-Bernal, José A Lorente, José M Cózar-Olmo, María J Serrano
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been recently accepted as prognostic markers in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, very few studies have analyzed their role in early-stage PCa. The aim of this research is to study the value of CTCs at the moment of PCa diagnosis and to identify different subpopulations of CTCs. Patients with PSA value > 4 ng/ml and clinical suspicion of PCa were included. Samples were collected immediately before prostatic biopsy. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic technique using a multi-CK specific antibody...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036567/extra-pituitary-expressed-follicle-stimulating-hormone-is-it-physiologically-important
#17
Anushka Jayaraman, T Rajendra Kumar
Pituitary gonadotropes synthesize and secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is a heterodimer that consists of an α- and β-subunit. The α-subunit is common to other pituitary and placental glycoprotein hormones, and the β-subunit is the hormone/receptor-specific subunit. Although the pituitary is the main tissue that accounts for circulating hormone, previous and recent reports indicate extra-pituitary sources of FSH production including mouse gonads, human stomach, prostate, umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, uterine myometrium, placenta, and chicken abdominal adipose tissue...
October 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958406/clinical-utility-of-emerging-liquid-biomarkers-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Gillian Vandekerkhove, Kim N Chi, Alexander W Wyatt
The therapeutic landscape of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) has rapidly expanded in recent years. Despite significant improvements in patient overall survival, it remains challenging to determine the optimal therapy and sequence of therapies for individual patients. The development of molecular biomarkers will be key for patient stratification, and for monitoring response and resistance to therapy. In this context, minimally-invasive blood-based "liquid" biopsies are attractive as a practical surrogate for solid tumor tissue, providing a window into metastatic disease...
August 25, 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945432/using-flash-nanoprecipitation-to-produce-highly-potent-and-stable-cellax-nanoparticles-from-amphiphilic-polymers-derived-from-carboxymethyl-cellulose-polyethylene-glycol-and-cabazitaxel
#19
Joseph Bteich, Simon A McManus, Mark J Ernsting, Mohammed Z Mohammed, Robert K Prud'homme, Kenneth K Sokoll
We report the use of flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) as an efficient and scalable means of producing Cellax nanoparticles. Cellax polymeric conjugates consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose functionalized with PEG and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, such as cabazitaxel (coined Cellax-CBZ), have been shown to have high potency against several oncology targets, including prostate cancer. FNP, a robust method used to create nanoparticles through rapid mixing, has been used to encapsulate several hydrophobic drugs with block copolymer stabilizers, but has never been used to form nanoparticles from random copolymers, such as Cellax-CBZ...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924064/circulating-steroid-hormone-variations-throughout-different-stages-of-prostate-cancer
#20
Gido Snaterse, Jenny A Visser, Wiebke Arlt, Johannes Hofland
Steroid hormones play a central role in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. The androgen receptor is the primary driver of tumor cell proliferation and is activated by the androgens testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Inhibition of this pathway through medical or surgical castration improves survival in the majority of advanced prostate cancer patients. However, conversion of adrenal androgen precursors and alternative steroidogenic pathways have been found to contribute to tumor progression and resistance to treatment...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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