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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865211/emerging-and-established-models-of-bone-metastasis
#1
REVIEW
Alexander H Jinnah, Benjamin C Zacks, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Bethany A Kerr
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death and drives patient morbidity as well as healthcare costs. Bone is the primary site of metastasis for several cancers-breast and prostate cancers in particular. Efforts to treat bone metastases have been stymied by a lack of models to study the progression, cellular players, and signaling pathways driving bone metastasis. In this review, we examine newly described and classic models of bone metastasis. Through the use of current in vivo, microfluidic, and in silico computational bone metastasis models we may eventually understand how cells escape the primary tumor and how these circulating tumor cells then home to and colonize the bone marrow...
June 1, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863657/target-cell-pre-enrichment-and-whole-genome-amplification-for-single-cell-downstream-characterization
#2
Shukun Chen, Amin El-Heliebi, Julia Schmid, Karl Kashofer, Zbigniew T Czyż, Bernhard Michael Polzer, Klaus Pantel, Thomas Kroneis, Peter Sedlmayr
Rare target cells can be isolated from a high background of non-target cells using antibodies specific for surface proteins of target cells. A recently developed method uses a medical wire functionalized with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies for in vivo isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs)1 . A patient-matched cohort in non-metastatic prostate cancer showed that the in vivo isolation technique resulted in a higher percentage of patients positive for CTCs as well as higher CTC counts as compared to the current gold standard in CTC enumeration...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858592/prognostic-association-of-plasma-cell-free-dna-based-androgen-receptor-amplification-and-circulating-tumor-cells-in-pre-chemotherapy-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#3
Manish Kohli, Jian Li, Meijun Du, David W Hillman, Scott M Dehm, Winston Tan, Rachel Carlson, Michael B Campion, Liguo Wang, Liewei Wang, Huijuan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Deepak Kilari, Chiang-Ching Huang, Liang Wang
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) androgen receptor amplification (ARamp) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) compared with circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts is not known. METHODS: As part of correlative aims of a prospective study in mCRPC, concurrent and serial collections of plasma and CTCs were performed. Specimen collections were performed at baseline after progression on androgen deprivation therapy and then 12 weeks later...
June 1, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858590/serum-chromogranin-a-based-prognosis-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#4
Karthik V Giridhar, Cristobal Sanhueza, David W Hillman, Hassan Alkhateeb, Rachel Carlson, Winston Tan, Brian A Costello, Fernando Quevedo, Lance Pagliaro, Manish Kohli
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of serum chromogranin-A (CGA) in a two-cohort study of men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and to compare with circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-based prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-cohort-based evaluation for serum CGA for prognostication in CRPC stage was performed using a screening cohort of 256 men with mCRPC and an independent validation cohort of 92 men with mCRPC. In both cohorts, men receiving proton pump inhibitors and those with non-castrate levels of testosterone (>50 ng/dl) were excluded...
June 1, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844697/emerging-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Xavier Filella, Esther Fernández-Galan, Rosa Fernández Bonifacio, Laura Foj
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. A large proportion of PCa are latent, never destined to progress or affect the patients' life. It is of utmost importance to identify which PCa are destined to progress and which would benefit from an early radical treatment. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used test to detect PCa. Its limited specificity and an elevated rate of overdiagnosis are the main problems associated with PSA testing. New PCa biomarkers have been proposed to improve the accuracy of PSA in the management of early PCa...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844167/diverse-ar-v7-cistromes-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-are-governed-by-hoxb13
#6
Zhong Chen, Dayong Wu, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Changxue Lu, Pei Zhao, Qingfu Zhang, Connor Geraghty, Pearlly S Yan, William Hankey, Benjamin Sunkel, Xiaolong Cheng, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Qi-En Wang, Zhihua Liu, Tim H-M Huang, Victor X Jin, Steven K Clinton, Jun Luo, Jiaoti Huang, Qianben Wang
The constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) plays an important role in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although biomarker studies established the role of AR-V7 in resistance to AR-targeting therapies, how AR-V7 mediates genomic functions in CRPC remains largely unknown. Using a ChIP-exo approach, we show AR-V7 binds to distinct genomic regions and recognizes a full-length androgen-responsive element in CRPC cells and patient tissues. Remarkably, we find dramatic differences in AR-V7 cistromes across diverse CRPC cells and patient tissues, regulating different target gene sets involved in CRPC progression...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790741/entrapment-of-prostate-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-with-a-sequential-size-based-microfluidic-chip
#7
Xiang Ren, Brittni Foster, Parham Ghassemi, Jeannine S Strobl, Bethany A Kerr, Masoud Agah
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are broadly accepted as an indicator for early cancer diagnosis and disease severity. However, there is currently no reliable method available to capture and enumerate all CTCs as most systems require either an initial CTC isolation or antibody-based capture for CTC enumeration. Many size-based CTC detection and isolation microfluidic platforms were presented in the past few years. Here we describe a new size-based, multiple-row cancer cell entrapment device that captured LNCaP-C4-2 prostate cancer cells with >95% efficiency when in spiked mouse whole blood at ~50 cells/mL...
May 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770688/frosted-slides-decorated-with-silica-nanowires-for-detecting-circulating-tumor-cells-from-prostate-cancer-patients
#8
Haijun Cui, Binshuai Wang, Wenshuo Wang, Yuwei Hao, Chuanyong Liu, Kai Song, Shudong Zhang, Shutao Wang
Developing low-cost and highly efficient nano-biochips are important for liquid biopsies, real-time monitoring, and precision medicine. By in situ growth of silica nanowires on a commercial frosted slide, we develop a biochip for effective circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection after modifying epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM). The biochip shows the specificity and high capture efficiency of 85.4 ± 8.3% for prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). The micro-sized frosted slides and silica nanowires allow enhanced efficiency in capture EpCAM positive cells by synergistic topographic interactions...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762619/isolation-and-genome-sequencing-of-individual-circulating-tumor-cells-using-hydrogel-encapsulation-and-laser-capture-microdissection
#9
Emily S Park, Justin P Yan, Richard A Ang, Jeong Hyun Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Simon P Duffy, Kevin Beja, Matti Annala, Peter C Black, Kim N Chi, Alexander W Wyatt, Hongshen Ma
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are malignant cells released into the bloodstream with the potential to form metastases in secondary sites. These cells, acquired non-invasively, represent a sample of highly relevant tumor tissue that is an alternative to difficult and low-yield tumor biopsies. In recent years, there has been growing interest in genomic profiling of CTCs to enable longitudinal monitoring of the tumor's adaptive response to therapy. However, due to their extreme rarity, genotyping CTCs has proved challenging...
May 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755660/measuring-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-in-vivo-with-pet
#10
Charles Truillet, Matthew F L Parker, Loc T Huynh, Junnian Wei, Khaled M Jami, Yung-Hua Wang, Yuqin S Shen, Renuka Sriram, David M Wilson, John Kurhanewicz, Michael J Evans
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an emerging drug target for several common and deadly solid tumors like breast and prostate cancer, and clinical trials studying the antitumor effects of GR antagonists are beginning. Since GR expression can be variable in tumor cells, and virtually all normal mammalian tissues express some GR, we hypothesized that an imaging tool capable of detecting GR positive tumors and/or measuring GR occupancy by drug in tumor and normal tissues could improve the precision application of anti-GR therapies in the clinic...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741566/circulating-tumor-cell-increase-as-a-biomarker-of-disease-progression-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-with-low-baseline-ctc-counts
#11
D Lorente, D Olmos, J Mateo, D Dolling, D Bianchini, G Seed, P Flohr, M Crespo, I Figueiredo, S Miranda, H I Scher, L W M M Terstappen, J S de Bono
Background: The development of treatment response and surrogate biomarkers for advanced prostate cancer care is an unmet clinical need. Patients with baseline circulating tumor cell counts (BLCTCs)<5/7.5 mL represent a good prognosis subgroup, but are non-evaluable for response assessment (decrease in CTCs). The aim of the study is to determine the value of any increase in CTCs (CTC Progression) as an indicator of progression in prostate cancer patients with low pre-treatment CTCs (<5)...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733518/downregulation-of-ndr1-contributes-to-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer-cells-via-activating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#12
Juntao Yue, Huimin Sun, Shijie Liu, Fei Yu, Shanshan Wang, Fuli Wang, Ruixiong Shen, Feng Zhu, Lei Zhang, Chen Shao
The 5-year survival rate decreases rapidly once the prostate cancer has invaded distant organs, although patients with localized prostate cancer have a good prognosis. In recent years, increasing numbers of reports showed that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may play an important role in tumor metastasis and they have stronger potential of invasion and migration compared with their parental cells. In our previous investigation, we isolated CTCs from prostate cancer cell lines PC3. In this study, we found a novel antimetastasis gene NDR1 by analyzing different gene expression between CTCs and PC3...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725990/gene-expression-analysis-of-immunomagnetically-enriched-circulating-tumor-cell-fraction-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#13
Markéta Škereňová, Veronika Mikulová, Otakar Čapoun, David Švec, Katarína Kološtová, Viktor Soukup, Hana Honová, Tomáš Hanuš, Tomáš Zima
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of tumors could be a key to therapeutic decision-making with regards to targeted therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A convenient solution may be non-invasive liquid biopsy testing of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). For this reason, CTC-enriched samples obtained by immunomagnetic separation (AdnaTest® ) were studied as a source material for high-throughput gene expression analysis using BioMark™. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CTC-enriched samples from 41 CRPC patients previously determined to be CTC positive using the AdnaTest® were retrospectively re-analysed for androgen receptor (AR) messenger RNA (mRNA), using the updated AdnaTest® ...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721202/circulating-tumor-cells-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-and-plasma-cytokeratins-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#14
Afroditi Nanou, Frank A W Coumans, Guus van Dalum, Leonie L Zeune, David Dolling, Wendy Onstenk, Mateus Crespo, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Pasquale Rescigno, Gemma Fowler, Penny Flohr, Christoph Brune, Stefan Sleijfer, Johann S de Bono, Leon W M M Terstappen
Purpose: The presence of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) patients is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the association of clinical outcome in 129 CRPC patients with CTCs, tumor-derived Extracellular Vesicles (tdEVs) and plasma levels of total (CK18) and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (ccCK18). Experimental Design: CTCs and tdEVs were isolated with the CellSearch system and automatically enumerated...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712433/bilirubin-nanoparticle-assisted-delivery-of-a-small-molecule-drug-conjugate-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#15
Soyoung Lee, Yonghyun Lee, Hyungjun Kim, Dong Yun Lee, Sangyong Jon
Despite growing interest in targeted cancer therapy with small molecule drug conjugates (SMDCs), the short half-life of these conjugates in blood associated with their small size has limited their efficacy in cancer therapy. In this report, we propose a new approach for improving the antitumor efficacy of SMDCs based on nanoparticle-assisted delivery. Ideally, a nanoparticle-based delivery vehicle would prolong the half-life of an SMDC in blood and then release it in response to stimuli in the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
April 30, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710776/circulating-tumor-cell-analysis-in-preclinical-mouse-models-of-metastasis
#16
REVIEW
Jenna Kitz, Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Alison L Allan
The majority of cancer deaths occur because of metastasis since current therapies are largely non-curative in the metastatic setting. The use of in vivo preclinical mouse models for assessing metastasis is, therefore, critical for developing effective new cancer biomarkers and therapies. Although a number of quantitative tools have been previously developed to study in vivo metastasis, the detection and quantification of rare metastatic events has remained challenging. This review will discuss the use of circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis as an effective means of tracking and characterizing metastatic disease progression in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer and the resulting lessons learned about CTC and metastasis biology...
April 28, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683554/monitoring-circulating-prostate-cancer-cells-by-in-vivo-flow-cytometry-assesses-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-metastasis
#17
Kai Pang, Chengying Xie, Zhangru Yang, Yuanzhen Suo, Xi Zhu, Dan Wei, Xiaofu Weng, Xunbin Wei, Zhengqin Gu
It remains controversial whether surgical castration prolongs survival rate and improves therapy prospects in patients suffering from prostate cancer. We used PC3 cell line to establish prostate tumor models. In vivo flow cytometry and ultrasonic imaging were used to monitor the process of prostate cancer growth, development and metastasis. We found out that the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in orthotopic tumor model was higher than that in subcutaneous tumor model. The CTC number in orthotopic tumor model was due to burst growth, while CTC number in subcutaneous tumor model showed a gradual increase with tumor size...
May 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666832/structure-and-function-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-cells-using-nanotechnology-to-study-nuclear-size-in-prostate-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Nu Yao, Yu-Jen Jan, Shirley Cheng, Jie-Fu Chen, Leland Wk Chung, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Edwin M Posadas
Professor Donald Coffey and his laboratory pioneered studies showing the relationships between nuclear shape and cellular function. In doing so, he and his students established the field of nuclear morphometry in prostate cancer. By using perioperative tissues via biopsies and surgical sampling, Dr. Coffey's team discovered that nuclear shape and other pathologic features correlated with clinical outcome measures. Cancer cells also exist outside of solid tumor masses as they can be shed from both primary and metastatic lesions into the circulatory system...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665393/comparative-experimental-theoretical-studies-on-the-egfr-dimerization-under-the-effect-of-egf-egf-analogues-binding-highlighting-the-importance-of-egf-egfr-interactions-at-site-iii-interface
#19
Masomeh Mehrabi, Hamid Mahdiuni, Hassan Rasouli, Kamran Mansouri, Mohsen Shahlaei, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663383/nanoparticle-based-targeted-cancer-strategies-for-non-invasive-prostate-cancer-intervention
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas H Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Michael A Vrolijk, Scott D Perrapato, Steven Ades, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian, Christopher C Landry
Prostate cancer is screened by testing circulating levels of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker, monitoring changes over time, or a digital rectal exam. Abnormal results often lead to prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer positive patients are stratified into very low-risk, low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, based on clinical classification parameters, to assess therapy options. However, there remains a gap in our knowledge and a compelling need for improved risk stratification to inform clinical decisions and reduce both over-diagnosis and over-treatment...
September 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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