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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068321/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-single-circulating-tumor-cells
#1
C F Pixberg, K Raba, F Müller, B Behrens, E Honisch, D Niederacher, H Neubauer, T Fehm, W Goering, W A Schulz, P Flohr, G Boysen, M Lambros, J S De Bono, W T Knoefel, C Sproll, N H Stoecklein, R P L Neves
Direct analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can inform on molecular mechanisms underlying systemic spread. Here we investigated promoter methylation of three genes regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key mechanism enabling epithelial tumor cells to disseminate and metastasize. For this, we developed a single-cell protocol based on agarose-embedded bisulfite treatment, which allows investigating DNA methylation of multiple loci via a multiplex PCR (multiplexed-scAEBS). We established our assay for the simultaneous analysis of three EMT-associated genes miR-200c/141, miR-200b/a/429 and CDH1 in single cells...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064442/tumor-derived-spheroids-relevance-to-cancer-stem-cells-and-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Tatsuya Ishiguro, Hirokazu Ohata, Ai Sato, Kaoru Yamawaki, Takayuki Enomoto, Koji Okamoto
Recently, many types of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo growth conditions of cancer. The cancer 3D culture methods aim to preserve the biological characteristics of original tumors better than conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, and include tumor-derived organoids, tumor-derived spheroids, organotypic multicellular spheroids, and multicellular tumor spheroids. The 3D culture methods differ in terms of cancer cell sources, protocols for cell handling, and the required time intervals...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032524/classifying-circulating-tumor-cells-to-monitor-cancer-progression
#3
Panagiota Economopoulou, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
The term 'liquid biopsy' refers to molecular analysis of a tumor's genetic features based on circulating genetic material in the peripheral blood derived from circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating miRNAs, and has emerged as a minimally invasive tool in early cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring. CTCs are believed to originate from the primary tumor and obtain genetic heterogeneity during evolution. Areas covered: The presence of CTCs has been associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018216/targeting-the-sr-b1-receptor-as-a-gateway-for-cancer-therapy-and-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Linda K Mooberry, Nirupama A Sabnis, Marlyn Panchoo, Bhavani Nagarajan, Andras G Lacko
Malignant tumors display remarkable heterogeneity to the extent that even at the same tissue site different types of cells with varying genetic background may be found. In contrast, a relatively consistent marker the scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1) has been found to be consistently overexpressed by most tumor cells. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SR-BI) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor that facilitates the uptake of cholesterol esters from circulating lipoproteins. Additional findings suggest a critical role for SR-BI in cholesterol metabolism, signaling, motility, and proliferation of cancer cells and thus a potential major impact in carcinogenesis and metastasis...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009470/proportion-of-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-increases-during-cancer-metastasis
#5
Yuanzhen Suo, Chengying Xie, Xi Zhu, Zhichao Fan, Zhangru Yang, Hao He, Xunbin Wei
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters are found among CTCs and show significantly greater potential for an important role in cancer metastasis than single CTCs, which have been traditionally believed as the majority of CTCs. The accurate proportion and dynamics of CTC clusters remain unclear due to the fact that CTCs in blood flow are very difficult to detect in vivo and in vitro. CTC clusters are even more difficult to be distinguished from CTCs without perturbation by state-of-the-art detection methods. Here, we demonstrate that by using in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC), we can reliably measure the proportion and dynamics of CTC clusters in two murine tumor models...
December 23, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000772/improved-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-non-metastatic-high-risk-prostate-cancer-patients
#6
Andra Kuske, Tobias M Gorges, Pierre Tennstedt, Anne-Kathrin Tiebel, Raisa Pompe, Felix Preißer, Sandra Prues, Martine Mazel, Athina Markou, Evi Lianidou, Sven Peine, Catherine Alix-Panabières, Sabine Riethdorf, Burkhard Beyer, Thorsten Schlomm, Klaus Pantel
The relevance of blood-based assays to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Proving that clinically relevant circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be detected with available technologies could address this. This study aimed to improve CTC detection in non-metastatic PCa patients by combining three independent CTC assays: the CellSearch system, an in vivo CellCollector and the EPISPOT. Peripheral blood samples from high-risk PCa patients were screened for CTCs before and three months after radical prostatectomy (RP)...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991924/cooperation-among-heterogeneous-prostate-cancer-cells-in-the-bone-metastatic-niche
#7
K Shahriari, F Shen, A Worrede-Mahdi, Q Liu, Y Gong, F U Garcia, A Fatatis
The growth of disseminated tumor cells into metastatic lesions depends on the establishment of a favorable microenvironment in the stroma of the target organs. Here we show that mice treated with anakinra, an antagonist of the interleukin (IL)-1β receptor (IL-1R), or harboring a targeted deletion of IL-1R are significantly less prone to develop bone tumors when inoculated in the arterial circulation with human prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing IL-1β. Interestingly, human mesenchymal stem cells exposed in vitro to medium conditioned by IL-1β-expressing cancer cells responded by upregulating S100A4, a marker of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and this effect was blocked by anakinra...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983803/peroxidase-like-activity-of-ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid-and-its-application-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-tumor-biomarkers-and-circular-tumor-cells
#8
Haowen Huang, Lanfang Liu, Lingyang Zhang, Qian Zhao, Yuan Zhou, Shishan Yuan, Zilong Tang, Xuanyong Liu
Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is such a powerful chelating agent that it may form stable complexes with most metal ions, which has wide applications in industry, agriculture, environment, and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, EDTA was found to enhance the photocatalytic property of some materials. Inspired by this fact of EDTA in the photocatalytic role, we further investigated the photocatalytic property of EDTA and found much the same as that of natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This significant discovery of peroxidase-like property may extend the applications of conventional EDTA in life science...
December 16, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979426/nuclear-specific-ar-v7-protein-localization-is-necessary-to-guide-treatment-selection-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
Howard I Scher, Ryon P Graf, Nicole A Schreiber, Brigit McLaughlin, David Lu, Jessica Louw, Daniel C Danila, Lyndsey Dugan, Ann Johnson, Glenn Heller, Martin Fleisher, Ryan Dittamore
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) expressing AR-V7 protein localized to the nucleus (nuclear-specific) identify metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients with improved overall survival (OS) on taxane therapy relative to the androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi) abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and apalutamide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if expanding the positivity criteria to include both nuclear and cytoplasmic AR-V7 localization ("nuclear-agnostic") identifies more patients who would benefit from a taxane over an ARSi...
December 12, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972686/physicians-behavior-influences-the-health-and-economic-impact-of-applying-circulating-tumor-cells-as-response-marker-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#10
K Degeling, N Mehra, H Koffijberg, J S de Bono, M J IJzerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956006/dynamics-of-three-dimensional-telomere-profiles-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-patients-with-high-risk-prostate-cancer-who-are-undergoing-androgen-deprivation-and-radiation-therapies
#11
Landon Wark, Thomas Klonisch, Julius Awe, Cecile LeClerc, Brandon Dyck, Harvey Quon, Sabine Mai
INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy of locally advanced prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. Contrary to prostate biopsies, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a cellular source repeatedly obtainable by blood sampling and could serve as a surrogate marker for treatment efficacy. In this study, we used size-based filtration to isolate and enumerate CTCs from the blood of 20 patients with high-risk (any one of cT3, Gleason 8-10, or prostate-specific antigen>20ng/ml), nonmetastatic, and treatment-naive prostate cancer before and after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radiation therapy (RT)...
December 9, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928807/prognostic-value-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#12
Yuxiao Zheng, Cheng Zhang, Jie Wu, Gong Cheng, Haiwei Yang, Lixin Hua, Zengjun Wang
PURPOSE: The prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTC) detected in castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC) is currently under debate. The aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic effect of CTC andto elucidate whether the detection of CTC in the peripheral blood (PB) of patients diagnosed with CRPC can beused as an independent prognostic factor for survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Pubmed, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database, Embase Cell Research databaseand the references in relevant studies were systematically searched...
8, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916908/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-status-in-circulating-tumor-cells-as-a-predictive-biomarker-of-sensitivity-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-docetaxel-chemotherapy
#13
Takatsugu Okegawa, Naoshi Itaya, Hidehiko Hara, Mitsuhiro Tambo, Kikuo Nutahara
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used to predict survival in a population of bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. METHODS: All patients with mCRPC who had experienced treatment failure with androgen-deprivation therapy and had received docetaxel chemotherapy were eligible. CTCs and EGFR expression in CTCs were enumerated with the CellSearch System in whole blood...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916435/analytical-validation-of-androgen-receptor-splice-variant-7-detection-in-a-clinical-laboratory-improvement-amendments-clia-laboratory-setting
#14
Parvez M Lokhandwala, Stacy L Riel, Lisa Haley, Changxue Lu, Yan Chen, John Silberstein, Yezi Zhu, Gang Zheng, Ming-Tseh Lin, Christopher D Gocke, Alan W Partin, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Jun Luo, James R Eshleman
Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often are treated with drugs that target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Constitutively active AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) lacks the ligand-binding domain and, if detected in circulating tumor cells, may be associated with resistance to these agents. We validated an AR-V7 assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. Circulating tumor cells were isolated, and mRNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902486/ed-b-fibronectin-expression-is-a-marker-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-translational-oncology
#15
Iacopo Petrini, Serena Barachini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Sara Galimberti, Letizia Modeo, Roberto Boni, Martina Sollini, Paola Anna Erba
Fibronectin is a component of the extracellular matrix that links collagen fibers to integrins on the cell's surface. The splicing isoforms, containing the ED-B domain, are not expressed in adult tissues but only in tumor stroma or during embryonic development. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells express ED-B fibronectin during angiogenesis. Also cancer cells can synthetize ED-B fibronectin, but its function in tumor growth needs to be further elucidated.We evaluated the expression of ED-B fibronectin in prostate cancer cell lines: PC3 and DU145...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875950/targeted-delivery-of-cabazitaxel-by-conjugation-to-albumin-peg-folate-nanoparticles-using-a-cysteine-acrylate-linker-and-simple-synthesis-conditions
#16
Mohammad Kazem Khoeeniha, Mehdi Esfandyari-Manesh, Hossein Behrouz, Mohsen Amini, Behrang Shiri Varnamkhasti, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
Cabazitaxel (CBZ) is a new taxane approved by the FDA for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer not responding to docetaxel. However, CBZ is not a suitable substrate for p-glycoprotein 60, an efflux pump which transports anticancer drugs out of malignant cells and is therefore a promising drug for treatment of multidrug resistant tumors. Similar to other taxanes, the presence of Tween 80 in the CBZ formulation shows that it is insoluble in water. Therefore, to increase the solubility and circulation time, a CBZ-albumin conjugate was synthesized...
November 22, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875103/diffusion-weighted-imaging-as-a-treatment-response-biomarker-for-evaluating-bone-metastases-in-prostate-cancer-a-pilot-study
#17
Raquel Perez-Lopez, Joaquin Mateo, Helen Mossop, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Mihaela Rata, Veronica A Morgan, Alison Macdonald, Shahneen Sandhu, David Lorente, Pasquale Rescigno, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Diletta Bianchini, Nuria Porta, Emma Hall, Martin O Leach, Johann S de Bono, Dow-Mu Koh, Nina Tunariu
Purpose To determine the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess the response of bone metastases to treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Materials and Methods A phase II prospective clinical trial of the poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in mCRPC included a prospective magnetic resonance (MR) imaging substudy; the study was approved by the institutional research board, and written informed consent was obtained...
November 22, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872821/isolated-non-ascitic-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-from-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#18
John Sheng, Thomas W Findley, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to bone, lung and liver. Omental metastasis of prostate cancer is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature, many of which have associated ascites. We present a case of non-ascitic omental metastasis of prostate cancer without any bone metastases. Furthermore, this patient has had two negative measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood, suggesting a non-hematogenous route of metastasis to the omentum.
January 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851748/chromosomal-instability-estimation-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-and-single-cell-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-analysis
#19
Stephanie B Greene, Angel E Dago, Laura J Leitz, Yipeng Wang, Jerry Lee, Shannon L Werner, Steven Gendreau, Premal Patel, Shidong Jia, Liangxuan Zhang, Eric K Tucker, Michael Malchiodi, Ryon P Graf, Ryan Dittamore, Dena Marrinucci, Mark Landers
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer often associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to targeted therapy. Assessment of genomic instability in bulk tumor or biopsy can be complicated due to sample availability, surrounding tissue contamination, or tumor heterogeneity. The Epic Sciences circulating tumor cell (CTC) platform utilizes a non-enrichment based approach for the detection and characterization of rare tumor cells in clinical blood samples. Genomic profiling of individual CTCs could provide a portrait of cancer heterogeneity, identify clonal and sub-clonal drivers, and monitor disease progression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843207/chemotherapy-options-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin A Teply, Ralph J Hauke
INTRODUCTION: The treatment landscape for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is evolving, with recent approvals of immune therapy, novel hormonal therapy, and bone-targeted therapy. Chemotherapy remains an essential component of the armamentarium. Herein, we review current chemotherapy options for patients with CRPC and discuss future challenges. METHODS: We reviewed literature for chemotherapy agents in prostate cancer, with special attention to the evidence for efficacy of the currently approved agents...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
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