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Circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683554/monitoring-circulating-prostate-cancer-cells-by-in-vivo-flow-cytometry-assesses-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-metastasis
#1
Kai Pang, Chengying Xie, Zhangru Yang, Yuanzhen Suo, Xi Zhu, Dan Wei, Xiaofu Weng, Xunbin Wei, Zhengqin Gu
It remains controversial whether surgical castration prolongs survival rate and improves therapy prospects in patients suffering from prostate cancer. We used PC3 cell line to establish prostate tumor models. In vivo flow cytometry and ultrasonic imaging were used to monitor the process of prostate cancer growth, development and metastasis. We found out that the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in orthotopic tumor model was higher than that in subcutaneous tumor model. The CTC number in orthotopic tumor model was due to burst growth, while CTC number in subcutaneous tumor model showed a gradual increase with tumor size...
April 23, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666832/structure-and-function-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-cells-using-nanotechnology-to-study-nuclear-size-in-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Nu Yao, Yu-Jen Jan, Shirley Cheng, Jie-Fu Chen, Leland Wk Chung, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Edwin M Posadas
Professor Donald Coffey and his laboratory pioneered studies showing the relationships between nuclear shape and cellular function. In doing so, he and his students established the field of nuclear morphometry in prostate cancer. By using perioperative tissues via biopsies and surgical sampling, Dr. Coffey's team discovered that nuclear shape and other pathologic features correlated with clinical outcome measures. Cancer cells also exist outside of solid tumor masses as they can be shed from both primary and metastatic lesions into the circulatory system...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665393/comparative-experimental-theoretical-studies-on-the-egfr-dimerization-under-the-effect-of-egf-egf-analogues-binding-highlighting-the-importance-of-egf-egfr-interactions-at-site-iii-interface
#3
Masomeh Mehrabi, Hamid Mahdiuni, Hassan Rasouli, Kamran Mansouri, Mohsen Shahlaie, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663383/nanoparticle-based-targeted-cancer-strategies-for-non-invasive-prostate-cancer-intervention
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas H Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Michael A Vrolijk, Scott D Perrapato, Steven Ades, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian, Christopher C Landry
Prostate cancer is screened by testing circulating levels of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker, monitoring changes over time, or a digital rectal exam. Abnormal results often lead to prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer positive patients are stratified into very low-risk, low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, based on clinical classification parameters, to assess therapy options. However, there remains a gap in our knowledge and a compelling need for improved risk stratification to inform clinical decisions and reduce both over-diagnosis and over-treatment...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659051/psa-alpha-2-macroglobulin-complex-is-enzymatically-active-in-the-serum-of-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-and-can-degrade-circulating-peptide-hormones
#5
Maya B Kostova, William Nathaniel Brennen, David Lopez, Lizamma Anthony, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Platz, Samuel R Denmeade
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured...
April 16, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#6
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626548/clinical-indications-for-and-the-future-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#7
Dominic H Moon, Daniel P Lindsay, Seungpyo Hong, Andrew Z Wang
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have detached from the primary tumor and entered circulation with potential to initiate a site of metastasis. Currently, CTC detection using CellSearch is cleared by the Food and Drug Administration for monitoring metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers as a prognostic biomarker for progression-free and overall survival. Accumulating evidence suggests CTCs have similar prognostic value in other metastatic and non-metastatic settings. Current research efforts are focused on extending the utility of CTCs beyond a prognostic biomarker to help guide clinical decision-making...
April 4, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620284/enrichment-and-mutation-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-from-blood-samples
#8
Ruqin Kou, Jian Zhao, Priya Gogoi, Shannon Carskadon, Will Chow, Clara Hwang, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Conrad Leung, Yixin Wang
The potential of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients has become increasingly attractive. However, molecular analysis of CTCs is hindered by low sensitivity and a high level of background leukocytes in CTC enrichment technologies. We have developed a novel protocol using a microfluidic device, which enriches and retrieves CTCs from blood samples. The principle of CTC capturing is that tumor cells are larger and less deformable than normal blood cells. To evaluate the potential of utilizing Celsee PREP100 in CTC molecular analysis, we prepared prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and LNCaP, retrieved the captured cells and analyzed them using PCR amplicon sequencing...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614511/tumor-derived-exosomal-long-noncoding-rnas-as-promising-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-prostate-cancer
#9
Yu-Hui Wang, Jia Ji, Bi-Cheng Wang, Hao Chen, Zhong-Hua Yang, Kun Wang, Chang-Liang Luo, Wu-Wen Zhang, Fu-Bing Wang, Xiao-Lian Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Exosomal circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in blood are emerging as clinically useful and non-invasive biomarkers for tumor diagnosis. However, normal cells can also secrete exosomes, so it is a prerequisite to obtain tumor-derived exosomes for better understanding of their diagnostic impacts in cancer. In this study, a dual-antibody-functionalized immunoaffinity system was established to isolate exosomes and investigate their lncRNAs expression pattern and clinical significance in prostate cancer (PCa)...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578115/utility-of-cell-free-nucleic-acid-and-circulating-tumor-cell-analyses-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Theodore Gourdin, Guru Sonpavde
Prostate cancer is characterized by bone metastases and difficulty of objectively measuring disease burden. In this context, cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) quantitation and genomic profiling afford the ability to noninvasively and serially monitor the tumor. Recent data suggest that ctDNA and CTC quantitation are prognostic for survival. Indeed, CTC enumeration using the CellSearch® platform is validated as a prognostic factor and warrants consideration as a stratification factor in randomized trials...
March 20, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572775/development-and-application-of-liquid-biopsies-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Gareth J Morrison, Amir Goldkorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal and highly heterogeneous malignancy, associated with a broad spectrum of potentially actionable molecular alterations. In the past decade, disease profiling has expanded to include not only traditional tumor tissue, but also liquid biopsies of cells and genetic material circulating in the blood. These liquid biopsies offer a minimally invasive, repeatable source of tumor material for longitudinal disease profiling but also raise new technical and biological challenges...
March 23, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559559/anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-mutation-alk-f1174c-in-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-prostate-and-molecular-response-to-alectinib
#12
Benedito A Carneiro, Sahithi Pamarthy, Ami N Shah, Vinay Sagar, Kenji Unno, HuiYing Han, Ximing J Yang, Rubens B Costa, Rebecca J Nagy, Richard B Lanman, Timothy M Kuzel, Jeffrey S Ross, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, Siraj M Ali, Massimo Cristofanilli, Young Kwang Chae, Francis J Giles, Sarki A Abdulkadir
PURPOSE: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is an aggressive disease that can arise de novo or by transdifferentiation from prostate adenocarcinoma. Alterations in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are involved in neuroblastoma, lung cancer, and other malignancies but its role in SCCP has not been documented. We describe a patient with refractory de novo SCCP with ALK F1174C activating mutation who obtained clinical benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitor. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze primary and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554212/combined-immunotherapy-encompassing-intratumoral-poly-iclc-dendritic-cell-vaccination-and-radiotherapy-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#13
M E Rodríguez-Ruiz, J L Perez-Gracia, I Rodríguez, C Alfaro, C Oñate, G Pérez, I Gil-Bazo, A Benito, S Inogés, A López-Diaz de Cerio, M Ponz-Sarvise, L Resano, P Berraondo, B Barbés, S Martin-Algarra, A Gúrpide, M F Sanmamed, C de Andrea, A M Salazar, I Melero
BACKGROUND: Combination immunotherapy has the potential to achieve additive or synergistic effects. Combined local injections of dsRNA analogues (mimicking viral RNA) and repeated vaccinations with tumor-lysate loaded dendritic cells shows efficacy against colon cancer mouse models. In the context of immunotherapy, radiotherapy can exert beneficial abscopal effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this two-cohort pilot phase I study, 15 advanced cancer patients received two 4-week cycles of four intradermal daily doses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells preloaded with autologous tumor lysate and matured for 24h with poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), TNF-α and IFN-α...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553949/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-optimizing-use-of-existing-therapies-while-searching-for-novel-interventions
#14
Theodore Gourdin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarizes recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: New randomized data suggest a survival advantage to early abiraterone in castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies are examining sequencing of existing cytotoxic and androgen-receptor-targeted therapies in both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant disease...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548820/melanoma-circulating-tumor-cells-benefits-and-challenges-required-for-clinical-application
#15
G Marsavela, C A Aya-Bonilla, M E Warkiani, E S Gray, M Ziman
The implementation of novel therapeutic interventions has improved the survival rates of melanoma patients with metastatic disease. Nonetheless, only 33% of treated cases exhibit long term responses. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) measurements are currently of clinical value in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. However, the clinical utility of melanoma CTCs (MelCTCs) is still unclear due to challenges that appear intrinsic to MelCTCs (i.e. rarity, heterogeneity) and a lack of standardization in their isolation, across research laboratories...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547636/tumor-characterization-by-ultrasound-release-of-multiple-protein-and-microrna-biomarkers-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#16
Aloma L D'Souza, John R Chevillet, Pejman Ghanouni, Xinrui Yan, Muneesh Tewari, Sanjiv S Gambhir
We have previously shown that low frequency ultrasound can release biomarkers from cells into the murine circulation enabling an amplification and localization of the released biomarker that could be used as a blood-based method to detect cancer earlier and monitor therapy. In this study, we further demonstrate that this technique could be used for characterization of tumors and/or identification of cellular masses of unknown origin due to the release of multiple protein and nucleic acid biomarkers in cells in culture, mice and patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536528/clca2-epigenetic-regulation-by-ctbp1-hdacs-zeb1-ep300-and-mir-196b-5p-impacts-prostate-cancer-cell-adhesion-and-emt-in-metabolic-syndrome-disease
#17
Juliana Porretti, Guillermo N Dalton, Cintia Massillo, Georgina D Scalise, Paula L Farré, Randolph Elble, Esther N Gerez, Paula Accialini, Ana M Cabanillas, Kevin Gardner, Paola De Luca, Adriana De Siervi
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men. Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is associated with increased PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. Previously, we proposed C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), a transcripcional co-repressor, as a molecular link between these two conditions. Notably, CTBP1 depletion decreased PCa growth in MeS mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that explain the link between MeS and PCa mediated by CTBP1. We found that CTBP1 repressed Chloride Channel Accessory 2 (CLCA2) expression in prostate xenografts developed in MeS animals...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534939/phase-i-trial-of-the-combination-of-docetaxel-prednisone-and-pasireotide-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer
#18
Manish K Thakur, Lance Heilbrun, Kimberlee Dobson, Julie Boerner, Karri Stark, Jing Li, Daryn Smith, Elisabeth Heath, Joseph Fontana, Ulka Vaishampayan
BACKGROUND: Pasireotide (SOM230; Novartis Inc, Basel, Switzerland) is a multitargeted somatostatin receptor analogue likely to treat the neuroendocrine, and docetaxel resistant components within metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This phase I trial tested the combination of pasireotide, docetaxel, and prednisone in pretreated mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy naive mCRPC patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days and pasireotide intramuscularly every 28 days at escalating dose levels of 40, 60, and 80 mg...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511352/regulation-of-inside-out-%C3%AE-1-integrin-activation-by-cdcp1
#19
Sara G Pollan, Fangjin Huang, Jamie M Sperger, Joshua M Lang, Colm Morrissey, Anne E Cress, C Y Chu, Neil A Bhowmick, Sungyong You, Michael R Freeman, Danislav S Spassov, Mark M Moasser, William G Carter, Shakti Ranjan Satapathy, Kavita Shah, Beatrice S Knudsen
Tumor metastasis depends on the dynamic regulation of cell adhesion through β1-integrin. The Cub-Domain Containing Protein-1, CDCP1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein which regulates cell adhesion. Overexpression and loss of CDCP1 have been observed in the same cancer types to promote metastatic progression. Here, we demonstrate reduced CDCP1 expression in high-grade, primary prostate cancers, circulating tumor cells and tumor metastases of patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. CDCP1 is expressed in epithelial and not mesenchymal cells, and its cell surface and mRNA expression declines upon stimulation with TGFβ1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
March 7, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508425/ar-v7-in-circulating-tumor-cells-cluster-as-a-predictive-biomarker-of-abiraterone-acetate-and-enzalutamide-treatment-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#20
Takatsugu Okegawa, Naoki Ninomiya, Kazuki Masuda, Yu Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Tambo, Kikuo Nutahara
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cell(CTC)clusters can be used to predict survival in patients with bone metastatic castration resistant-prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 98 patients with CRPC on abiraterone or enzalutamide, and investigated the prognostic value of CTC cluster detection (+ v -) and AR-V7 detection (+ v -) using a CTC cluster detection - based AR-V7 mRNA assay...
March 5, 2018: Prostate
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