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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302132/improving-the-use-of-crop-models-for-risk-assessment-and-climate-change-adaptation
#1
Andrew J Challinor, Christoph Müller, Senthold Asseng, Chetan Deva, Kathryn Jane Nicklin, Daniel Wallach, Eline Vanuytrecht, Stephen Whitfield, Julian Ramirez-Villegas, Ann-Kristin Koehler
Crop models are used for an increasingly broad range of applications, with a commensurate proliferation of methods. Careful framing of research questions and development of targeted and appropriate methods are therefore increasingly important. In conjunction with the other authors in this special issue, we have developed a set of criteria for use of crop models in assessments of impacts, adaptation and risk. Our analysis drew on the other papers in this special issue, and on our experience in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 and the MACSUR, AgMIP and ISIMIP projects...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284811/caregiver-burden-in-medical-versus-psychiatric-patients-a-cross-sectional-comparative-study
#2
Anu Kant Mital, Sayali Ganesh Sabnis, Vrushali Vishal Kulkarni
Background: An informal care-giver is generally an unpaid individual who looks after the personal and medical needs of the patient. India being a country of traditions and family values, this informal care-giver is usually a family member. These care-givers, being untrained in this job undergo tremendous stress. Available research studies the burden individually in the relatives of chronically medically ill patients and those of psychiatrically ill patients. Furthermore the previous research targets the burden in individual diseases...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258251/what-kills-the-hindgut-flagellates-of-lower-termites-during-the-host-molting-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Christine A Nalepa
Subsocial wood feeding cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus, the sister group of termites, retain their symbiotic gut flagellates during the host molting cycle, but in lower termites, closely related flagellates die prior to host ecdysis. Although the prevalent view is that termite flagellates die because of conditions of starvation and desiccation in the gut during the host molting cycle, the work of L.R. Cleveland in the 1930s through the 1960s provides a strong alternate hypothesis: it was the changed hormonal environment associated with the origin of eusociality and its concomitant shift in termite developmental ontogeny that instigates the death of the flagellates in termites...
December 18, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211455/a-mrna-initiated-three-dimensional-dna-amplifier-able-to-function-inside-living-cells
#4
Lei He, Danqing Lu, Hao Liang, Sitao Xie, Xiaobing Zhang, Qiaoling Liu, Quan Yuan, Weihong Tan
DNA molecular machines show great promise in fields like biomarker discovery and biological activity regulation, but operating DNA machines with specific functions within living systems remains extremely challenging. Although DNA machines have been engineered with exact molecu-lar-level specifications, some intrinsic imperfections such as poor cell permeation and fragility in complex cyto-plasmic milieu persist due to the well-established charac-ter of nucleic acid molecules. To circumvent these prob-lems, we herein report a molecularly engineered, entropy-driven three-dimensional DNA amplifier (EDTD) that can operate inside living cells in response to a specific mRNA target...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186596/long-standing-scalp-retraction-technique-using-an-external-fixator-for-sunken-skin-flap-syndrome
#5
Min Su Kim, Ik Seong Park
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The authors report a novel external scalp retraction technique for sunken skin flap syndrome (SSFS). CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old male patient suffered neurological deterioration due to SSFS after decompressive craniectomy. Cranioplasty is the gold standard for therapeutic management of SSFS, but could not be performed due to intracranial wound infection. The patient underwent external fixation of a metal plate as a frame for the skull and the scalp was pulled outward to the frame by skin suture...
December 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182092/preliminary-assessment-of-a-compliant-gait-exoskeleton
#6
Manuel Cestari, Daniel Sanz-Merodio, Elena Garcia
Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement...
June 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168216/understanding-frames-a-qualitative-study-of-young-people-s-experiences-of-using-standing-frames-as-part-of-postural-management-for-cerebral-palsy
#7
J Goodwin, J Lecouturier, S Crombie, J Smith, A Basu, A Colver, N Kolehmainen, J R Parr, D Howel, E McColl, A Roberts, K Miller, J Cadwgan
BACKGROUND: Consensus opinion supports standing frame use as part of postural management for nonambulant young people with cerebral palsy. Although the rationale for standing frame use and the associated challenges have been described, little attention has been given to the users' experiences. The aim of the current study was to explore young people's positive and negative experiences, and attitudes regarding standing frame use. METHODS: Framework analysis informed an open exploration of young people's opinions of standing frames...
November 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117786/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-pr-1-like-proteins-identified-from-the-wheat-head-blight-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#8
Shunwen Lu, Michael Edwards
The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins originally identified from plants and their homologues are also found in other eukaryotic kingdoms. Studies on non-plant PR-1-like (PR-1L) proteins have been pursued widely in humans/animals but rarely in filamentous ascomycetes. Here we report the characterization of four PR-1L proteins identified from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Molecular cloning revealed that the four FgPR-1L proteins are all encoded by small open reading frames (612 to 909 bp) that are often interrupted by introns, in contrast to plant PR-1 genes that lack introns...
November 8, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102856/validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-to-assess-time-velocity-and-leg-power-during-a-sit-to-stand-functional-performance-test
#9
Juan Diego Ruiz-Cárdenas, Juan José Rodríguez-Juan, Rowan R Smart, Jennifer M Jakobi, Gareth R Jones
The purposes of this study were: (i) Analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of an iPhone App for measuring time, velocity and power during a single sit-to-stand (STS) test compared with measurements recorded from a force plate; and (ii) Evaluate the relationship between the iPhone App measures with age and functional performance. Forty-eight healthy individuals (age range: 26-81 years) were recruited. All participants completed a STS test on a force plate with the movement recorded on an iPhone 6 at 240 frames-per-second...
January 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099672/rotational-and-linear-head-accelerations-from-taekwondo-kicks-and-punches
#10
Gabriel P Fife, David M O'sullivan, Sae Yong Lee
The purpose was to compare rotational and linear head accelerations as a result of taekwondo kicks and punches. Taekwondo athletes executed five repetitions of the turning kick, spinning hook kick, hook punch, straight punch, and jab punch to a Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy head-neck complex. A tri-axial accelerometer and an angular rate sensor were mounted inside the Hybrid III head to measure resultant linear (RLA) and rotational accelerations. The Hybrid III was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with protective taekwondo headgear...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079826/hydrogen-substituted-graphdiyne-as-carbon-rich-flexible-electrode-for-lithium-and-sodium-ion-batteries
#11
Jianjiang He, Ning Wang, Zili Cui, Huiping Du, Lin Fu, Changshui Huang, Ze Yang, Xiangyan Shen, Yuanping Yi, Zeyi Tu, Yuliang Li
Organic electrodes are potential alternatives to current inorganic electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries powering portable and wearable electronics, in terms of their mechanical flexibility, function tunability and low cost. However, the low capacity, poor rate performance and rapid capacity degradation impede their practical application. Here, we concentrate on the molecular design for improved conductivity and capacity, and favorable bulk ion transport. Through an in situ cross-coupling reaction of triethynylbenzene on copper foil, the carbon-rich frame hydrogen substituted graphdiyne film is fabricated...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044820/will-fluctuations-in-salt-marsh-mangrove-dominance-alter-vulnerability-of-a-subtropical-wetland-to-sea-level-rise
#12
Karen L McKee, William C Vervaeke
To avoid submergence during sea-level rise, coastal wetlands build soil surfaces vertically through accumulation of inorganic sediment and organic matter. At climatic boundaries where mangroves are expanding and replacing salt marsh, wetland capacity to respond to sea-level rise may change. To compare how well mangroves and salt marshes accommodate sea-level rise, we conducted a manipulative field experiment in a subtropical plant community in the subsiding Mississippi River Delta. Experimental plots were established in spatially equivalent positions along creek banks in monospecific stands of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) or Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and in mixed stands containing both species...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025823/standing-collaboration-a-study-protocol-for-developing-clinical-standards
#13
Louise K Wiles, Peter D Hibbert, Jacqueline H Stephens, Enrico Coiera, Johanna Westbrook, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Ric O Day, Ken M Hillman, William B Runciman
INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), considerable gaps continue between the care that is recommended ('appropriate care') and the care provided. Problems with current CPGs are commonly cited as barriers to providing 'appropriate care'.Our study aims to develop and test an alternative method to keep CPGs accessible and up to date. This method aims to mitigate existing problems by using a single process to develop clinical standards (embodied in clinical indicators) collaboratively with researchers, healthcare professionals, patients and consumers...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992063/the-evolutionary-history-of-saccharomyces-species-inferred-from-completed-mitochondrial-genomes-and-revision-in-the-yeast-mitochondrial-genetic-code
#14
Pavol Sulo, Dana Szabóová, Peter Bielik, Silvia Poláková, Katarína Šoltys, Katarína Jatzová, Tomáš Szemes
The yeast Saccharomyces are widely used to test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. A large number of nuclear genomic DNA sequences are available, but mitochondrial genomic data are insufficient. We completed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing from Illumina MiSeq reads for all Saccharomyces species. All are circularly mapped molecules decreasing in size with phylogenetic distance from Saccharomyces cerevisiae but with similar gene content including regulatory and selfish elements like origins of replication, introns, free-standing open reading frames or GC clusters...
June 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972995/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-plant-pathogenic-fungus-stemphylium-lycopersici-uncovers-a-dynamic-structure-due-to-repetitive-and-mobile-elements
#15
Mario Emilio Ernesto Franco, Silvina Marianela Yanil López, Rocio Medina, César Gustavo Lucentini, Maria Inés Troncozo, Graciela Noemí Pastorino, Mario Carlos Nazareno Saparrat, Pedro Alberto Balatti
Stemphylium lycopersici (Pleosporales) is a plant-pathogenic fungus that has been associated with a broad range of plant-hosts worldwide. It is one of the causative agents of gray leaf spot disease in tomato and pepper. The aim of this work was to characterize the mitochondrial genome of S. lycopersici CIDEFI-216, to use it to trace taxonomic relationships with other fungal taxa and to get insights into the evolutionary history of this phytopathogen. The complete mitochondrial genome was assembled into a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 75,911 bp that harbors a set of 37 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rns and rnl) and 28 tRNA genes, which are transcribed from both sense and antisense strands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964232/creation-and-characterization-of-free-standing-cryogenic-targets-for-laser-driven-ion-acceleration
#16
Alexandra Tebartz, Stefan Bedacht, Markus Hesse, Sam Astbury, Rob Clarke, Alex Ortner, Gabriel Schaumann, Florian Wagner, David Neely, Markus Roth
A technique for the creation of free-standing cryogenic targets for laser-driven ion acceleration is presented, which allows us to create solid state targets consisting of initially gaseous materials. In particular, the use of deuterium and the methods for its preparation as a target material for laser-driven ion acceleration are discussed. Moving in the phase diagram through the liquid phase leads to the substance covering an aperture on a cooled copper frame where it is solidified through further cooling...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961876/health-assessments-for-health-governance-concepts-and-methodologies
#17
Rainer Fehr, Kristina Alexanderson, Carlo Favaretti, Judith de Jong, Giuseppe La Torre, Tek-Ang Lim, Piedad Martin-Olmedo, Odile C L Mekel, Kai Michelsen, Nicole Rosenkötter, Marieke Verschuuren, Chiara de Waure, Dineke Zeegers Paget
Background: For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. Aims: To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. Methods: This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956598/noninvasive-cathodoluminescence-activated-nanoimaging-of-dynamic-processes-in-liquids
#18
Connor G Bischak, Rebecca B Wai, Charles Cherqui, Jacob A Busche, Steven C Quillin, Craig L Hetherington, Zhe Wang, Clarice D Aiello, Darrell G Schlom, Shaul Aloni, D Frank Ogletree, David J Masiello, Naomi S Ginsberg
In situ electron microscopy provides remarkably high spatial resolution, yet electron beam irradiation often damages soft materials and perturbs dynamic processes, requiring samples to be very robust. Here, we instead noninvasively image the dynamics of metal and polymer nanoparticles in a liquid environment with subdiffraction resolution using cathodoluminescence-activated imaging by resonant energy transfer (CLAIRE). In CLAIRE, a free-standing scintillator film serves as a nanoscale optical excitation source when excited by a low energy, focused electron beam...
October 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927566/low-rates-of-adverse-events-following-ambulatory-outpatient-total-hip-arthroplasty-at-a-free-standing-surgery-center
#19
Patrick C Toy, Matthew N Fournier, Thomas W Throckmorton, William M Mihalko
BACKGROUND: We proposed to determine the complication and hospital admission rates for patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) done by a single surgeon in a stand-alone ambulatory surgical center with same-day discharge. Given the recent emphasis on bundled payments for a 90-day episode of care, this same time frame after surgery was chosen to determine patient outcomes. METHODS: The records of patients with THAs done through a direct anterior approach by a single surgeon at 2 separate ambulatory surgery centers were reviewed...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922561/reconciling-female-genital-circumcision-with-universal-human-rights
#20
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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