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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792995/lumbar-discectomy-is-associated-with-higher-rates-of-lumbar-fusion
#1
Hector Castillo, Ravi Chintapalli, Harout Boyajian, Sebastian A Cruz, Vince K Morgan, Lewis L Shi, Michael J Lee
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Lumbar disc herniation affects over three million people in the United States every year, and the rate of operation continually increases, particularly in patients 60 years or older.1,2 Surgical discectomy is a common treatment for lumbar disc herniation.1,3 One concern for this method is the risk of undergoing additional surgeries. 2,5,7 There are very limited population-level studies that examine the rate of lumbar fusion following lumbar discectomy. Additionally, there is no study that examines the risk of undergoing lumbar fusion in patients who have undergone lumbar discectomies compared to the risk of lumbar fusion in the general population with no previous lumbar discectomy...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781626/on-selecting-evidence-to-test-hypotheses-a-theory-of-selection-tasks
#2
Marco Ragni, Ilir Kola, Philip N Johnson-Laird
How individuals choose evidence to test hypotheses is a long-standing puzzle. According to an algorithmic theory that we present, it is based on dual processes: individuals' intuitions depending on mental models of the hypothesis yield selections of evidence matching instances of the hypothesis, but their deliberations yield selections of potential counterexamples to the hypothesis. The results of 228 experiments using Wason's selection task corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants made dependent choices of items of evidence: the selections in 99 experiments were significantly more redundant (using Shannon's measure) than those of 10,000 simulations of each experiment based on independent selections...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765872/effect-of-caregiver-driven-robot-assisted-in-ward-training-in-subacute-stroke-patients-a-case-series
#3
Sang Beom Kim, Kyeong Woo Lee, Jong Hwa Lee, Sook Joung Lee, Jin Gee Park, Joo Won Park
Objective: To evaluate the effect of caregiver driven robot-assisted in-ward training in subacute stroke patients. Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed for patients treated with caregiver driven robot-assisted in-ward training to retain gait function from June 2014 and December 2016. All patients received more than 2 weeks of caregiver driven robot-assisted in-ward training after undergoing conventional programs. The robot was used as a sitting device, a standing frame, or a high-walker depending on functional status of the patient...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716456/who-decides-what-is-acceptable-speech-on-campus-why-restricting-free-speech-is-not-the-answer
#4
Stephen J Ceci, Wendy M Williams
Recent protests on dozens of campuses have led to the cancellation of controversial talks, and violence has accompanied several of these protests. Psychological science provides an important lens through which to view, understand, and potentially reduce these conflicts. In this article, we frame opposing sides' arguments within a long-standing corpus of psychological research on selective perception, confirmation bias, myside bias, illusion of understanding, blind-spot bias, groupthink/in-group bias, motivated skepticism, and naive realism...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707515/the-postural-stability-of-children-with-foetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-during-one-leg-stance-a-feasibility-study
#5
Yolandi Brink, John Cockcroft, Soraya Seedat, Philip May, Wendy Kalberg, Quinette Louw
Background: Postural control may be impaired in children with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The study assessed the protocol feasibility in terms of (1) recruiting children with FASD in a rural, small town; (2) using the measurement instruments in a real-life setting; (3) the one-leg standing (OLS) task and (4) presenting preliminary results on postural stability of children with and without FASD. Methods: Nine-year-old children diagnosed with and without FASD were invited to participate...
2018: African Journal of Disability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651544/the-effects-of-sediment-classification-pattern-on-a-water-column-organism-ceriodaphnia-dubia
#6
Vivian Silva Lira, Cláudia Hitomi Watanabe, Marcela Merides Carvalho, André Henrique Rosa, Renata Fracácio
The sediment compartment stands out because it functions as both a temporary sink of pollutants and a potential source of these elements that may become available to the water column.This study aimed to correlate the concentrations of total metals in the crude sediment and in the interstitial water with the ecotoxicity in the water column using an a modified sediment ecotoxicity test with Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results indicate that the sediment may contribute to the toxicity in the water column and that such toxicity is possibly not related to the metals present...
April 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650020/understanding-community-based-participatory-research-through-a-social-movement-framework-a-case-study-of-the-kahnawake-schools-diabetes-prevention-project
#7
Marie-Claude Tremblay, Debbie H Martin, Alex M McComber, Amelia McGregor, Ann C Macaulay
BACKGROUND: A longstanding challenge of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been to anchor evaluation and practice in a relevant theoretical framework of community change, which articulates specific and concrete evaluative benchmarks. Social movement theories provide a broad range of theoretical tools to understand and facilitate social change processes, such as those involved in CBPR. Social movement theories have the potential to provide a coherent representation of how mobilization and collective action is gradually developed and leads to systemic change in the context of CBPR...
April 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644014/genome-organization-of-escherichia-phage-yd-2008-s-a-new-entry-to-siphoviridae-family
#8
Dharmela Sellvam, Nyok Sean Lau, Yahya Mat Arip
Malaysia is one of the countries that are loaded with mega biodiversity which includes microbial communities. Phages constitute the major component in the microbial communities and yet the numbers of discovered phages are just a minute fraction of its population in the biosphere. Taking into account of a huge numbers of waiting to be discovered phages, a new bacteriophage designated as Escherichia phage YD-2008.s was successfully isolated using Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 as the host. Phage YD-2008.s poses icosahedral head measured at 57nm in diameter with a long non-contractile flexible tail measured at 107nm; proving the phage as one of the members of Siphoviridae family under the order of Caudovirales ...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621157/motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-can-be-identified-by-frequency-component-of-postural-stability
#9
Saba Rezvanian, Thurmon Lockhart, Christopher Frames, Rahul Soangra, Abraham Lieberman
Parkinson's disease (PD) can be divided into two subtypes based on clinical features-namely tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD). This categorization is important at the early stage of PD, since identifying the subtypes can help to predict the clinical progression of the disease. Accordingly, correctly diagnosing subtypes is critical in initiating appropriate early interventions and tracking the progression of the disease. However, as the disease progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to further distinguish those attributes that are relevant to the subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589695/-standing-orders-and-quality-of-care-at-triage-in-emergency-services-integrative-review
#10
Marie-Claude Lacroix, Roxane Borgès Da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Overcrowding of emergency services is a widespread problem in western countries. This situation results in negative patient outcomes and influences the quality of care. Standing orders are a possible way to improve the quality and performance of the health system. The aim of this article is to identify, based on a review of the literature, the effects of standing orders initiated by triage nurses in emergency services on the quality of care. METHODS: The quality of care dimensions of the Institute of Medicine (2001) were used as a frame of reference...
January 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588861/standing-practice-in-rehabilitation-early-after-stroke-spires-a-functional-standing-frame-programme-prolonged-standing-and-repeated-sit-to-stand-to-improve-function-and-quality-of-life-and-reduce-neuromuscular-impairment-in-people-with-severe-sub-acute-stroke
#11
Angie Logan, Jennifer Freeman, Bridie Kent, Jillian Pooler, Siobhan Creanor, Jane Vickery, Doyo Enki, Andrew Barton, Jonathan Marsden
Background: The most common physical deficit caused by a stroke is muscle weakness which limits a person's mobility. Mobility encompasses activities necessary for daily functioning: getting in and out bed, on/off toilet, sitting, standing and walking. These activities are significantly affected in people with severe stroke who typically spend most of their time in bed or a chair and are immobile. Immobility is primarily caused by neurological damage but exacerbated by secondary changes in musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529757/high-resolution-depth-profiling-using-a-range-gated-cmos-spad-quanta-image-sensor
#12
Ximing Ren, Peter W R Connolly, Abderrahim Halimi, Yoann Altmann, Stephen McLaughlin, Istvan Gyongy, Robert K Henderson, Gerald S Buller
A CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) quanta image sensor is used to reconstruct depth and intensity profiles when operating in a range-gated mode used in conjunction with pulsed laser illumination. By designing the CMOS SPAD array to acquire photons within a pre-determined temporal gate, the need for timing circuitry was avoided and it was therefore possible to have an enhanced fill factor (61% in this case) and a frame rate (100,000 frames per second) that is more difficult to achieve in a SPAD array which uses time-correlated single-photon counting...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525701/contrast-enhanced-swallow-study-sensitivity-for-anastomotic-leak-detection-in-post-esophagectomy-patients
#13
S Mejía-Rivera, S A Pérez-Marroquín, R Cortés-González, H Medina-Franco
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Esophagectomy is a highly invasive surgery and one of its postoperative complications is anastomotic leakage, occurring in 53% of cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity of the contrast-enhanced swallow study as a method for diagnosing anastomotic leak in patients that underwent esophagectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present retrospective study included the case records of patients that underwent esophagectomy with reconstruction and cervical anastomosis at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán within the time frame of January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2006...
March 7, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508479/racism-health-a-public-health-perspective-on-racial-discrimination
#14
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494687/a-novel-badnavirus-discovered-from-betula-sp-affected-by-birch-leaf-roll-disease
#15
Artemis Rumbou, Thierry Candresse, Armelle Marais, Sebastien Theil, Juliane Langer, Risto Jalkanen, Carmen Büttner
In declining birches (Betula sp.) from different European stands affected by the "birch leaf-roll disease" (BLRD) a novel virus is identified by means of RNA-Seq virome analysis. The virus represents a new member in the genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae, tentatively named Birch leaf roll-associated virus (BLRaV) and it is the first badnavirus found to infect birch. Complete genome sequences (7,862-7,864 nucleotides) of three viral isolates of Finnish and German origin have been determined. The virus sequences show a typical badnavirus organization with three major open reading frames (ORFs) and a fourth potential ORF overlapping with the end of ORF3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494255/the-jigsaw-puzzle-of-mrna-translation-initiation-in-eukaryotes-a-decade-of-structures-unraveling-the-mechanics-of-the-process
#16
Yaser Hashem, Joachim Frank
Translation initiation in eukaryotes is a highly regulated and rate-limiting process. It results in the assembly and disassembly of numerous transient and intermediate complexes involving over a dozen eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). This process culminates in the accommodation of a start codon marking the beginning of an open reading frame at the appropriate ribosomal site. Although this process has been extensively studied by hundreds of groups for nearly half a century, it has been only recently, especially during the last decade, that we have gained deeper insight into the mechanics of the eukaryotic translation initiation process...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444802/building-support-for-adolescent-sexuality-and-reproductive-health-education-and-responding-to-resistance-in-conservative-contexts-cases-from-pakistan
#17
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Marina Plesons, Sheena Hadi, Qadeer Baig, Iliana Lang
BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students...
March 21, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417895/dumbbell-shaped-ossicles-discovered-in-pedicellaria-of-flower-sea-urchins
#18
Masaki Tamori, Jun Koki, Tatsuo Motokawa
Sea urchins have a globiferous pedicellaria that stands from a test with a stalk on which lies a head made of three movable jaws with venom-injecting teeth. The globiferous pedicellariae of the flower sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus, one of the most developed among sea urchins, are unique in that the jaws are provided with a jaw membrane that gives the pedicellaria an appearance of a flower when the jaws are open. We observed this membrane in an ionic liquid that does not require processes, such as fixation, dehydration, or coating with conductive materials, for observation with a scanning electron microscope...
February 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407071/amputation-versus-conservative-treatment-in-severe-open-lower-limb-fracture-a-functional-and-quality-of-life-study
#19
M Fioravanti, P Maman, G Curvale, A Rochwerger, J-C Mattei
INTRODUCTION: Severe lower-limb trauma is a major event in a patient's life, and treatment is a challenge that has not been sufficiently studied. The main objective of the present study was to assess the difference in disability between amputees and patients who kept their leg after severe open lower-limb fracture. HYPOTHESIS: The study hypothesis was that amputation allows better functional recovery and quality of life, in the same time-frame. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All male and female patients aged over 18 years admitted to one of the trauma centers of Marseille (France) for major lower-limb trauma with Gustilo IIIb or IIIc fracture were included...
April 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371470/learning-and-attention-reveal-a-general-relationship-between-population-activity-and-behavior
#20
A M Ni, D A Ruff, J J Alberts, J Symmonds, M R Cohen
Prior studies have demonstrated that correlated variability changes with cognitive processes that improve perceptual performance. We tested whether correlated variability covaries with subjects' performance-whether performance improves quickly with attention or slowly with perceptual learning. We found a single, consistent relationship between correlated variability and behavioral performance, regardless of the time frame of correlated variability change. This correlated variability was oriented along the dimensions in population space used by the animal on a trial-by-trial basis to make decisions...
January 26, 2018: Science
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