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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913216/spatiotopic-updating-across-saccades-revealed-by-spatially-specific-fmri-adaptation
#1
Scott L Fairhall, Jens Schwarzbach, Angelika Lingnau, Martijn Gerbrand Van Koningsbruggen, David Melcher
Brain representations of visual space are predominantly eye-centred (retinotopic) yet our experience of the world is largely world-centred (spatiotopic). A long-standing question is how the brain creates continuity between these reference frames across successive eye movements (saccades). Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address whether spatially specific repetition suppression (RS) is evident during trans-saccadic perception. We presented two successive Gabor patches (S1 and S2) in either the upper or lower visual field, left or right of fixation...
November 29, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#2
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#3
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895885/facing-the-spectator
#4
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Baingio Pinna, Robert Pepperell
We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to "face you" from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one-a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis-augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770165/beyond-deficit-or-compensation-new-insights-on-postural-control-after-long-term-total-visual-loss
#5
Maitê M Russo, Thiago Lemos, Luís A Imbiriba, Nathalia L Ribeiro, Claudia D Vargas
Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668892/belief-in-the-immutability-of-attitudes-both-increases-and-decreases-advocacy
#6
Omair Akhtar, S Christian Wheeler
People with an entity theory of attitudes (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively unchanging) are more certain of their attitudes than are people with an incremental theory (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively malleable), and people with greater attitude certainty are generally more willing to try to persuade others. Combined, these findings suggest that an entity theory should foster greater advocacy. Yet, people with entity theories may be less willing to advocate because they also perceive others' attitudes as unchanging...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666663/grassy-silica-nanoribbons-and-strong-blue-luminescence
#7
Shengping Wang, Shuang Xie, Guowei Huang, Hongxuan Guo, Yujin Cho, Jun Chen, Daisuke Fujita, Mingsheng Xu
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659919/synchrotron-imaging-of-dentition-provides-insights-into-the-biology-of-hesperornis-and-ichthyornis-the-last-toothed-birds
#8
Maïtena Dumont, Paul Tafforeau, Thomas Bertin, Bhart-Anjan Bhullar, Daniel Field, Anne Schulp, Brandon Strilisky, Béatrice Thivichon-Prince, Laurent Viriot, Antoine Louchart
BACKGROUND: The dentitions of extinct organisms can provide pivotal information regarding their phylogenetic position, as well as paleobiology, diet, development, and growth. Extant birds are edentulous (toothless), but their closest relatives among stem birds, the Cretaceous Hesperornithiformes and Ichthyornithiformes, retained teeth. Despite their significant phylogenetic position immediately outside the avian crown group, the dentitions of these taxa have never been studied in detail...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652165/integrating-climate-smart-rice-agriculture-into-secondary-level-curriculum-lessons-from-three-high-schools-in-the-philippines
#9
Jaime A Manalo, Katherine P Balmeo, Jayson C Berto, Fredierick M Saludez, Jennifer D Villaflor, Argie M Pagdanganan
Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649536/influence-of-the-perspectives-on-the-movement-of-one-leg-lifting-in-an-interactive-visual-virtual-environment-a-pilot-study
#10
Chien-Hua Huang, Chun Pei, Tien-Lung Sun
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have confirmed the feasibility of active video games for clinical rehabilitation. To maximize training effectiveness, a personal program is necessary; however, little evidence is available to guide individualized game design for rehabilitation. This study assessed the perspectives and kinematic and temporal parameters of a participant's postural control in an interactive-visual virtual environment. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy participants performed one-leg standing by leg lifting when a posture frame appeared either in a first- or third-person perspective of a virtual environment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621440/harnessing-adolescent-values-to-motivate-healthier-eating
#11
Christopher J Bryan, David S Yeager, Cintia P Hinojosa, Aimee Chabot, Holly Bergen, Mari Kawamura, Fred Steubing
What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601251/the-direction-of-the-postural-response-to-a-vestibular-perturbation-is-mediated-by-the-cerebellar-vermis
#12
Chris K Lam, Craig D Tokuno, W Richard Staines, Leah R Bent
When an electrical stimulus is applied to perturb the vestibular system, a postural response is generated orthogonal to head orientation. It has previously been shown that there is a convergence of neck proprioceptive and vestibular input within the cerebellum to provide a head-on-body reference frame (Manzoni et al. in Neuroscience 93:1095-1107, 1999). The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the direction of the postural response to a vestibular perturbation is modulated when function of the cerebellar vermis is temporarily depressed...
September 6, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594714/the-concept-of-familism-in-the-lived-experiences-of-mexican-origin-caregivers
#13
Carolyn A Mendez-Luck, Steven R Applewhite, Vicente E Lara, Noriko Toyokawa
This study qualitatively examined the experiences of Mexican-origin women caring for elderly family members in order to identify aspects of familism in their caregiving situations. Data were collected from onetime interviews with 44 caregivers living in the greater East Los Angeles area. Kinscripts guided the framing of familism in this study. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Caregivers' descriptions of the Mexican family reflected an idealized view of familism. Caregivers reported a lack of support from others and relying for support on fewer family members than were potentially available to them...
June 2016: Journal of Marriage and the Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578127/phenotypic-variability-in-4-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-siblings-compound-heterozygous-for-ldlr-mutations
#14
Claudio Rabacchi, Federico Bigazzi, Mariarita Puntoni, Francesco Sbrana, Tiziana Sampietro, Patrizia Tarugi, Stefano Bertolini, Sebastiano Calandra
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare clinical phenotype with a variable expression, which is characterized by extremely elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), tendon and skin xanthomas, and a progressive atherosclerosis. In 95% of patients, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is due to mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, which abolish (receptor-negative) or greatly reduce (receptor-defective) LDLR function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the molecular and phenotypic characterization of 4 siblings with severe hypercholesterolemia...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557808/the-role-of-visual-stimuli-on-standing-posture-in-children-with-bilateral-cerebral-palsy
#15
Cecilia Lidbeck, Åsa Bartonek, Priti Yadav, Kristina Tedroff, Per Åstrand, Kerstin Hellgren, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik
BACKGROUND: In children with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) maintaining a standing position can be difficult. The fundamental motor task of standing independently is achieved by an interaction between the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. In CP, the motor disorders are commonly accompanied by sensory and perceptual disturbances. Our aims were to examine the influence of visual stimuli on standing posture in relation to standing ability. METHODS: Three dimensional motion analysis with surface electromyography was recorded to describe body position, body movement, and muscle activity during three standing tasks: in a self-selected position, while blindfolded, and during an attention-demanding task...
August 24, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544922/identification-of-ankle-plantar-flexors-dynamics-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation
#16
Hossein Rouhani, Milos R Popovic, Michael Same, Ya Qi Li, Kei Masani
Modeling the muscle response to functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an essential step in the design of closed-loop controlled neuroprostheses. This study was aimed at identifying the dynamic response of ankle plantar-flexors to FES during quiet standing. Thirteen healthy subjects stood in a standing frame that locked the knee and hip joints. The ankle plantar-flexors were stimulated bilaterally through surface electrodes and the generated ankle torque was measured. The pulse amplitude was sinusoidally modulated at five different frequencies...
August 17, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535435/a-randomized-multicenter-trial-comparing-autologous-chondrocyte-implantation-with-microfracture-long-term-follow-up-at-14-to-15-years
#17
Gunnar Knutsen, Jon Olav Drogset, Lars Engebretsen, Torbjørn Grøntvedt, Tom C Ludvigsen, Sverre Løken, Eirik Solheim, Torbjørn Strand, Oddmund Johansen
BACKGROUND: The management of cartilage and osteochondral lesions in the knee remains problematic and controversial. Our group reported the 2-year and 5-year results of a randomized controlled trial comparing autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and microfracture in patients with focal femoral cartilage injuries. The objective of the present study was to report the long-term results. METHODS: Eighty patients with a single symptomatic chronic cartilage defect on the femoral condyle without general osteoarthritis were included in the study at the time of the index operation (January 1999 to February 2000)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509044/creating-a-more-diverse-midwifery-workforce-in-the-united-states-a-historical-reflection
#18
Katy Dawley, Linda V Walsh
INTRODUCTION: As nurse-midwifery practice expanded beyond areas surrounding early nurse-midwifery education programs, leaders in the profession wanted to establish a strong diverse, inclusive professional organization, a necessary step in creating a diverse workforce (defined here as open to nurse-midwives of all colors, ethnicities, and national origins) that would maintain standards, provide continuing education, and facilitate communication among nurse-midwives. This research presents historical context and organizational factors supporting and limiting development of a workforce reflective of communities served by nurse-midwives...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483265/fast-object-motion-estimation-based-on-dynamic-stixels
#19
Néstor Morales, Antonio Morell, Jonay Toledo, Leopoldo Acosta
The stixel world is a simplification of the world in which obstacles are represented as vertical instances, called stixels, standing on a surface assumed to be planar. In this paper, previous approaches for stixel tracking are extended using a two-level scheme. In the first level, stixels are tracked by matching them between frames using a bipartite graph in which edges represent a matching cost function. Then, stixels are clustered into sets representing objects in the environment. These objects are matched based on the number of stixels paired inside them...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474248/-epidemiological-surveillance-of-syphilis-in-the-city-of-valencia-impact-and-evolution-of-the-period-2003-2014
#20
Ana Pagà Casanova, Rosana Guaita Calatrava, Laura Soriano Llinares, Ana Miguez Santiyán, Antonio Salazar Cifre
UNLABELLED: In Spain syphilis shows an increasing trend from last decade and multiple papers reported an increasing of exposed population. Our aim was to describe the evolution of the incident of the syphilis in the geographical frame of the city of Valencia, to identify the characteristics and practices of risk of the affected ones. A classic design of vigilance of public health was applied, longitudinal retrospective study. Geographical area: the city of Valencia. PERIOD: January 2003-December 2014...
July 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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