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Siyabulela S B N Ntuli, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, David R Katerere
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br is endemic to Southern Africa where it has been traditionally used for cancer and diabetes. In recent times it has been marketed for its reputed (but not proven) anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-HIV properties. Little is known about the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential of extracts and common marker compounds of Sutherlandia frutescens. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the putative efficacy and possible long-term adverse effects of using this herb...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ileana-Andreea Ratiu, Hossam Al-Suod, Magdalena Ligor, Tomasz Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, amongst the most important are the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, flavoring and coloring agents. In this study we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Carmen Lambert, Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Gemma Vilahur, Sergi López-Bernal, Milagros Rocha, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Lina Badimon
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events. The ingestion of high-glycemic index (GI) diets, specially sweetened beverage consumption, has been associated with the development of T2DM and CV disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of the intake of a sweetened beverage, obtained from natural carbohydrates containing pinitol (PEB) compared to a sucrose-enriched beverage (SEB) in the context of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Eun Sil Koh, Soojeong Kim, Minyoung Kim, Yu Ah Hong, Seok Joon Shin, Cheol Whee Park, Yoon Sik Chang, Sungjin Chung, Ho-Shik Kim
Although the mechanism of cyclosporine A (CsA)‑induced renal injury remains to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress is critical in producing CsA‑induced structural and functional renal impairment. The present study investigated the effect of D‑pinitol, a cyclitol present in soybean, on chronic CsA nephropathy. Male ICR mice were treated with vehicle, CsA (30 mg/kg/day), D‑pinitol (50 mg/kg/day) or a combination of CsA and D‑pinitol for 28 days. To assess which pathway responding to oxidative stress is augmented by D‑pinitol, the expression levels of several antioxidant enzymes and their possible regulators were measured...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Zi-Chen Wu, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Jie-Tang Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Xu-Ming Huang, Hui-Cong Wang
Although methylated cyclitols constitute a major proportion of the carbohydrates in many plant species, their physiological roles and biosynthetic pathway were largely unknown. Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) is one of the major methylated cyclitols in some plant species. In litchi, quebrachitol represents around 50% soluble sugars in mature leaves and 40% of the total sugars in phloem exudation. In the present study, we identified bornesitol as a transient methylated intermediate of quebrachitol and measured the concentrations of methyl-inositols in different tissues and in tissues subjected to different treatments...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sandra López-Domènech, Celia Bañuls, Aranzazu M de Marañón, Zaida Abab-Jiménez, Carlos Morillas, Segundo Ángel Gómez-Abril, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Víctor Manuel Víctor, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Milagros Rocha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is known that pinitol acts as a mediator of the insulin-signaling pathway, though little is known about its anti-inflammatory effect in human obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of pinitol on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT), focusing on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). METHODS: In the intervention study, thirteen obese subjects consumed a pinitol-enriched beverage (PEB) for 12 weeks...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo
BACKGROUND: Defense and protection to multiple harmful stimuli are the inflammation, when is self-amplified and uncontrolled is the basis of the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if Petiveria alliacea could attenuate inflammation in a murine model of RAW264 macrophages the involved model and its involved mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract from P. alliacea was precipitated with water and supernatant was used for this study (PW)...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Fangyuan Zhou, Letian Xu, Shanshan Wang, Bo Wang, Qiaozhe Lou, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Interactions among microbial symbionts have multiple roles in the maintenance of insect-microbe symbiosis. However, signals mediating microbial interactions have been scarcely studied. In the classical model system of bark beetles and fungal associates, fungi increase the fitness of insects. However, not all interactions are mutualistic, some of these fungal symbionts compete for sugars with beetle larvae. How this antagonistic effect is alleviated is unknown, and recent research suggests potential roles of bacterial symbionts...
December 2017: ISME Journal
Linda H Münger, Alessia Trimigno, Gianfranco Picone, Carola Freiburghaus, Grégory Pimentel, Kathryn J Burton, François P Pralong, Nathalie Vionnet, Francesco Capozzi, René Badertscher, Guy Vergères
The measurement of food intake biomarkers (FIBs) in biofluids represents an objective tool for dietary assessment. FIBs of milk and cheese still need more investigation due to the absence of candidate markers. Thus, an acute intervention study has been performed to sensitively and specifically identify candidate FIBs. Eleven healthy male and female volunteers participated in the randomized, controlled crossover study that tested a single intake of milk and cheese as test products, and soy-based drink as a control...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Anisa Ghogar, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Bougainvillea spectabilis (Family: Nyctaginaceae), commonly referred to as Great Bougainvillea or Paper Flower, is one of the traditional medicinal plants with potential antifertility activity. The aqueous extract and decoction of this plant have been used as fertility control among the tribal people in many countries. Furthermore, it has been shown to possess anticancer, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, oxalates, phenolics, phlobotannins, quinones, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids were reported as the basis of its efficacious therapeutic properties...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Kewen Zheng, Zhixuan Zhao, Na Lin, Yiyan Wu, Ying Xu, Wanli Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of the current study was to explore the anti-arthritic effect of pinitol via assessing its effect on various inflammatory mediators and its possible mechanism of action. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed the anti-arthritic effect of pinitol in a formaldehyde- and CFA-induced arthritic model in Wistar Swiss albino strain rats divided into 6 groups. The rats received different doses of pinitol and indomethacin for 28 days. The arthritic index and body weight were determined at regular intervals, together with hepatic, hematological, and antioxidant parameters...
April 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Viviam de Oliveira Silva, Luciano José Pereira, Ramiro Mendonça Murata
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-glucan on the expression of inflammatory mediators and metabolomic profile of oral cells [keratinocytes (OBA-9) and fibroblasts (HGF-1) in a dual-chamber model] infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The periodontopathogen was applied and allowed to cross the top layer of cells (OBA-9) to reach the bottom layer of cells (HGF-1) and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. β-glucan (10 μg/mL or 20 μg/mL) were added, and the transcriptional factors and metabolites produced were quantified in the remaining cell layers and supernatant...
March 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Shin-Ya Mukae, Toshiki Ohashi, Yuika Matsumoto, Shinji Ohta, Hisashi Ômura
The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Celia Bañuls, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Sandra López-Doménech, Silvia Veses, Víctor M Víctor, Milagros Rocha, Antonio Hernández-Mijares
This study assessed the effects of an inositol-enriched beverage (IEB) on blood glucose levels and inflammation status in subjects with an impaired fasting glucose (IFG) state according to body mass index (BMI). This was a 12 week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial employing forty-four IFG subjects (fasting glucose levels 100-125 mg dl(-1)) that were divided into two intervention groups: one receiving a IEB (n = 24) containing mainly pinitol (2.0 g twice a day), and the other a sweetened beverage based on sucrose (SB; n = 20)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Chihang Cheng, Letian Xu, Dandan Xu, Qiaozhe Lou, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Microbial symbionts are known to assist exotic pests in their colonization of new host plants. However, there has been little evidence linking symbiotic invasion success to mechanisms for mitigation of native plant resistance. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) was introduced with a fungus, Leptographium procerum, to China from the United States and became a destructively invasive symbiotic complex in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests. Here, we report that three Chinese-resident fungi, newly acquired by RTB in China, induce high levels of a phenolic defensive chemical, naringenin, in pines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Guangli Xu, Shardendu Singh, Jinyoung Barnaby, Jeffrey Buyer, Vangimalla Reddy, Richard Sicher
Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol(-1) CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity...
November 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Amira Labed, Maria Ferhat, Ilhem Labed-Zouad, Erhan Kaplaner, Sakina Zerizer, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Zahia Semra, Ahmed Kabouche, Zahia Kabouche, Mehmet Öztürk
CONTEXT: The phytochemical study and biological activities of Astragalus armatus Willd. subsp. numidicus (Fabaceae) pods, an endemic shrub of Maghreb, are reported. OBJECTIVE: This study isolates the secondary metabolites and determines the bioactivities of Astragalus armatus pods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of hydro-ethanolic extracts were studied. Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous chelating assays at concentrations ranging from 3 to 200 μg/mL...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Dae-Yong Yun, Young-Gyu Kang, Bohyun Yun, Eun-Hee Kim, Myoyeon Kim, Jun Seong Park, John Hwan Lee, Young-Shick Hong
Soybeans are an important crop for agriculture and food, resulting in an increase in the range of its application. Recently, soybean leaves have been used not only for food products but also in the beauty industry. To provide useful and global metabolite information on the development of soy-based products, we investigated the metabolic evolution and cultivar-dependent metabolite variation in the leaves of cultivated (Glycine max) and semiwild (G. gracilis) soybean, through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach, as they grew from V (vegetative) 1 to R (reproductive) 7 growth stages...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anna Lintunen, Teemu Paljakka, Tuula Jyske, Mikko Peltoniemi, Frank Sterck, Georg von Arx, Hervé Cochard, Paul Copini, Maria C Caldeira, Sylvain Delzon, Roman Gebauer, Leila Grönlund, Natasa Kiorapostolou, Silvia Lechthaler, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Richard L Peters, Giai Petit, Angela L Prendin, Yann Salmon, Kathy Steppe, Josef Urban, Sílvia Roig Juan, Elisabeth M R Robert, Teemu Hölttä
Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
K M Maria John, Savithiry Natarajan, Devanand L Luthria
Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
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