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Shin-Ya Mukae, Toshiki Ohashi, Yuika Matsumoto, Shinji Ohta, Hisashi Ômura
The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Celia Bañuls, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Sandra López-Doménech, Silvia Veses, Víctor M Víctor, Milagros Rocha, Antonio Hernández-Mijares
This study assessed the effects of an inositol-enriched beverage (IEB) on blood glucose levels and inflammation status in subjects with an impaired fasting glucose (IFG) state according to body mass index (BMI). This was a 12 week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial employing forty-four IFG subjects (fasting glucose levels 100-125 mg dl(-1)) that were divided into two intervention groups: one receiving a IEB (n = 24) containing mainly pinitol (2.0 g twice a day), and the other a sweetened beverage based on sucrose (SB; n = 20)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Chihang Cheng, Letian Xu, Dandan Xu, Qiaozhe Lou, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Microbial symbionts are known to assist exotic pests in their colonization of new host plants. However, there has been little evidence linking symbiotic invasion success to mechanisms for mitigation of native plant resistance. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) was introduced with a fungus, Leptographium procerum, to China from the United States and became a destructively invasive symbiotic complex in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests. Here, we report that three Chinese-resident fungi, newly acquired by RTB in China, induce high levels of a phenolic defensive chemical, naringenin, in pines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Guangli Xu, Shardendu Singh, Jinyoung Barnaby, Jeffrey Buyer, Vangimalla Reddy, Richard Sicher
Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol(-1) CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity...
November 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Amira Labed, Maria Ferhat, Ilhem Labed-Zouad, Erhan Kaplaner, Sakina Zerizer, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Zahia Semra, Ahmed Kabouche, Zahia Kabouche, Mehmet Öztürk
CONTEXT: The phytochemical study and biological activities of Astragalus armatus Willd. subsp. numidicus (Fabaceae) pods, an endemic shrub of Maghreb, are reported. OBJECTIVE: This study isolates the secondary metabolites and determines the bioactivities of Astragalus armatus pods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of hydro-ethanolic extracts were studied. Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous chelating assays at concentrations ranging from 3 to 200 μg/mL...
December 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Dae-Yong Yun, Young-Gyu Kang, Bohyun Yun, Eun-Hee Kim, Myoyeon Kim, Jun Seong Park, John Hwan Lee, Young-Shick Hong
Soybeans are an important crop for agriculture and food, resulting in an increase in the range of its application. Recently, soybean leaves have been used not only for food products but also in the beauty industry. To provide useful and global metabolite information on the development of soy-based products, we investigated the metabolic evolution and cultivar-dependent metabolite variation in the leaves of cultivated (Glycine max) and semiwild (G. gracilis) soybean, through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach, as they grew from V (vegetative) 1 to R (reproductive) 7 growth stages...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anna Lintunen, Teemu Paljakka, Tuula Jyske, Mikko Peltoniemi, Frank Sterck, Georg von Arx, Hervé Cochard, Paul Copini, Maria C Caldeira, Sylvain Delzon, Roman Gebauer, Leila Grönlund, Natasa Kiorapostolou, Silvia Lechthaler, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Richard L Peters, Giai Petit, Angela L Prendin, Yann Salmon, Kathy Steppe, Josef Urban, Sílvia Roig Juan, Elisabeth M R Robert, Teemu Hölttä
Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
K M Maria John, Savithiry Natarajan, Devanand L Luthria
Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Nuria H González-Mauraza, Antonio J León-González, José L Espartero, Juan B Gallego-Fernández, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Carmen Martin-Cordero
The genus Retama (Fabaceae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol), an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic molecule, was isolated from aerial parts of R. monosperma, and its structure established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1D/2D NMR) and MS. Identification and quantification of pinitol in R. raetam and R. sphaerocarpa were also performed. R. monosperma had the highest concentration of pinitol (2.3%). The presence of pinitol in aqueous extracts of Retama spp...
March 2016: Natural Product Communications
Paul Waltz, Evie Carchman, Hernando Gomez, Brian Zuckerbraun
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains a major health-care burden and source of morbidity and mortality. Acute kidney injury and failure frequently accompanies severe sepsis and contributes to this burden. Despite a great deal of research, the exact mechanisms underlying renal failure in sepsis are poorly understood. This study aims to further understand metabolic changes in renal tissue during sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6 mice...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Lukáš Hudec, Hana Konrádová, Anna Hašková, Helena Lipavská
Two unrelated, geographically distinct, highly embryogenic lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were analysed to identify metabolic traits characteristic for lines with good yields of high-quality embryos. The results were compared with corresponding characteristics of a poorly productive line (low embryo yield, scarce high-quality embryos). The following carbohydrate profiles and spectra during maturation, desiccation and germination were identified as promising characteristics for line evaluation: a gradual decrease in total soluble carbohydrates with an increasing sucrose : hexose ratio during maturation; accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides resulting from desiccation and their rapid degradation at the start of germination; and a decrease in sucrose, increase in hexoses and the appearance of pinitol with proceeding germination...
May 2016: Tree Physiology
Annie Deslauriers, Jian-Guo Huang, Lorena Balducci, Marilène Beaulieu, Sergio Rossi
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) play a crucial role in xylem formation and represent, with water, the main constraint to plant growth. We assessed the relationships between xylogenesis and NSCs in order to (1) verify the variance explained by NSCs and (2) determine the influence of intrinsic (tissue supplying carbon) and extrinsic (water availability and temperature) factors. During 2 years, wood formation was monitored in saplings of black spruce (Picea mariana) subjected to a dry period of about 1 month in June and exposed to different temperature treatments in a greenhouse...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Fangyuan Zhou, Qiaozhe Lou, Bo Wang, Letian Xu, Chihang Cheng, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Insect-microbe interaction is a key area of research in multiplayer symbiosis, yet little is known about the role of microbe-microbe interactions in insect-microbe symbioses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) has destroyed millions of healthy pines in China and forms context-dependent relationships with associated fungi. The adult-associated fungus Leptographium procerum have played key roles in RTB colonization. However, common fungal associates (L. procerum and Ophiostoma minus) with RTB larvae compete for carbohydrates...
February 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chunsriimyatav Ganbaatar, Margit Gruner, Jigjidsuren Tunsag, Dulamjav Batsuren, Batsuren Ganpurev, Lkhamjav Chuluunnyam, Batsuren Sodbayar, Arndt W Schmidt, Hans-Joachim Knölker
We report the first investigation of the chemical constituents of Zygophyllum melongena Bunge, a species growing in Mongolia. The quinovic acid glycosides 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid (28→1)-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester were identified in the chloroform fraction along with the flavonoid glycoside astragalin. The n-butanol fraction contained (+)-D-pinitol as the major component, a cyclitol with anti-diabetic properties. The structures of the isolated natural products were confirmed using ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and ROESY)...
July 2016: Natural Product Research
Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Natarajan Nandakumar, Boobathy Lokeshkumar, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy Balasubramanian
The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective activity of D-Pinitol against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into six groups, with each group consisting of six animals. Group I animals served as normal controls and received olive oil vehicle (1.0 ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally). Group II rats served as CCl4 controls, which received 30% CCl4 suspended in olive oil (3.0 ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally) twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III rats were treated with 30% CCl4 suspended in olive oil (3...
2015: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Furkan Ahmad, Laxminarain Misra, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Mahendra Pandurang Darokar, Om Prakash, Feroz Khan, Rakesh Shukla
Saraca asoca bark has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for female urino-genital disorders. We have recently reported the isolation and characterization of several compounds as markers to develop HPLC profiling of its methanol and aqueous methanol extracts. Now, a HPLC-PDA inactive compound, (+)-pinitol has been isolated and characterized from the bark of this medicinally important tree. Pinitol is a well known bioactive compound for a variety of biological activities, including hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities...
2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Riadh Drira, Taku Matsumoto, Masashi Agawa, Kazuichi Sakamoto
The antiobesity effect of ice plant (IP) (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a salt-resistant African plant, has recently attracted increased attention. IP is rich in pinitol, which lowers blood sugar, and myo-inositol, which prevents fatty liver disease. Furthermore, IP can potentially prevent or reduce the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. However, the details of the physiological mechanisms and mechanisms of action of IP are unclear. A previous study by our group demonstrated the capability of IP extract to prevent adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
March 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Prachi Srivastava, Anshul Tiwari
Ocular biology is a prominent area of research and advancement, as eyes are the most precious for us to see this beautiful world. Though we have overcome many ocular problems, but still challenges, no doubt exist in the path of the journey. Many ocular disorders still either have surgery or symptomatic drugs as a treatment. If we could get a better preventive way or single drug with many and more potential effects, will definitely be a boon for our society. Keeping the way we tried to focus on the impending effects of phytochemicals on some important ocular disorders...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Asha Kumari, Paromita Das, Asish Kumar Parida, Pradeep K Agarwal
Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ewa Gojło, Piotr Pupel, Lesław B Lahuta, Paweł Podliński, Magdalena Kucewicz, Ryszard J Górecki
Galactinol is the galactosyl donor for the biosynthesis of both the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C). Its synthesis by galactinol synthase (GolS, EC is the first committed step of the soluble α-D-galactosides biosynthetic pathway in orthodox seeds. The deposition of galactosides in seeds is suggested to be associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). In this work, for the first time, we cloned and characterized two Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray galactinol synthase genes (VhGolS1, VhGolS2), analyzed galactinol synthase activity and measured the accumulation of galactosides of both sucrose and D-pinitol in relation to the acquisition of DT in developing seeds of this wild species...
July 20, 2015: Journal of Plant Physiology
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