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Microbiota inflammatory bowel disease

Kai Wang, Qinqin Yang, Quanxin Ma, Bei Wang, Zhengrui Wan, Minli Chen, Liming Wu
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for one week. SAA in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day was given by tail vein injection during DSS administration. Both dosages of SAA ameliorated the colitis symptoms, with decreases observed in the disease activity index. A high dosage of SAA (8 mg/kg/day) promoted a longer colon length and an improved colonic tissue structure, compared with the DSS-treated rats not receiving SAA...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
Ekaterina Smirnova, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Farhad Jafari
The human microbiota composition is associated with a number of diseases including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and bacterial vaginosis. Thus, microbiome research has the potential to reshape clinical and therapeutic approaches. However, raw microbiome count data require careful pre-processing steps that take into account both the sparsity of counts and the large number of taxa that are being measured. Filtering is defined as removing taxa that are present in a small number of samples and have small counts in the samples where they are observed...
June 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Elena Layunta, Eva Latorre, Raquel Forcén, Laura Grasa, Marta Castro, Maykel A Arias, Ana I Alcalde, José Emilio Mesonero
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serotonin (5-HT) is a chief modulator of intestinal activity. The effects of 5-HT depend on its extracellular availability, which is mainly controlled by serotonin transporter (SERT), expressed in enterocytes. On the other hand, innate immunity, mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), is known to control intestinal microbiota and maintain intestinal homeostasis. The dysregulation of the intestinal serotonergic system and innate immunity has been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the incidence of which has severely increased all over the world...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Zhe Xun, Qian Zhang, Tao Xu, Ning Chen, Feng Chen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, relapsing disorders of unclear etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. Aberrant interactions between the human microbiota and immune system in genetically susceptible populations underlie IBD pathogenesis. Despite extensive studies examining the involvement of the gut microbiota in IBD using culture-independent techniques, information is lacking regarding other human microbiome components relevant to IBD. Since accumulated knowledge has underscored the role of the oral microbiota in various systemic diseases, we hypothesized that dissonant oral microbial structure, composition, and function, and different community ecotypes are associated with IBD; and we explored potentially available oral indicators for predicting diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wei-Ting Lee, Yu-Tang Tung, Chun-Ching Wu, Pang-Shuo Tu, Gow-Chin Yen
Ulcerative colitis (UC), one type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As camellia oil (CO) is traditionally used to treat GI disorders, this study investigated the role of CO on acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. The composition of the gut microbial community is related to many diseases, thus, this study also investigated the effects of CO on the composition of the gut microbiota. The rats were fed a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight CO, olive oil (OO), or soybean oil (SO) once a day for 20 days, and the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chiara Saroli Palumbo, Sophie Restellini, Che-Yung Chao, Achuthan Aruljothy, Carolyne Lemieux, Gary Wild, Waqqas Afif, Peter L Lakatos, Alain Bitton, Sila Cocciolillo, Peter Ghali, Talat Bessissow, Giada Sebastiani
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to chronic inflammation, hepatotoxic drugs, and alteration of the gut microbiota. Prospective data using accurate diagnostic methods are lacking. Methods: We prospectively investigated prevalence and predictors of NAFLD and liver fibrosis by transient elastography (TE) with associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in IBD patients as part of a routine screening program...
June 7, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Antonio Tursi
Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition, and about one fourth of those people develop symptoms, which is called "diverticular disease" (DD). Since there are still some concerns about the diagnosis of diverticular disease, the aim of this review was to analyse current and evolving advances in its diagnosis. Area covered: Analysis of clinical, radiology, laboratory and endoscopic tools to pose a correct diagnosis of DD was performed according to current PubMed literature. Expert commentary: A combination of clinical characteristic of the abdominal pain and fecal calprotectin expression may help to differentiate between Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease (SUDD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)...
June 9, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies, i.e., the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gut microbiota play key roles in the modulation of host metabolism and gene expression, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and mediation of inflammatory and immunity. Hence, the normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention...
June 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Javier Roig, Maria L Saiz, Alicia Galiano, Maria Trelis, Fernando Cantalapiedra, Carlos Monteagudo, Elisa Giner, Rosa M Giner, M C Recio, Dolores Bernal, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Antonio Marcilla
The complexity of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) has led to the quest of empirically drug therapies, combining immunosuppressant agents, biological therapy and modulators of the microbiota. Helminth parasites have been proposed as an alternative treatment of these diseases based on the hygiene hypothesis, but ethical and medical problems arise. Recent reports have proved the utility of parasite materials, mainly excretory/secretory products as therapeutic agents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer Aa DeLuca, Kimberly F Allred, Rani Menon, Rebekah Riordan, Brad R Weeks, Arul Jayaraman, Clinton D Allred
Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex collection of disorders. Microbial dysbiosis as well as exposure to toxins including xenoestrogens are thought to be risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease development and relapse. Bisphenol-A has been shown to exert estrogenic activity in the colon and alter intestinal function, but the role that xenoestrogens, such as bisphenol-A , play in colonic inflammation has been previously described but with conflicting results. We investigated the ability of bisphenol-A to exacerbate colonic inflammation and alter microbiota metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids in an acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis model...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Juliana E Bajic, Ian N Johnston, Gordon S Howarth, Mark R Hutchinson
The central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract form the primary targets of chemotherapy-induced toxicities. Symptoms associated with damage to these regions have been clinically termed chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment and mucositis. Whilst extensive literature outlines the complex etiology of each pathology, to date neither chemotherapy-induced side-effect has considered the potential impact of one on the pathogenesis of the other disorder. This is surprising considering the close bidirectional relationship shared between each organ; the gut-brain axis...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shaaz Fareed, Neha Sarode, Frank J Stewart, Aneeq Malik, Elham Laghaie, Saadia Khizer, Fengxia Yan, Zoe Pratte, Jeffery Lewis, Lilly Cheng Immergluck
Background: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is an innovative means of treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), through restoration of gut floral balance. However, there is a lack of data concerning the efficacy of FMT and its impact on the gut microbiome among pediatric patients. This study analyzes clinical outcomes and microbial community composition among 15 pediatric patients treated for rCDI via FMT. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, pilot study of 15 children ≤18 years, who presented for rCDI and who met inclusion criteria for FMT at a pediatric hospital and pediatric gastroenterology clinic...
2018: PeerJ
Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, José Garrido-Mesa, Teresa Vezza, Maria P Utrilla, Natalia Chueca, Jose A Fernández-Caballero, Federico García, Maria E Rodríguez-Cabezas, Julio Gálvez
The beneficial effects of probiotics on immune-based pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been well reported. However, their exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Few studies have focused on the impact of probiotics on the composition of the colonic microbiota. The aim of the present study was to correlate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis with the changes induced in colonic microbiota populations...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jiezhong Chen, Luis Vitetta
The intestinal microbiota plays key roles in human health, and adverse dysbiosis shifts of the microbiota have been associated with chronic diseases, including large bowel cancer. High-fiber diets may reduce the risk for large bowel cancer in association with gut microbiota modulation and butyrate production. Butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases and associated signaling pathways in cultured cancer cells, promoting cancer cell apoptosis. However, butyrate has prevented colon cancer through the regulation of immune homeostasis rather than histone deacetylases inhibition...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
S Lee, K Drennan, G Simons, A Hepple, K Karlsson, W Lowman, P C Gaylard, L McNamara, J Fabian
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is a potentially life-threatening condition that is becoming increasingly common. A persistent burden of this infectious illness has been demonstrated over the past 4 years at Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC), Johannesburg, South Africa, through implementation of active surveillance of hospital-acquired infections as part of the infection prevention and control programme. Oral treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin is recommended, but there is a major problem with symptomatic recurrence after treatment...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ashleigh Goethel, Kenneth Croitoru, Dana J Philpott
The etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear but involves a complex interplay between genetic risk, environmental exposures, the immune system and the gut microbiota. Nearly two decades ago, the first susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease, NOD2, was identified within the IBD 1 locus. Since then, over 230 genetic risk loci have been associated with IBD and yet NOD2 remains the strongest association to date. As an intracellular innate immune sensor of bacteria, investigations into host-microbe interactions, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, have become of particular interest in understanding the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Audrey Y Coqueiro, Raquel Raizel, Andrea Bonvini, Julio Tirapegui, Marcelo M Rogero
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) encompass ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis (IC), characterising chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, associated with changes in the immune system and in the intestinal microbiota. Thus, probiotics may offer an alternative or adjuvant approach to conventional therapy. The present review aims to summarise the mechanisms of action of probiotics in IBD and their therapeutic effects. Most of the studies suggest that probiotics are effective in the treatment of UC, especially when several strains are concomitantly administered...
May 28, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Seong Ran Jeon, Jocelyn Chai, Christiana Kim, Christine H Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review examines current evidence around the efficacy and safety of FMT for patients with IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have suggested that FMT may facilitate clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the evidence for FMT in Crohn's disease (CD) is more limited, positive outcomes have been observed in small cohort studies...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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