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Microbiota inflammatory bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053971/a-gut-microbial-mimic-that-hijacks-diabetogenic-autoreactivity-to-suppress-colitis
#1
Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Francesca Ronchi, Jinguo Wang, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Jun Yamanouchi, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Yang Yang, Jesús Blanco, Helena Bassolas-Molina, Azucena Salas, Hamza Khan, Robyn M Slattery, Madeleine Wyss, Catherine Mooser, Andrew J Macpherson, Laura K Sycuro, Pau Serra, Derek M McKay, Kathy D McCoy, Pere Santamaria
The gut microbiota contributes to the development of normal immunity but, when dysregulated, can promote autoimmunity through various non-antigen-specific effects on pathogenic and regulatory lymphocytes. Here, we show that an integrase expressed by several species of the gut microbial genus Bacteroides encodes a low-avidity mimotope of the pancreatic β cell autoantigen islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase-catalytic-subunit-related protein (IGRP206-214). Studies in germ-free mice monocolonized with integrase-competent, integrase-deficient, and integrase-transgenic Bacteroides demonstrate that the microbial epitope promotes the recruitment of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells to the gut...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051760/interplay-of-gtpases-and-cytoskeleton-in-cellular-barrier-defects-during-gut-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Rocío López-Posadas, Michael Stürzl, Imke Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent
An essential role of the intestine is to build and maintain a barrier preventing the luminal gut microbiota from invading the host. This involves two coordinated physical and immunological barriers formed by single layers of intestinal epithelial and endothelial cells, which avoid the activation of local immune responses or the systemic dissemination of microbial agents, and preserve tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, alterations of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions have been associated with gut inflammation, for example during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051379/ectopic-colonization-of-oral-bacteria-in-the-intestine-drives-th1-cell-induction-and-inflammation
#3
Koji Atarashi, Wataru Suda, Chengwei Luo, Takaaki Kawaguchi, Iori Motoo, Seiko Narushima, Yuya Kiguchi, Keiko Yasuma, Eiichiro Watanabe, Takeshi Tanoue, Christoph A Thaiss, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Heba S Said, Hirokazu Yamagami, Scott A Rice, Dirk Gevers, Ryan C Johnson, Julia A Segre, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls, Eran Elinav, Hidetoshi Morita, Ramnik J Xavier, Masahira Hattori, Kenya Honda
Intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been correlated with several negative health outcomes, including inflammatory bowel disease. However, a causal role of oral bacteria ectopically colonizing the intestine remains unclear. Using gnotobiotic techniques, we show that strains of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the salivary microbiota are strong inducers of T helper 1 (TH1) cells when they colonize in the gut. These Klebsiella strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, tend to colonize when the intestinal microbiota is dysbiotic, and elicit a severe gut inflammation in the context of a genetically susceptible host...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049404/low-complexity-microbiota-in-the-duodenum-of-children-with-newly-diagnosed-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Barkman, Intawat Nookaew, Sofia Östman, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Robert Saalman, Agnes E Wold
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by gut dysbiosis. To date, the large bowel microbiota has been in focus. However, the microbiota of the small intestine may also be of importance, as the small bowel is a site for the induction and control of mucosal immune responses, which can be modulated by constituents of the local microbiota. METHODS: Duodenal fluids were collected during diagnostic work-up of treatment-naïve children who were suspected of having IBD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047231/alterations-in-gut-microbiota-and-immunity-by-dietary-fat
#5
REVIEW
Bo Gie Yang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung Shik Lee
Gut microbiota play critical physiological roles in energy extraction from the intestine and in the control of systemic immunity, as well as local intestinal immunity. Disturbance of gut microbiota leads to the development of several diseases, such as colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, etc. From a metabolic point of view, the gut is a large metabolic organ and one of the first to come into contact with dietary fats. Interestingly, excessive dietary fat has been incriminated as a primary culprit of metabolic syndrome and obesity...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046031/-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-role-in-immune-response-regulation
#6
Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez, David Cruz-Zárate, Iris Estrada-García, Isabel Wong-Baeza
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#7
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032748/mechanistic-understanding-of-herbal-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Luqing Zhao, Shengsheng Zhang, Peijian He
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which comprise ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are increasing dramatically worldwide. Immunomodulators and biological agents can help but cause severe side effects in long-term use. As such, complementary and alternative medicine, in particular herbal remedy, is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of IBD patients. Many natural compounds have been used in clinical trials and some have been proven promising in IBD treatment...
October 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031501/dna-methylation-and-transcription-patterns-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-from-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-differentiate-disease-subtypes-and-associate-with-outcome
#9
K J Howell, J Kraiczy, K M Nayak, M Gasparetto, A Ross, C Lee, T N Mak, B-K Koo, N Kumar, T Lawley, A Sinha, P Rosenstiel, R Heuschkel, O Stegle, M Zilbauer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of primary intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of children newly diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) to learn more about pathogenesis. METHODS: We obtained mucosal biopsies (n=236) collected from terminal ileum and ascending and sigmoid colons of children (median age=13) newly diagnosed with IBD (43 with Crohn's disease [CD], 23 with ulcerative colitis [UC]), and 30 children without IBD (controls)...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030987/nod1-downregulates-intestinal-serotonin-transporter-and-interacts-with-other-pattern-recognition-receptors
#10
Elena Layunta, Eva Latorre, Raquel Forcén, Laura Grasa, Miguel Ángel Plaza, Maykel Arias, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Serotonin (5-HT) is an essential gastrointestinal modulator whose effects regulate the intestinal physiology. 5-HT effects depend on extracellular 5-HT bioavailability, which is controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT) expressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes. SERT is a critical target for regulating 5-HT levels and consequently, modulating the intestinal physiology. The deregulation of innate immune receptors has been extensively studied in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where an exacerbated defense response to commensal microbiota is observed...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021788/micrornas-based-inter-domain-communication-between-the-host-and-members-of-the-gut-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
The gut microbiome is an important modulator of host gene expression, impacting important functions such as the innate immune response. Recent evidence suggests that the inter-domain communication between the gut microbiome and host may in part occur via microRNAs (small, non-coding RNA molecules) which are often differentially expressed in the presence of bacteria and can even be released and taken up by bacteria. The role of microRNAs in microbiome-host communication in intestinal diseases is not fully understood, particularly in diseases impacted by exposure to environmental toxicants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019858/epicutaneous-tolerance-induction-to-a-bystander-antigen-abrogates-colitis-and-ileitis-in-mice
#12
David Dunkin, M Cecilia Berin, Lucie Mondoulet, Steven Tobar, Garabet Yeretssian, Leticia Tordesillas, Alina Iuga, Thibaut Larcher, Virginia Guillespie, Pierre-Henri Benhamou, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Hugh A Sampson
BACKGROUND: Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a failure in maintaining tolerance to the intestinal microbiota, few studies have investigated the use of immunologic tolerance as a treatment approach for IBD. We hypothesized that induction of immune tolerance at a distal site could suppress intestinal inflammation through a process of bystander regulation. METHODS: Epicutaneous tolerance was induced by topical application of ovalbumin (OVA) using a Viaskin patch for 48 hours...
November 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018451/in-the-wnt-of-paneth-cells-immune-epithelial-crosstalk-in-small-intestinal-crohn-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Nicole S Armbruster, Eduard F Stange, Jan Wehkamp
Paneth cells, specialized secretory epithelial cells of the small intestine, play a pivotal role in host defense and regulation of microbiota by producing antimicrobial peptides especially-but not only-the human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6. In small intestinal Crohn's disease (CD) which is an entity of inflammatory bowel diseases, the expression of HD5 and HD6 is specifically compromised leading to a disturbed barrier and change in the microbial community. Different genetically driven but also non-genetic defects associated with small intestinal CD affect different lines of antimicrobial Paneth cell functions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993566/fecal-microbiome-in-dogs-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-intestinal-lymphoma
#14
Marie Omori, Shingo Maeda, Hirotaka Igarashi, Koichi Ohno, Kosei Sakai, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Ayako Horigome, Toshitaka Odamaki, Naoaki Matsuki
Although alteration of commensal microbiota is associated with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs, the microbiota composition in intestinal lymphoma, an important differential diagnosis of canine IBD, has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota in dogs with IBD, dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and healthy dogs. Eight dogs with IBD, eight dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and fifteen healthy dogs were included in the study...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990509/potential-of-plant-sourced-phenols-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Hai-Tao Xiao, Bo Wen, Xiang-Chun Shen, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an uncontrolled chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder, which requires medications for long-term therapy. Facing the challenges of severe side effects and drug resistance of conventional medications, to develop the strategies meet the stringent safety and effectiveness in the long-term treatment are urgent in the clinics. In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms plant-sourced phenols, such as flavonoids, catechins, stilbenes, coumarins, quinones, lignans, phenylethanoids, cannabinoid phenols, tannins, phenolic acids and hydroxyphenols, exert potent protective benefits with fewer undesirable effects in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through improvement of colonic oxidative and pro-inflammatory status, preservation of the epithelial barrier function and modulation of gut microbiota...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988727/the-mycobiome-role-in-health-and-disease-and-as-a-potential-probiotic-target-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#16
REVIEW
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of microorganisms, some beneficial and others potentially harmful. Recent advances in science have allowed us to identify the multitude of organisms inhabiting the GI tract and parse out those that play a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unfortunately, most research has focused on studying only the bacteria while ,overlooking a key player, fungus. In order to address this issue, we have focused our efforts on studying the fungal community in the GI tract known as the mycobiome...
November 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983289/dietary-heme-induces-gut-dysbiosis-aggravates-colitis-and-potentiates-the-development-of-adenomas-in-mice
#17
Marco Constante, Gabriela Fragoso, Annie Calvé, Macha Samba-Mondonga, Manuela M Santos
Dietary heme can be used by colonic bacteria equipped with heme-uptake systems as a growth factor and thereby impact on the microbial community structure. The impact of heme on the gut microbiota composition may be particularly pertinent in chronic inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where a strong association with gut dysbiosis has been consistently reported. In this study we investigated the influence of dietary heme on the gut microbiota and inferred metagenomic composition, and on chemically induced colitis and colitis-associated adenoma development in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979266/epithelial-cell-inflammasomes-in-intestinal-immunity-and-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Andrea C Lei-Leston, Alison G Murphy, Kevin J Maloy
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs), sense conserved microbial signatures, and host danger signals leading to the coordination of appropriate immune responses. Upon activation, a subset of NLR initiate the assembly of a multimeric protein complex known as the inflammasome, which processes pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediates a specialized form of cell death known as pyroptosis. The identification of inflammasome-associated genes as inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility genes implicates a role for the inflammasome in intestinal inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978318/interpretation-of-microbiota-based-diagnostics-by-explaining-individual-classifier-decisions
#19
A Eck, L M Zintgraf, E F J de Groot, T G J de Meij, T S Cohen, P H M Savelkoul, M Welling, A E Budding
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is associated with various disease states and holds a great promise for non-invasive diagnostics. However, microbiota data is challenging for traditional diagnostic approaches: It is high-dimensional, sparse and comprises of high inter-personal variation. State of the art machine learning tools are therefore needed to achieve this goal. While these tools have the ability to learn from complex data and interpret patterns therein that cannot be identified by humans, they often operate as black boxes, offering no insight into their decision-making process...
October 4, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976243/colonic-thioguanine-pro-drug-investigation-of-microbiome-and-novel-host-metabolism
#20
Timothy Florin, Ramya Movva, Jakob Begun, John Duley, Iulia Oancea, Páraic Ó Cuív
Thiopurines are analogues of endogenous purines. They are pro-drugs which require the purine salvage pathway to convert them to the active drug nucleotides (TGN). These drugs are used to maintain clinical remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. In our recent Gut paper, we showed that thioguanine worked quickly to improve colitis in the absence in the host animal of the key guanine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Current evidence favours the proposition that active drug delivery to the host lacking HPRT requires translocation of TGN-loaded bacteria across the inflamed mucosal barrier, and most likely delivery by phagocytosis...
October 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
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