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Microbiota inflammatory bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665882/effects-of-antibiotic-resistance-ar-and-microbiota-shifts-on-campylobacter-jejuni-mediated-diseases
#1
Phillip T Brooks, Linda S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#2
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623708/-gut-microbiota-its-development-and-relation-to-certain-diseases
#4
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620246/roseburia-intestinalis-inhibits-interleukin%C3%A2-17-excretion-and-promotes-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-in-colitis
#5
Changxin Zhu, Kerui Song, Zhaohua Shen, Yongsheng Quan, Bei Tan, Weiwei Luo, Shuai Wu, Kai Tang, Zhenyu Yang, Xiaoyan Wang
Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis) is one of the dominant intestinal bacterial microbiota and is decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It helps protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent IBD, however its underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti‑inflammatory properties of R. intestinalis in vitro and in an animal model of IBD. The effects of R. intestinalis on disease activity index (DAI) scores, intestinal pathology, the expression of interleukin (IL)‑17 and the frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) were evaluated in vivo in a model of 2,4,6‑trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution (TNBS)‑induced colitis...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619131/maintenance-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-mucosal-barriers
#6
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
Background: The intestine is inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms, which provide many benefits to nutrition, metabolism and immunity. Mucosal barriers by intestinal epithelial cells make it possible to maintain the symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and the host by separating them. Recent evidence indicates that mucosal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which mucosal barriers maintain gut homeostasis...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615776/dysbiosis-of-the-salivary-microbiota-in-pediatric-onset-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-its-potential-as-a-biomarker
#7
Kentaro Iwasawa, Wataru Suda, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Manari Oikawa-Kawamoto, Shuichiro Umetsu, Lena Takayasu, Ayano Inui, Tomoo Fujisawa, Hidetoshi Morita, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Masahira Hattori
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a liver disease known for its frequent concurrence with inflammatory bowel disease. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in PSC was reported in several studies, but the microbiological features of the salivary microbiota in PSC have not been established. Here we compared the salivary microbial communities of 24 pediatric-onset PSC patients, 16 age-matched ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 24 healthy controls (HCs) by analyzing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615108/phages-infecting-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-belong-to-novel-viral-genera-that-help-to-decipher-intestinal-viromes
#8
Jeffrey K Cornuault, Marie-Agnès Petit, Mahendra Mariadassou, Leandro Benevides, Elisabeth Moncaut, Philippe Langella, Harry Sokol, Marianne De Paepe
BACKGROUND: Viral metagenomic studies have suggested a role for bacteriophages in intestinal dysbiosis associated with several human diseases. However, interpretation of viral metagenomic studies is limited by the lack of knowledge of phages infecting major human gut commensal bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bacterial symbiont repeatedly found depleted in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In particular, no complete genomes of phages infecting F. prausnitzii are present in viral databases...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611556/-helicobacter-hepaticus-polysaccharide-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-macrophages
#9
COMMENT
Camille Danne, Fiona Powrie
A high density of microbes inhabits the intestine, helping with food digestion, vitamin synthesis, xenobiotic detoxification, pathogen resistance and immune system maturation. Crucial for human health, communities of commensal bacteria (collectively termed microbiota) benefit in return from a nutrient-rich environment. Host-microbiota mutualism results from a long-term co-adaptation. At barrier surfaces, immune cells distinguish harmful from commensal bacteria and tolerate non-self organisms at close proximity to the mucosa; gut inhabitants have developed strategies to ensure beneficial conditions in their preferred niche...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610559/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial-that-breast-milk-derived-lactobacillus-gasseri-bnr17-mitigated-diarrhea-dominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
Suk Pyo Shin, Yoon Mi Choi, Won Hee Kim, Sung Pyo Hong, Jong-Min Park, Joohee Kim, Oran Kwon, Eun Hyun Lee, Ki Baik Hahm
The exact pathogenesis of diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not known, but the abnormal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is considered to be one of the important contributing factors as in other gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and colorectal cancer as well as systemic diseases. Though diverse trials of probiotics had been continued in the treatment of diarrhea-IBS, only a few proved by randomized clinical trial. To prove the efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 isolated from breast milk in patients with diarrhea-IBS, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial was done including health related-quality of life analysis, colon transit time, and the changes of fecal microbiota...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608690/loss-of-microrna-21-influences-the-gut-microbiota-causing-reduced-susceptibility-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis
#11
Daniel G W Johnston, Michelle A Williams, Christoph A Thaiss, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, Mathilde Raverdeau, Craig McEntee, Paul D Cotter, Eran Elinav, Luke A J O'Neill, Sinéad C Corr
Background and aims: microRNAs regulate gene expression and influence the pathogenesis of human diseases. The present study investigated miR-21 in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, as miR-21 is highly expressed in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). IBD is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction and an altered gut microbiota. Recent studies have demonstrated that host microRNAs can shape the microbiota. Thus, we determined the influence of miR-21 on the gut microbiota and subsequent impact in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis model...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607440/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-its-potential-therapeutic-uses-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Ryan D Heath, Courtney Cockerell, Ravinder Mankoo, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Typical human gut flora has been well characterized in previous studies and has been noted to have significant differences when compared with the typical microbiome of various disease states involving the gastrointestinal tract. Such diseases include Clostridium difficile colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, functional bowel syndromes, and various states of liver disease. A growing number of studies have investigated the use of a fecal microbiota transplant as a potential therapy for these disease states.
2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605414/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-primer-for-the-internists
#13
REVIEW
Gaurav Syal, Amir Kashani, David Q Shih
Inflammatory bowel disease consists of disorders characterized by chronic idiopathic bowel inflammation. The concept of host-gut-microbiome interaction in pathogenesis of various complex immune-mediated chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease has recently generated immense interest. Mounting evidence confirms alteration of intestinal microflora in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, restoration of normal gut microbiota has become a focus of basic and clinical research in the recent years...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602775/canonical-wnt-signaling-in-cd11c-apcs-regulates-microbiota-induced-inflammation-and-immune-cell-homeostasis-in-the-colon
#14
Daniel Swafford, Arulkumaran Shanmugam, Punithavathi Ranganathan, Mohamed S Hussein, Pandelakis A Koni, Puttur D Prasad, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Santhakumar Manicassamy
Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs in several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and inflammatory bowel disease-associated colon carcinogenesis. However, its role in shaping mucosal immune responses to commensals in the gut remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the importance of canonical Wnt signaling in CD11c+ APCs in controlling intestinal inflammation. Using a mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling in intestinal CD11c+ APCs controls intestinal inflammation by imparting an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596476/the-colonic-epithelium-plays-an-active-role-in-promoting-colitis-by-shaping-the-tissue-cytokine-profile
#15
Jesse Lyons, Phaedra C Ghazi, Alina Starchenko, Alessio Tovaglieri, Katherine R Baldwin, Emily J Poulin, Jessica J Gierut, Casie Genetti, Vijay Yajnik, David T Breault, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Kevin M Haigis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition driven by loss of homeostasis between the mucosal immune system, the commensal gut microbiota, and the intestinal epithelium. Our goal is to understand how these components of the intestinal ecosystem cooperate to control homeostasis. By combining quantitative measures of epithelial hyperplasia and immune infiltration with multivariate analysis of inter- and intracellular signaling, we identified epithelial mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling as a potential driver of inflammation in a mouse model of colitis...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574759/humanizing-the-mouse-immune-system-to-study-splanchnic-organ-inflammation
#16
Brianyell McDaniel, Matthew B Grisham
It is well known that alterations in splanchnic organ perfusion and/or immune regulation may produce inflammatory tissue injury similar to that observed in several human disorders such as ischemia and reperfusion injury, food allergies, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. Mouse models have been tremendously important in defining the roles of the circulation, leukocyte trafficking, inflammatory mediator generation, immune regulation and the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573336/the-impact-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-lower-gastrointestinal-tract-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Christina Parvinder Kaur, Jamuna Vadivelu, Samudi Chandramathi
The 2016 Global Burden of Disease report by WHO revealed that diseases of the gastrointestinal tract had one of the highest incidence rates worldwide. The plethora of factors that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) related illnesses can be divided into genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Apart from that, the role that infectious agents play in the development of GIT diseases has piqued the interest of researchers worldwide. The human gut harbours approximately 101 to 1012 cfu/ml bacteria in it with increasing concentration towards the lower GIT...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567797/human-alpi-deficiency-causes-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-highlights-a-key-mechanism-of-gut-homeostasis
#18
Marianna Parlato, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Jie Pan, Claudio Romano, Rémi Duclaux-Loras, Marie-Helene Le Du, Neil Warner, Paola Francalanci, Julie Bruneau, Marc Bras, Mohammed Zarhrate, Bernadette Bègue, Nicolas Guegan, Sabine Rakotobe, Nathalie Kapel, Paola De Angelis, Anne M Griffiths, Karoline Fiedler, Eileen Crowley, Frank Ruemmele, Aleixo M Muise, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
Herein, we report the first identification of biallelic-inherited mutations in ALPI as a Mendelian cause of inflammatory bowel disease in two unrelated patients. ALPI encodes for intestinal phosphatase alkaline, a brush border metalloenzyme that hydrolyses phosphate from the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides and thereby drastically reduces Toll-like receptor 4 agonist activity. Prediction tools and structural modelling indicate that all mutations affect critical residues or inter-subunit interactions, and heterologous expression in HEK293T cells demonstrated that all ALPI mutations were loss of function...
March 22, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566907/action-and-function-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Alessandra Valéria de Sousa Faria, Sheila Siqueira Andrade
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon. So far, this commensal bacterium has been considered as a bioindicator of human health, once when its population is altered (decreased), inflammatory processes are favored. Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566254/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-microbiota-epigenetics-and-common-signalling-pathways
#20
Gerhard Rogler, Biedermann Luc, Michael Scharl
The exact pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown. However, over the years important insights allowed the development of novel therapeutic approaches that are at the threshold of introduction into clinical practice, or at least in clinical trials. After being first described by Burrill B. Crohn, Crohn's disease, one of the two major forms of IBD, was perceived as an infectious disease. When the concept of autoimmune diseases was formulated, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were thought to be members of this disease group...
March 22, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
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