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Microbiota inflammatory bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340001/early-life-origin-of-intestinal-inflammatory-disorders
#1
Delphine Ley, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Mona Mischke, Jan Knol, Dominique Turck, Frédéric Gottrand
A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the link between perinatal factors, such as breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, and antibiotic use, and an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease and/or celiac disease...
March 7, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330889/robust-microbiota-based-diagnostics-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
A Eck, E F J de Groot, T G J de Meij, M Welling, P H M Savelkoul, A E Budding
Strong evidence suggests that gut microbiota is altered in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), indicating its potential role in non-invasive diagnostics. However, no clinical applications are currently used for routine patient care. The main obstacle to implementing a gut microbiota test for IBD is the lack of standardization, which leads to high inter-laboratory variations. We studied the between-hospital and between-platform batch effects and their effect on predictive accuracy for IBD.Fecal samples from 91 pediatric IBD patients and 58 healthy children were collected...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321153/p-glycoprotein-multidrug-transporter-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-more-questions-than-answers
#3
EDITORIAL
Elke Cario
The gastrointestinal barrier is constantly exposed to numerous environmental substrates that are foreign and potentially harmful. These xenobiotics can cause shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition, affect mucosal immune responses, disturb tissue integrity and impair regeneration. The multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) plays a key role at the front line of host defence by efficiently protecting the gastrointestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation. This Editorial discusses how altered expression and function of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp may contribute to the development and persistence of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320072/constitutive-androstane-receptor-regulates-the-intestinal-mucosal-response-to-injury
#4
Grace M Hudson, Kyle L Flannigan, Sarah L Erickson, Fernando A Vicentini, Alexandra Zamponi, Christina L Hirota, Laurie Alston, Christophe Altier, Subrata Ghosh, Kevin P Rioux, Sridhar Mani, Thomas K Chang, Simon A Hirota
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD), composed of Crohn's disease(CD) and ulcerative colitis(UC), involves aberrant interactions between a genetically susceptible individual, their microbiota and environmental factors. Alterations in xenobiotic receptor expression and function are associated with increased risk for IBD. In the current study, we assessed the role of the constitutive androstane receptor(CAR), a xenobiotic receptor closely related to the pregnane X receptor, in the regulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#5
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296819/type-1-interferon-in-the-human-intestine-a-co-ordinator-of-the-immune-response-to-the-microbiota
#7
Edward M Giles, Andrew J Stagg
The human gut is in constant complex interaction with the external environment. Although much is understood about the composition and function of the microbiota, much remains to be learnt about the mechanisms by which these organisms interact with the immune system in health and disease. Type 1 interferon (T1IFN), a ubiquitous and pleiotropic family of cytokines, is a critical mediator of the response to viral, bacterial, and other antigens sampled in the intestine. Although inflammation is enhanced in mouse model of colitis when T1IFN signaling is lost, the action of T1IFN is context specific and can be pro- or anti-inflammatory...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295177/a-fast-small-sample-kernel-independence-test-for-microbiome-community-level-association-analysis
#8
Xiang Zhan, Anna Plantinga, Ni Zhao, Michael C Wu
To fully understand the role of microbiome in human health and diseases, researchers are increasingly interested in assessing the relationship between microbiome composition and host genomic data. The dimensionality of the data as well as complex relationships between microbiota and host genomics pose considerable challenges for analysis. In this article, we apply a kernel RV coefficient (KRV) test to evaluate the overall association between host gene expression and microbiome composition. The KRV statistic can capture nonlinear correlations and complex relationships among the individual data types and between gene expression and microbiome composition through measuring general dependency...
March 10, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#9
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293241/a-potential-role-of-salmonella-infection-in-the-onset-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Bárbara M Schultz, Carolina A Paduro, Geraldyne A Salazar, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Valentina P Sebastián, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis, Manuel Alvarez-Lobos, Susan M Bueno
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a set of pathologies that result from a deregulated immune response that may affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent and defined forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the etiology of IBD is not well defined, it has been suggested that environmental and genetic factors contribute to disease development and that the interaction between these two factors can trigger the pathology. Diet, medication use, vitamin D status, smoking, and bacterial infections have been proposed to influence or contribute to the onset or development of the disease in susceptible individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288458/gastric-acid-suppression-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-adverse-outcomes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Rajesh Shah, Peter Richardson, Hong Yu, Jennifer Kramer, Jason Ken Hou
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota may influence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. Histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can alter the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between H2RAs, PPIs, and IBD-related outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of IBD patients using the Veterans Health Affairs databases. Cases were defined by their first instance of an IBD-related hospitalization or surgery and the exposure of interest was H2RA or PPI use 30 days prior to the outcome...
March 14, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288222/-the-benefits-of-breastfeeding-and-associated-risks-of-replacement-with-baby-formulas
#12
Paulina Brahm, Verónica Valdés
Breastfeeding is the nourishment designed by nature for the newborn and the infant; however its prevalence is nowadays not optimal. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding for children and society, and to elaborate the risks associated with the replacement of lactation with baby formulas. Breastfeeding is a protective factor for several infectious, atopic, and cardiovascular diseases as well as for leukaemia, necrotising enterocolitis, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287527/examination-of-host-phenotypes-in-gambusia-affinis-following-antibiotic-treatment
#13
Jeanette M Carlson, Oscar Chavez, Sonali Aggarwal, Todd P Primm
The commonality of antibiotic usage in medicine means that understanding the resulting consequences to the host is vital. Antibiotics often decrease host microbiome community diversity and alter the microbial community composition. Many diseases such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders have been linked to a disrupted microbiota. The complex interplay between host, microbiome, and antibiotics needs a tractable model for studying host-microbiome interactions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286741/sampling-strategies-for-three-dimensional-spatial-community-structures-in-ibd-microbiota-research
#14
REVIEW
Shaocun Zhang, Xiaocang Cao, He Huang
Identifying intestinal microbiota is arguably an important task that is performed to determine the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); thus, it is crucial to collect and analyze intestinally-associated microbiota. Analyzing a single niche to categorize individuals does not enable researchers to comprehensively study the spatial variations of the microbiota. Therefore, characterizing the spatial community structures of the inflammatory bowel disease microbiome is critical for advancing our understanding of the inflammatory landscape of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283691/-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-by-nutritional-interventions
#15
S Derer, H Lehnert, C Sina, A E Wagner
Humans live in symbiosis with billions of commensal bacteria. The so-called microbiota live on different biological interfaces such as the skin, the urogenital tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria replace potentially pathogenic microbes, synthesize vitamins and ferment dietary fibre. An imbalance in the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with various diseases including gut-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 10, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278495/antioxidant-supplements-and-gastrointestinal-diseases-a-critical-appraisal
#16
Islam Khan, Sue E Samson, Ashok Kumar Grover
The gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs dietary nutrients; protects the body against physical and chemical damage from contents in its lumen; provides immunity against external antigens and keeps an optimum environment for the gut microbiota. These functions cannot be performed normally in several diseases of which the following are discussed here: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Because these diseases are associated with oxidative stress, a host of antioxidant supplements are used for maintenance and recovery of the gut functions...
March 8, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275154/a-member-of-the-gut-mycobiota-modulates-host-purine-metabolism-exacerbating-colitis-in-mice
#17
Tyson R Chiaro, Ray Soto, W Zac Stephens, Jason L Kubinak, Charisse Petersen, Lasha Gogokhia, Rickesha Bell, Julio C Delgado, James Cox, Warren Voth, Jessica Brown, David J Stillman, Ryan M O'Connell, Anne E Tebo, June L Round
The commensal microbiota has an important impact on host health, which is only beginning to be elucidated. Despite the presence of fungal, archaeal, and viral members, most studies have focused solely on the bacterial microbiota. Antibodies against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are found in some patients with Crohn's disease (CD), suggesting that the mycobiota may contribute to disease severity. We report that S. cerevisiae exacerbated intestinal disease in a mouse model of colitis and increased gut barrier permeability...
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272549/low-dose-penicillin-exposure-in-early-life-decreases-th17-and-the-susceptibility-to-dss-colitis-in-mice-through-gut-microbiota-modification
#18
Shuang Jin, Di Zhao, Chenwen Cai, Dongjuan Song, Jun Shen, Antao Xu, Yuqi Qiao, Zhihua Ran, Qing Zheng
Antibiotic exposure in early life can lead to a significant change of the gut microbiota and may contribute to later onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the relationship between early-life antibiotic treatment and IBD is ambiguous, according to contradicting results of epidemiologic studies. In the present study, we demonstrated that low-dose penicillin pre-treatment had a unique protective effect against mouse colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Low-dose penicillin also suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 in various intestinal tissues, and decreased the amount of Th17 cells in small-intestine lamina propria...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272447/eggshell-membrane-powder-ameliorates-intestinal-inflammation-by-facilitating-the-restitution-of-epithelial-injury-and-alleviating-microbial-dysbiosis
#19
Huijuan Jia, Manaka Hanate, Wanping Aw, Hideomi Itoh, Kenji Saito, Shoko Kobayashi, Satoshi Hachimura, Shinji Fukuda, Masaru Tomita, Yukio Hasebe, Hisanori Kato
Gut microbiota is an essential factor in the shaping of intestinal immune system development and driving inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We report the effects and microbe-host interactions underlying an intervention using fine powder of eggshell membrane (ESM) against IBD. ESM attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production and promoted the Caco-2 cell proliferation by up-regulating growth factors in vitro. In a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, ESM significantly suppressed the disease activity index and colon shortening...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270247/gut-brain-actions-underlying-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Carlos Medina, Andrew Harkin
Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD...
March 8, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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