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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227919/novel-structure-of-carbon-nanotube-micro-electrode-for-high-resolution-stimulation-of-neurons
#1
Hua Xu, Leanne L H Chan, Amine Bermak, Hua Xu, Leanne L H Chan, Amine Bermak, Amine Bermak, Leanne L H Chan, Hua Xu
This paper proposes a novel method to fabricate high resolution flexible electrodes. Among the steps, the carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes synthesized facing down shows impedance improvement of about 90 times comparing with the normal facing up synthesized samples. Meanwhile, section impedance of electrodes is also defined in this paper to compare the area efficiency of impedance between electrodes with different sizes. In addition and to the best of our knowledge, high performance electrodes embedded inside parylene is reported for the first time taking into consideration the hydrophobicity change of the CNT surface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226498/a-diaper-embedded-disposable-nitrite-sensor-with-integrated-on-board-urine-activated-battery-for-uti-screening
#2
W Yu, W Seo, T Tan, B Jung, B Ziaie, W Yu, W Seo, T Tan, B Jung, B Ziaie, B Ziaie, W Seo, W Yu, T Tan, B Jung
This paper reports a low-cost solution to the early detection of urinary nitrite, a common surrogate for urinary tract infection (UTI). We present a facile method to fabricate a disposable and flexible colorimetric [1] nitrite sensor and its urine-activated power source [2] on a hydrophobic (wax) paper through laser-assisted patterning and lamination. Such device, integrated with interface circuitry and a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) module can be embedded onto a diaper, and transmit semi-quantitative UTI monitoring information in a point-of-care and autonomous fashion...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226279/roles-of-steady-state-and-dynamic-models-for-regulation-of-hydrophobic-chemicals-in-aquatic-systems-a-case-study-of-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane-d5-and-pcb-180-in-three-diverse-ecosystems
#3
Jaeshin Kim, Donald Mackay, David E Powell
We seek to contribute to the improved regulatory use of mass balance models to complement environmental monitoring data by applying the steady-state Quantitative Water Air Sediment Interactive model (QWASI) and a novel unsteady-state QWASI model. A steady-state model can yield not only a useful simulation of chemical fate under near steady-state conditions, but it can provide insights into the likely influences of increasing or decreasing emission rates, temperature changes, and unexpectedly high sensitivities to model parameters that may require additional investigation...
February 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226249/micro-milling-of-spent-granular-activated-carbon-for-its-possible-reuse-as-an-adsorbent-remaining-capacity-and-characteristics
#4
Long Pan, Yuichi Takagi, Yoshihiko Matsui, Taku Matsushita, Nobutaka Shirasaki
We milled granular activated carbons (GACs) that had been used for 0-9 years in water treatment plants and produced carbon particles with different sizes and ages: powdered activated carbons (PAC, median diameter 12-42 μm), superfine PAC (SPAC, 0.9-3.5 μm), and submicron-sized SPAC (SSPAC, 220-290 nm). The fact that SPAC produced from 1-year-old GAC and SSPAC from 2-year-old GAC removed 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) from water with an efficiency similar to that of virgin PAC after a carbon contact time of 30 min suggests that spent GAC could be reused for water treatment after being milled...
February 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225285/multi-scale-modeling-of-the-effects-of-salt-and-perfume-raw-materials-on-the-rheological-properties-of-commercial-thread-like-micellar-solutions
#5
Xueming Tang, Weizhong Zou, Peter H Koenig, Shawn D McConaughy, Michael R Weaver, David Michael Eike, Michael J Schmidt, Ronald G Larson
We link micellar structures to rheological properties for two surfactant body-wash formulations at various concentrations of salts and perfume raw materials (PRMs) using molecular simulations and micellar-scale modeling as well as traditional surfactant packing arguments. The two body washes, named BW-1EO and BW-3EO, are composed of sodium lauryl ethylene glycol ether sulfate (SLEnS, where n is the average number of ethylene glycol repeat units), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), ACCORD (which is a mixture of six PRMs), and NaCl salt...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225256/analysis-and-control-of-chain-mobility-in-protein-hydrogels
#6
Peter B Rapp, Ahmad K Omar, Jeff J Shen, Maren E Buck, Zhen-Gang Wang, David A Tirrell
Coiled-coil domains can direct the assembly of protein block copolymers into physically crosslinked, viscoelastic hydrogels. Here we describe the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to probe chain mobility in reversible hydrogels assembled from engineered proteins bearing terminal coiled-coil domains. We show that chain mobility can be related to the underlying dynamics of the coiled-coil domains by application of a 3-state "hopping" model of chain migration. We further show that genetic programming allows the effective mobility of network chains to be varied 500-fold through modest changes in protein sequence...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225250/membrane-anchoring-comb-like-pseudopeptides-for-efficient-ph-mediated-membrane-destabilization-and-intracellular-delivery
#7
Siyuan Chen, Shiqi Wang, Michal Kopytynski, Marie Bachelet, Rongjun Chen
Endosomal release has been identified as a rate-limiting step for intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents, in particular macromolecular drugs. Herein, we report a series of synthetic pH-responsive, membrane-anchoring polymers exhibiting dramatic endosomolytic activity for efficient intracellular delivery. The comb-like pseudopeptidic polymers were synthesized by grafting different amounts of decylamine (NDA), which act as hydrophobic membrane anchors, onto the pendant carboxylic acid groups of a pseudopeptide, poly(l-lysine iso-phthalamide)...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225139/redox-and-light-responsive-alginate-nanoparticles-as-effective-drug-carriers-for-combinational-anticancer-therapy
#8
Chuangnian Zhang, Gaona Shi, Ju Zhang, Jinfeng Niu, Pingsheng Huang, Zhihong Wang, Yanming Wang, Weiwei Wang, Chen Li, Deling Kong
Nanoparticles have been extensively explored as effective means to deliver chemotherapeutic agents or photosensitizers for chemotherapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer. In the present work, pheophorbide A (PheoA), a hydrophobic photosensitizer, was conjugated via a redox-sensitive disulfide linkage to alginate (PheoA-ALG). Anticancer agent, doxorubicin (DOX), was also loaded within the PheoA-ALG nanoparticles (DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs) and used as drug carriers for combinational antitumor treatment. The DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs were spherical in shape with a uniform diameter of approximately 210 nm...
February 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224909/hybrid-monolith-sorbent-of-polypyrrole-coated-graphene-oxide-incorporated-into-a-polyvinyl-alcohol-cryogel-for-extraction-and-enrichment-of-sulfonamides-from-water-samples
#9
Kochaporn Chullasat, Piyaluk Nurerk, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Pamornrat Kueseng, Thanyaporn Sukchuay, Opas Bunkoed
A hybrid monolith sorbent of polypyrrole-coated graphene oxide embedded in polyvinyl alcohol cryogel was prepared and used as an effective solid phase extraction sorbent for the determination of trace sulfonamides. The large surface areas with many adsorption sites of polypyrrole and graphene oxide facilitated the high adsorption of sulfonamides via hydrogen bonding, π-π and hydrophobic interactions. The high porosity of the polyvinyl alcohol cryogel helped to reduce the back pressure that occurs in a conventional packed solid phase extraction cartridge...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224887/facile-and-green-fabrication-of-cellulosed-based-aerogels-for-lampblack-filtration-from-waste-newspaper
#10
Peidong Fan, Yali Yuan, Junkai Ren, Bin Yuan, Qian He, Guangmei Xia, Fengxia Chen, Rui Song
In this study, the lightweight, hydrophobic and porous cellulose-based aerogels (CAGs) were synthesized through a freeze-drying process using waste newspaper as the only raw material. After crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and treatment with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) using a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process, the resulting CAGs became hydrophobic and oleophilic. Furthermore, the as-prepared CAGs exhibited a low density (17.4-28.7mgcm(-3)) and mesoporous inner-structure. All these properties attributed the novel aerogel not only with a good adsorption capability of oils and organic solvents, including kerosene, nitrobenzene, and chloroform, but also an excellent filtration capacity of lampblack...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224884/water-soluble-co-polyelectrolytes-by-selective-modification-of-cellulose-esters
#11
Shu Liu, Kevin J Edgar
Cellulose-based materials are well-suited for biomedical uses, because of their abundance, renewable nature, biodegradability, and relatively low cost. However, the set of commercially available cellulose esters and ethers is limited in number and diversity, and contains no cationically charged cellulose esters. Herein we report a simple, efficient strategy for synthesizing cationic, water-soluble co-polyelectrolytes from commercial, hydrophobic, renewable-based cellulose esters. Cellulose acetate (degree of substitution (DS) 1...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224792/patterned-polymer-coatings-increase-the-efficiency-of-dew-harvesting
#12
Omar Al-Khayat, Jun Ki Hong, David M Beck, Andrew I Minett, Chiara Neto
Micro-patterned polymer surfaces, possessing both topographical and chemical characteristics, were used to capture atmospheric water. The micro-patterns mimic the structure on the back of a desert beetle that condenses water from air in a very dry environment. The patterned coatings were prepared by the dewetting of thin films of poly-4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) on top of polystyrene films (PS) films, upon solvent annealing, and consist of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. The size and density distribution of the hydrophilic bumps could be tuned widely by tuning the initial thickness of the P4VP films: the diameter of the produced bumps and their height could be varied by almost two order of magnitude (1 µm - 80 µm, and 40 nm - 9000 nm, respectively), and their distribution density could be varied by 5 orders of magnitude...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224420/early-osseointegration-of-implants-with-cortex-like-tio2-coatings-formed-by-micro-arc-oxidation-a-histomorphometric-study-in-rabbits
#13
Hong-Zhi Zhou, Ya-da Li, Lin Liu, Xiao-Dong Chen, Wei-Qiang Wang, Guo-Wu Ma, Yu-Cheng Su, Min Qi, Bin Shi
In our previous studies, a novel cortex-like TiO2 coating was prepared on Ti surface through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) by using sodium tetraborate as electrolyte, and the effects of the coating on cell attachment were testified. This study aimed to investigate the effects of this cortex-like MAO coating on osseointegration. A sand-blasting and acid-etching (SLA) coating that has been widely used in clinical practice served as control. Topographical and chemical characterizations were conducted by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, contact angle meter, and step profiler...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224391/development-and-evaluation-of-a-nanoemulsion-containing-ursolic-acid-a-promising-trypanocidal-agent-nanoemulsion-with-ursolic-acid-against-t-cruzi
#14
Erika Cristina Vargas de Oliveira, Zumira Aparecida Carneiro, Sérgio de Albuquerque, Juliana Maldonado Marchetti
Over a hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, this ailment continues to affect thousands of people. For more than 40 years, only two drugs have been available to treat it. Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring terpene that has shown a good trypanocidal action. However, the hydrophobicity of this compound presents a challenge for the development of proper delivery systems. Nanostructured systems are a prominent in delivering lipophilic drugs. Thus, a nanoemulsion containing ursolic acid was developed and had its trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity evaluated...
February 21, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223975/characterization-of-a-novel-polymeric-bioflocculant-produced-from-bacterial-utilization-of-n-hexadecane-and-its-application-in-removal-of-heavy-metals
#15
Mihirjyoti Pathak, Hridip K Sarma, Krishna G Bhattacharyya, Sanjukta Subudhi, Varsha Bisht, Banwari Lal, Arundhuti Devi
A novel polymeric bioflocculant was produced by a bacterium utilizing degradation of n-hexadecane as the energy source. The bioflocculant was produced with a bioflocculating activity of 87.8%. The hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and was further supported with contact angle measurements for the changes in hydrophobic nature of the culture medium. A specific aerobic degradation pathway followed by the bacterium during the bioflocculant production and hydrocarbon utilization process has been proposed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223799/hypoxia-responsive-ionizable-liposome-delivery-sirna-for-glioma-therapy
#16
Hong-Mei Liu, Ya-Fei Zhang, Yan-Dong Xie, Yi-Fan Cai, Bai-Yang Li, Wen Li, Ling-Yu Zeng, Yu-Ling Li, Ru-Tong Yu
Here, we report the hypoxia-responsive ionizable liposomes to deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) anticancer drugs, which can selectively enhance cellular uptake of the siRNA under hypoxic and low-pH conditions to cure glioma. For this purpose, malate dehydrogenase lipid molecules were synthesized, which contain nitroimidazole groups that impart hypoxia sensitivity and specificity as hydrophobic tails, and tertiary amines as hydrophilic head groups. These malate dehydrogenase molecules, together with DSPE-PEG2000 and cholesterol, were self-assembled into O'(1),O(1)-(3-(dimethylamino)propane-1,2-diyl) 16-bis(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl) di(hexadecanedioate) liposomes (MLP) to encapsulate siRNA through electrostatic interaction...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223387/activity-of-sanguinarine-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#17
Hua Zhong, Dan-Dan Hu, Gan-Hai Hu, Juan Su, Shuang Bi, Zhuo-Er Zhang, Zheng Wang, Ri-Li Zhang, Zheng Xu, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Yan Wang
C. albicans biofilms show resistance to many clinical antifungal agents, and play a considerable contributing role in the process of C. albicans infections. New antifungal agents against C. albicans biofilms are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate sanguinarine (SAN) for its activity against Candida albicans biofilms and explore the underlying mechanism. The MIC50 of SAN was 3.2 μg/mL. While ≥ 0.8 μg/mL SAN could suppress C. albicans biofilms. Further mechanism study revealed that ≥ 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223313/active-multi-enzyme-assemblies-for-long-chain-olefinic-hydrocarbon-biosynthesis
#18
James K Christenson, Matthew R Jensen, Brandon R Goblirsch, Fatuma Mohamed, Wei Zhang, Carrie M Wilmot, Lawrence P Wackett
Bacteria from different Phyla produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons derived from an OleA-catalyzed Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-CoA substrates, followed by reduction and oxygen elimination reactions catalyzed by the proteins OleB, OleC, and OleD. In this report, OleA, OleB, OleC, and OleD were individually purified as soluble proteins, and all were found to be essential for reconstituting hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Recombinant co-expression of tagged OleABCD proteins from Xanthomonas campestris in Escherichia coli and purification over His6x- and FLAG-columns resulted in OleA separating whilst OleBCD purified together, irrespective of which of the four Ole proteins were tagged...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221812/intermicellar-interactions-and-the-viscoelasticity-of-surfactant-solutions-complementary-use-of-sans-and-saxs
#19
Viviane Lutz-Bueno, Marianne Liebi, Joachim Kohlbrecher, Peter Fischer
In ionic surfactant micelles, basic interactions among distinct parts of surfactant monomers, their counterion, and additives are fundamental to tune molecular self-assembly and enhance viscoelasticity. Here, we investigate the addition of sodium salicylate (NaSal) to hexa-decyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and bromide (CTAC and CTAB) and 1-hexa-decyl pyridinium chloride and bromide (CPyCl and CPyBr), which have distinct counterions and headgroup structures, but the same hydrophobic tail. Different contrasts are obtained from small-angle neutron scattering SANS, which probes differences between the nucleus of atoms, and X-rays SAXS, which probes differences in electron density...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221801/balancing-segregation-and-complexation-in-amphiphilic-copolymers-by-architecture-and-confinement
#20
Pascal Hebbeker, Alexander A Steinschulte, Stefanie Schneider, Felix A Plamper
Segregation is a well-known principle for micellization, as solvophobic components try to minimize interactions with other entities (such as solvent) by self-assembly. An opposite principle is based on complexation (or coacervation), leading to the coassembly/association of different components. Most cases in the literature rely on only one of these modes, though the classical micellization scheme (such as spherical micelles, wormlike micelles, and vesicles) can be enriched by a subtle balance of segregation and complexation...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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