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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668081/lipocalin-type-prostaglandin-d-synthase-is-a-novel-phytocannabinoid-binding-protein
#1
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC:5.3.99.2) is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
April 18, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667825/structure-based-design-of-inhibitors-targeting-prfa-the-master-virulence-regulator-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#2
Martina Kulén, Marie Lindgren, Sabine Hansen, Andrew Gerard Cairns, Christin Grundström, Afshan Begum, Ingeborg van der Lingen, Kristoffer Brännström, Michael Hall, Uwe H Sauer, Jörgen Johansson, A Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson, Fredrik Almqvist
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that controls much of its virulence through the transcriptional regulator PrfA. In this study, we describe structure-guided design and synthesis of a set of PrfA inhibitors based on ring-fused 2-pyridone heterocycles. Our most effective compound decreased virulence factor expression, reduced bacterial uptake into eukaryotic cells, and improved survival of chicken embryos infected with L. monocytogenes compared to previously identified compounds. Crystal structures identified an intra-protein "tunnel" as the main inhibitor binding site (AI), where the compounds participate in an extensive hydrophobic network that restricts the protein's ability to form functional DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667574/genomic-non-coding-regions-reveal-hidden-patterns-of-mumps-virus-circulation-in-spain-2005-to-2015
#3
Ana M Gavilán, Aurora Fernández-García, Angel Rueda, Ana Castellanos, Josefa Masa-Calles, Noemí López-Perea, María V Torres de Mier, Fernando de Ory, Juan E Echevarría
BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667549/dentification-and-quantification-of-quercetin-a-major-consitituent-of-artocarpus-altilis-by-targeting-related-genes-of-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-in-vitro-cytotoxic-activity-against-human-lung-carcinoma-cell-lines-a549
#4
Silvana Russo, Walter Filgueira De Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) is a membrane protein prevalent in the central nervous system, whose crystallographic structure has recently been solved. Studies will be needed to investigate CB1 complexes with its ligands and its role in the development of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: Our goal here is to review the studies on CB1, starting with general aspects and focusing on the recent structural studies, with emphasis on the inverse agonists bound structures...
April 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667009/encapsulating-viability-of-multi-strain-lactobacilli-as-potential-probiotic-in-pigs
#5
Sudthidol Piyadeatsoontorn, Rutjawate Taharnklaew, Tewa Upathanpreecha, Pairat Sornplang
Important aspects of the selection of probiotics to be used for mixing in animal feed include host species specificity and probiotic cell survival during production and storage of their products. The research was to screen and investigate some probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pig fecal samples. One hundred and thirty-eight representative LAB isolates, which were isolated from 51 pig fecal samples, were tested for acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, potential adhesion to the cell surface, and survival rates when stored in varied microencapsulation forms: freeze-dried, spray-dried, and micro-beads...
April 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667008/eco-friendly-synthesis-in-vitro-anti-proliferative-evaluation-and-3d-qsar-analysis-of-a-novel-series-of-monocationic-2-aryl-heteroaryl-substituted-6-2-imidazolinyl-benzothiazole-mesylates
#6
Livio Racané, Lucija Ptiček, Mirela Sedić, Petra Grbčić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić, Branimir Bertoša, Irena Sović, Grace Karminski-Zamola
Herein, we describe the synthesis of twenty-one novel water-soluble monocationic 2-aryl/heteroaryl-substituted 6-(2-imidazolinyl)benzothiazole mesylates 3a-3u and present the results of their anti-proliferative assays. Efficient syntheses were achieved by three complementary simple two-step synthetic protocols based on the condensation reaction of aryl/heteroaryl carbaldehydes or carboxylic acid. We developed an eco-friendly synthetic protocol using glycerol as green solvent, particularly appropriate for the condensation of thermally and acid-sensitive heterocycles such as furan, benzofuran, pyrrole, and indole...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666865/preparation-of-lactic-acid-and-glucose-responsive-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-b-poly-ethylene-oxide-block-copolymer-micelles-using-phenylboronic-ester-as-a-sensitive-block-linkage
#7
David Vrbata, Mariusz Uchman
The present study describes the synthesis, self-assembly and responsiveness to glucose and lactic acid of biocompatible and biodegradable block copolymer micelles using phenylboronic ester as the linkage between hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The PCL block with pendant phenylboronic acid (PCLBA) was synthesized by combining ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) ring-opening polymerisation (ROP), using 4-hydroxymethyl(phenylboronic) acid pinacolate as the initiator, and pinacol deprotection...
April 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666860/fluorescence-imaging-of-antibiotic-clofazimine-encapsulated-within-mesoporous-silica-particle-carriers-relevance-to-drug-delivery-and-the-effect-on-its-release-kinetics
#8
Lorenzo Angiolini, Sabrina Valetti, Boiko Cohen, Adam Feiler, Abderrazzak Douhal
We report on the encapsulation of the antibiotic clofazimine (CLZ) within the pores of mesoporous silica particles having hydrophilic (CBET value of 137) and more hydrophobic (CBET value of 94 after calcination at 600 °C) surfaces. We studied the effect of pH on the released amount of CLZ in aqueous solutions and observed a maximum at pH 4.1 in correlation with the solubility of the drug. Less release of the drug was observed from the more hydrophobic particles which was attributed to a difference in the affinity of the drug to the carrier particles...
April 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666791/supramolecular-organocatalysis-in-water-mediated-by-macrocyclic-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Margherita De Rosa, Pellegrino La Manna, Carmen Talotta, Annunziata Soriente, Carmine Gaeta, Placido Neri
In the last decades many efforts have been devoted to design supramolecular organocatalysts able to work in water as the reaction medium. The use of water as solvent provides promising benefits with respect to environmental impact. In this context, macrocyclic compounds played a role of primary importance thanks to their ease of synthesis and their molecular recognition abilities toward the reactants. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent advances in the field of supramolecular organocatalysis in water, focusing the attention on calixarene and cyclodextrins derivatives...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666253/biomaterial-surface-energy-driven-ligand-assembly-strongly-regulates-stem-cell-mechanosensitivity-and-fate-on-very-soft-substrates
#10
Tojo Razafiarison, Claude N Holenstein, Tino Stauber, Milan Jovic, Edward Vertudes, Marko Loparic, Maciej Kawecki, Laetitia Bernard, Unai Silvan, Jess G Snedeker
Although mechanisms of cell-material interaction and cellular mechanotransduction are increasingly understood, the mechanical insensitivity of mesenchymal cells to certain soft amorphous biomaterial substrates has remained largely unexplained. We reveal that surface energy-driven supramolecular ligand assembly can regulate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sensing of substrate mechanical compliance and subsequent cell fate. Human MSCs were cultured on collagen-coated hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydrophilic polyethylene-oxide-PDMS (PEO-PDMS) of a range of stiffnesses...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666120/true-rotational-stability-of-a-single-piece-hydrophobic-intraocular-lens
#11
Daniel Schartmüller, Sabine Schriefl, Luca Schwarzenbacher, Christina Leydolt, Rupert Menapace
BACKGROUND: To evaluate rotation and its influencing factors of an aspheric one-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) Vivinex XY1 during 6 months after operation. METHODS: In this institutional trial, 122 eyes of 66 patients were implanted with a non-toric aspheric IOL Vivinex XY1 (Hoya Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). IOL alignment was assessed at the end of surgery, 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after implantation. Confounding factors such as axial length, presence of anterior fibrosis and randomised implantation in four different intended axes (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) were evaluated...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665545/characterization-of-isolated-fractions-of-dissolved-organic-matter-derived-from-municipal-solid-waste-compost
#12
Minda Yu, Xiaosong He, Jiaomei Liu, Yuefeng Wang, Beidou Xi, Dan Li, Hui Zhang, Chao Yang
Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665507/ultrafiltration-and-nanofiltration-membrane-fouling-by-natural-organic-matter-mechanisms-and-mitigation-by-pre-ozonation-and-ph
#13
Wenzheng Yu, Teng Liu, John Crawshaw, Ting Liu, Nigel Graham
The fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes during the treatment of surface waters continues to be of concern and the particular role of natural organic matter (NOM) requires further investigation. In this study the effect of pH and surface charge on membrane fouling during the treatment of samples of a representative surface water (Hyde Park recreational lake) were evaluated, together with the impact of pre-ozonation. While biopolymers in the surface water could be removed by the UF membrane, smaller molecular weight (MW) fractions of NOM were poorly removed, confirming the importance of membrane pore size...
April 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665336/degradable-3d-printed-hydrogels-based-on-star-shaped-copolypeptides
#14
Robert Murphy, David P Walsh, Charles A Hamilton, Sally-Ann Cryan, Marc In Het Panhuis, Andreas Heise
We present a star copolypeptide based hydrogel ink capable of structural microfabrication using 3D extrusion printing. The material comprises an amphiphilic block copolymer structure of poly(benzyl-L-glutamate-b-L-valine), which spontaneously form hydrogels through hydrophobic interaction. The chemical design allows the bulk phase of the hydrogel to remain intact after application of shear due to its self-recovery behavior. It is demonstrated that the composition of the materials is ideally suited for 3D printing; with scaffolds capable of maintaining structural cohesion after extrusion...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665317/encapsulation-and-release-of-functional-nanodroplets-entrapped-in-nanofibers
#15
Kusuma Thongchaivetcharat, Ratchapol Jenjob, Daniel Crespy
A method is presented for preserving the structural integrity of nanodroplets produced by emulsification. Droplets of different hydrophobic liquids such as essential oils or monomers are produced by the miniemulsion process. The miniemulsions are then electrospun to yield dextran nanofibers entrapping the hydrophobic nanodroplets. The nanodroplets are then successfully redispersed by dissolving the nanofibers in water. Furthermore, it is shown that nanofibers can be used to store a monomer and a catalyst as healing agents for ring-opening metathesis polymerization...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665253/hairy-graphenes-wrapping-nanocellulose-nets-around-graphene-oxide-sheets
#16
Rui Xiong, Ho Shin Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Shuaidi Zhang, Yaroslava Yingling, Vladimir V Tsukruk
Constructing advanced functional nanomaterials with pre-designed organized morphologies from low-dimension synthetic and biological components is extremely challenging because of complex inter-component interactions, high-aspect ratios, flexible shapes, crumpling instabilities and limited common wet-chemistry processing conditions. Herein, we report an efficient and universal amphiphilicity-driven assembly strategy to construct "hairy" flexible hybrid nanosheets with the net of 1D cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) conformally wrapped around 2D graphene oxide (GO) monolayers...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664920/linear-self-assembly-and-grafting-of-gold-nanorods-into-arrayed-micrometer-long-nanowires-on-a-silicon-wafer-via-a-combined-top-down-bottom-up-approach
#17
Elena Lestini, Codrin Andrei, Dominic Zerulla
Macroscopically long wire-like arrangements of gold nanoparticles were obtained by controlled evaporation and partial coalescence of an aqueous colloidal solution of capped CTAB-Au nanorods onto a functionalised 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) silicon substrate, using a removable, silicon wafer with a hydrophobic surface that serves as a "handrail" for the initial nanorods' linear self-assembly. The wire-like structures display a quasi-continuous pattern by thermal annealing of the gold nanorods when the solvent (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664647/amphiphobic-septa-enhance-the-mechanical-stability-of-free-standing-bilayer-lipid-membranes
#18
Daichi Yamaura, Daisuke Tadaki, Shun Araki, Miyu Yoshida, Kohei Arata, Takeshi Ohori, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Miki Kato, Teng Ma, Ryusuke Miyata, Hideaki Yamamoto, Ryugo Tero, Masao Sakuraba, Toshio Ogino, Michio Niwano, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata
Artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) provide well-defined systems for investigating the fundamental properties of membrane proteins, including ion channels, and in screening the effect of drugs that act on them. However, the application of this technique is limited due to the low stability and low reconstitution efficiency of the process. We previously reported on improving the stability of BLM based on the fabrication of microapertures having a tapered edge in SiO2/Si3N4 septa and efficient ion channel incorporation based on vesicle fusion accelerated by a centrifugal force...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664628/joint-effects-of-granule-size-and-degree-of-substitution-on-octenylsuccinated-sweet-potato-starch-granules-as-pickering-emulsion-stabilizers
#19
Li Jinfeng, Fayin Ye, Lin Lei, Yun Zhou, Guohua Zhao
The granules of sweet potato starch were size-fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters (D50) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized) and 16.96 µm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DSm) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium) and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DSm on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664623/fabrication-and-characterization-of-quinoa-protein-nanoparticles-stabilized-food-grade-pickering-emulsions-with-ultrasound-treatment-interfacial-adsorption-arrangement-properties
#20
Xin-Sheng Qin, Zhigang Luo, Xichun Peng
The natural quinoa protein isolate (QPI) was largely reflected in the nanoparticle form at pH 7.0 (about 401 nm), and the ultrasound at 20 min progressively improved the contact angle (wettability) and surface hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles. Ultrasound process also modified the type of intra-particle interaction, and the internal forces of sonicated particles were largely maintained by both disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interaction forces. In emulsion system, the ultrasound progressively increased the emulsification efficiency of the QPI nanoparticles, particularly at high protein concentration (c>1%, w/v), and higher emulsion stability against coalescence...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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