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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471585/ripply3-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-epithelial-sheets-in-the-morphogenesis-of-pharyngeal-pouches
#1
Yoshihiro Tsuchiya, Yusuke Mii, Kazunori Okada, Mikio Furuse, Tadashi Okubo, Shinji Takada
During tissue development, the morphogenesis of epithelial sheets is regulated by many factors, including mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate embryo, endodermal epithelium is reiteratively folded outward to form pharyngeal pouches, making partitions between the pharyngeal arches. Ripply3, encoding a member of the Ripply family of adaptor proteins, is required for the pouch formation posterior to the 2nd pharyngeal pouch. In this study, we found that the expression of mouse Ripply3 was specifically activated in accordance with the bending of the endodermal epithelium during the pouch formation...
February 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471488/morphological-responses-of-plant-roots-to-mechanical-stress
#2
Izabela Potocka, Joanna Szymanowska-Pulka
Background: Roots are continuously exposed to mechanical pressure and this often results in their morphological modification. Most obvious are changes in the overall form of the root system as well as in the shapes of particular roots. These changes are often accompanied by modifications of the cell pattern and cell morphology. Scope: This review focuses on the morphological responses of roots to mechanical stress. Results of early and recent experiments in which roots have been exposed to mechanical pressure are assembled, analysed and discussed...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471459/descriptive-texture-analyses-of-broiler-breast-fillets-with-the-wooden-breast-condition-stored-at-4%C3%A2-c-and-20%C3%A2-c
#3
G Sanchez Brambila, B C Bowker, D Chatterjee, H Zhuang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the wooden breast (WB) condition on the texture of cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major) after fresh and frozen storage. Texture characteristics of normal (NORM) and severe WB fillets were studied by both sensory descriptive analyses and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Broiler breast fillets were collected over 3 separate trial days from a commercial deboning line at 3 h postmortem, classified according to the wooden breast condition, and then stored at either 4°C or -20°C prior to cooking and texture evaluation...
February 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471388/novel-behavioral-and-neural-evidences-for-age-related-changes-in-force-complexity
#4
Yi-Ching Chen, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
This study investigated age-related changes in behavioral and neural complexity for a polyrhythmic movement, which appeared to be an exception to the loss of complexity hypothesis. Young (n = 15; age = 24.2 years) and older (15; 68.1 years) adults performed low-level force-tracking with isometric index abduction to couple a compound sinusoidal target. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) of tracking force and inter-spike interval (ISI) of motor unit (MU) in the first dorsal interosseus muscle were assessed. The MSE area of tracking force at shorter time scales of older adults was greater (more complex) than that of young adults, whereas an opposite trend (less complex for the elders) was noted at longer time scales...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471219/the-effects-of-extrinsic-factors-on-the-structural-and-mechanical-properties-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-biofilms-a-combined-study-of-nutrient-concentrations-and-shear-conditions
#5
Ashley Allen, Olivier Habimana, Eoin Casey
The growth of biofilms on surfaces is a complicated process influenced by several environmental factors such as nutrient availability and fluid shear. In this study, combinations of growth conditions were selected for the study of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms including as cultivation time (24- or 48 h), nutrient levels (1:1 or 1:10 King B medium), and shear conditions (75 RPM shaking, 0.4 mL min-1 or 0.7 mL min-1 ). The use of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) determined biofilm structure, while liquid-phase Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques resolved the mechanical properties of biofilms...
February 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471194/relationship-between-postural-control-and-muscle-activity-during-a-handstand-in-young-and-adult-gymnasts
#6
Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Michel Marina, Jan Mieszkowski, Leon Biskup, Kazimierz Kochanowicz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between muscle activity and inter-muscle contributions patterns and postural control during a handstand. Additionally, outcomes were compared between young and adult gymnasts (mean ± SD: 13.9 ± 0.7 and 23 ± 3 years respectively). Participants performed three trials of a 10 s handstand on a force platform with simultaneous EMG signal recording at the upper and lower limbs. Adult gymnasts demonstrated significantly better postural control in each studied variable...
February 19, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471126/adsorption-mechanism-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-from-two-bacteria-on-ultisol-and-alfisol
#7
Li-Ying Ren, Zhi-Neng Hong, Wei Qian, Jiu-Yu Li, Ren-Kou Xu
The primary objective of this study was to identify the capacity and mechanism of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) adsorption on soil colloids of Alfisol and Ultisol at different pH and ionic strengths. Two kinds of EPS were extracted from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens by centrifugation, and their adsorption on Ultisol and Alfisol was investigated using a batch adsorption experiment and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The average diameter of EPS from B...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471041/mechanically-activated-ion-channels
#8
Boris Martinac, Kate Poole
The ability of cells to sense and respond to their physical environment is fundamental to a broad spectrum of biological processes. Cells express an array of force sensors that can transduce mechanical inputs into biochemical signals, including the mechanically activated ion channels PIEZO1, PIEZO2 and TRPV4. The identification and characterisation of mechanically activated ion channels has proven challenging, as has identifying their mode of activation and regulation in vivo. However, the diverse channelopathies associated with the known channels highlights their physiological importance...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471021/does-male-preference-play-a-role-in-maintaining-female-limited-polymorphism-in-a-batesian-mimetic-butterfly
#9
E L Westerman, R Letchinger, A Tenger-Trolander, D Massardo, D Palmer, M R Kronforst
Female-limited polymorphism occurs in multiple butterfly species with Batesian mimicry. While frequency-dependent selection is often argued as the driving force behind polymorphism in Batesian mimicry systems, male preference and alternative female mating strategies may also influence the maintenance of multiple female forms. Through a series of behavioural assays with the female-limited Batesian mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes, we show that males prefer stationary mimetic females over stationary non-mimetic females, but weigh female activity levels more heavily than female wing pattern when choosing between active mimetic and active non-mimetic females...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470990/lis1-dysfunction-leads-to-traction-force-reduction-and-cytoskeletal-disorganization-during-cell-migration
#10
Guo-Wei Jheng, Sung Sik Hur, Chia-Ming Chang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Jia-Shing Cheng, Hsiao-Hui Lee, Bon-Chu Chung, Yang-Kao Wang, Keng-Hui Lin, Juan C Del Álamo, Shu Chien, Jin-Wu Tsai
Cell migration is a critical process during development, tissue repair, and cancer metastasis. It requires complex processes of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics, and force generation. Lis1 plays an important role in the migration of neurons, fibroblasts and other cell types, and is essential for normal development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in human LIS1 gene cause classical lissencephaly (smooth brain), resulting from defects in neuronal migration. However, how Lis1 may affect force generation in migrating cells is still not fully understood...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470988/shear-dependent-fibrillogenesis-of-fibronectin-impact-of-platelet-integrins-and-actin-cytoskeleton
#11
Huong Nguyen, Khon Huynh, Volker R Stoldt
Soluble plasma fibronectin (Fn) with its inactive compact structure requires unfolding to assemble into active fibrils, which play a role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Fn fibril assembly involves Fn binding to cell receptors, biomechanical coupling of Fn to the cytoskeleton by integrins, exposure of self-assembly sites via contractile cell forces, and elongation of fibrils by Fn polymerization. In this report, we investigated the effect of platelet integrins and actin cytoskeleton on conformational changes of Fn induced by shear...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470983/development-of-a-functional-thyroid-model-based-on-an-organoid-culture-system
#12
Yoshiyuki Saito, Nobuyuki Onishi, Hiroshi Takami, Ryo Seishima, Hiroyoshi Inoue, Yuki Hirata, Kaori Kameyama, Kenji Tsuchihashi, Eiji Sugihara, Shinya Uchino, Koichi Ito, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa, Hideyuki Saya, Osamu Nagano
The low turnover rate of thyroid follicular cells and the lack of a long-term thyroid cell culture system have hampered studies of thyroid carcinogenesis. We have now established a thyroid organoid culture system that supports thyroid cell proliferation in vitro. The established mouse thyroid organoids performed thyroid functions including thyroglobulin synthesis, iodide uptake, and the production and release of thyroid hormone. Furthermore, transplantation of the organoids into recipient mice resulted in the formation of normal thyroid-like tissue capable of iodide uptake and thyroglobulin production in vivo...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470981/ghot-of-the-ghot-ghos-toxin-antitoxin-system-damages-lipid-membranes-by-forming-transient-pores
#13
Jun-Seob Kim, Allen B Schantz, Sooyeon Song, Manish Kumar, Thomas K Wood
GhoT is a bacterial toxin of the type V toxin/antitoxin system that allows Escherichia coli to reduce its metabolism in response to oxidative and bile stress. GhoT functions by increasing membrane permeability and reducing both ATP levels and the proton motive force. However, how GhoT damages the inner membrane has not been elucidated. Here we investigated how GhoT damages membranes by studying its interaction with lipid bilayers and determined that GhoT does not cause macroscopic disruption of the lipid bilayer to increase membrane permeability to the dye carboxyfluorescein...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470980/graphene-coating-on-the-surface-of-cocrmo-alloy-enhances-the-adhesion-and-proliferation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Qi Zhang, Kewen Li, Jinhong Yan, Zhuo Wang, Qi Wu, Long Bi, Min Yang, Yisheng Han
The objective was to investigate whether a graphene coating could improve the surface bioactivity of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum-based alloy (CoCrMo). Graphene was produced by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to the surface of the CoCrMo alloy using an improved wet transfer approach. The morphology of the samples was observed, and the adhesion force and stabilization of graphene coating were analyzed by a nanoscratch test and ultrasonication test. In an in vitro studies, the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on the samples were quantified via an Alamar Blue assay and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470939/free-breathing-pulmonary-mr-imaging-to-quantify-regional-ventilation
#15
Dante P I Capaldi, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, John S H Baxter, A Jonathan McLeod, Parameswaran Nair, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
Purpose To measure regional specific ventilation with free-breathing hydrogen 1 (1 H) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging without exogenous contrast material and to investigate correlations with hyperpolarized helium 3 (3 He) MR imaging and pulmonary function test measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with asthma. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent free-breathing1 H and static breath-hold hyperpolarized3 He MR imaging as well as spirometry and plethysmography; participants were consecutively recruited between January and June 2017...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470844/reference-values-for-respiratory-impedance-measured-by-the-forced-oscillation-technique-in-adult-men-and-women
#16
Fernando Carlos Vetromille Ribeiro, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
INTRODUCTION: The Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a particularly useful test of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system that has an increasingly important role in lung function laboratories. There is general agreement in the literature that the determination of reference values is of utmost importance in the clinical use of the FOT. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to present reference values for whole-breath FOT measurements, establish which anthropometric variables were more predictive of impedance parameters, and provide all the details to adequately adopt these reference equations in individual laboratories...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470747/solid-stress-facilitates-fibroblasts-activation-to-promote-pancreatic-cancer-cell-migration
#17
Maria Kalli, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Pancreatic fibroblasts are continuously gaining ground as an important component of tumor microenvironment that dynamically interact with cancer cells to promote tumor progression. In addition, these tumor-infiltrated fibroblasts can acquire an activated phenotype and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix creating a highly dense stroma, a situation known as desmoplasia. Desmoplasia, along with the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells, leads to the development of compressive forces within the tumor, generating the so-called solid stress...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470735/the-influence-of-different-sterilization-types-on-mosquito-net-mesh-characteristics-in-groin-hernia-repair
#18
K Mitura, S Kozieł
BACKGROUND: In low-resource countries, a suture repair is still in common use due to the limited access to commercial mesh implants. The search for less expensive alternatives to the synthetic meshes has led to using mosquito nets. Sterilized mosquito net appears to be a low-cost and commonly available product that closely resembles commercially available meshes. However, the extent to which sterilization alters the structure of mosquito nets is still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of different sterilization types on physico-mechanical properties of mosquito nets...
February 22, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470545/private-healthcare-provider-experiences-with-social-health-insurance-schemes-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-in-ghana-and-kenya
#19
Maia Sieverding, Cynthia Onyango, Lauren Suchman
BACKGROUND: Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470505/grunting-s-competitive-advantage-considerations-of-force-and-distraction
#20
Scott Sinnett, Cj Maglinti, Alan Kingstone
BACKGROUND: Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism...
2018: PloS One
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