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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027257/review-article-consensus-statements-on-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
REVIEW
N Mitrev, N Vande Casteele, C H Seow, J M Andrews, S J Connor, G T Moore, M Barclay, J Begun, R Bryant, W Chan, C Corte, S Ghaly, D A Lemberg, V Kariyawasam, P Lewindon, J Martin, R Mountifield, G Radford-Smith, P Slobodian, M Sparrow, C Toong, D van Langenberg, M G Ward, R W Leong
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents can help optimise outcomes. Consensus statements based on current evidence will help the development of treatment guidelines. AIM: To develop evidence-based consensus statements for TDM-guided anti-TNF therapy in IBD. METHODS: A committee of 25 Australian and international experts was assembled. The initial draft statements were produced following a systematic literature search...
October 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026542/a-population-based-survey-on-physical-inactivity-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-among-adults-in-chiang-mai-thailand-2014
#2
Sanhapan Thanamee, Kanokporn Pinyopornpanish, Apichai Wattanapisit, Suparerk Suerungruang, Kanittha Thaikla, Wichuda Jiraporncharoen, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon
BACKGROUND: Reducing physical inactivity among the population is a challenge for many nations. Targeting leisure time physical activity (LTPA) may be useful in increasing overall physical activity as it is assumed it is associated with a higher degree of free choice and personal preference than physical activity at work and during travel. The study explored the prevalence of physical inactivity and focused on the overall level of energy expenditure and energy level spent during leisure time among those who were physically inactive and assessed the stages of change for LTPA among those who were physically inactive...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025526/hospital-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-results-of-a-cohort-study-performed-in-an-internal-medicine-department
#3
Maria João Lobão, Paulo Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections are the most frequent healthcare associated infections, being related to both high costs and morbidity. Our intention was to carry out an epidemiological characterization of hospital acquired urinary tract infections that occurred in an internal medicine department of a Portuguese hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (historic cohort). Data were analysed from a systematic random sample of 388 patients, representative of the 3492 admissions occurred in 2014 in that department...
September 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024454/disclosure-of-personalized-rheumatoid-arthritis-risk-using-genetics-biomarkers-and-lifestyle-factors-to-motivate-health-behavior-improvements-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jeffrey A Sparks, Maura D Iversen, Zhi Yu, Nellie A Triedman, Maria G Prado, Rachel Miller Kroouze, Sarah S Kalia, Michael L Atkinson, Elinor A Mody, Simon M Helfgott, Derrick J Todd, Paul F Dellaripa, Bonnie L Bermas, Karen H Costenbader, Kevin D Deane, Bing Lu, Robert C Green, Elizabeth W Karlson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of disclosure of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk personalized with genetics, biomarkers, and lifestyle factors on health behavior intentions. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial among first-degree relatives without RA. Subjects assigned to the Personalized Risk Estimator for RA (PRE-RA) group received the web-based PRE-RA tool for RA risk factor education and disclosure of personalized RA risk estimates including genotype/autoantibody results and behaviors (n=158)...
October 12, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020085/success-rates-in-smoking-cessation-psychological-preparation-plays-a-critical-role-and-interacts-with-other-factors-such-as-psychoactive-substances
#5
Bertrand Joly, Jean Perriot, Philippe d'Athis, Emmanuel Chazard, Georges Brousse, Catherine Quantin
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the results of smoking cessation attempts. METHODS: Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from a smoking cessation clinic between 1999 and 2009 (1,361 patients). Smoking cessation was considered a success when patients were abstinent 6 months after the beginning of cessation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between abstinence and different factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019974/the-state-of-the-art-in-stem-cell-biology-regenerative-medicine-the-end-of-the-beginning
#6
REVIEW
Evan Y Snyder
With translational stem cell biology and Regenerative Medicine (the field to which it gave rise) now over a quarter century old, it is time to take stock of where we have been and where we are going. This editorial overview, which serves an introduction to a special issue of Pediatric Research dedicated to these fields, reinforces the notion that stem cells are ultimately intrinsic parts of developmental biology, for which Pediatrics represents the clinical face. While stem cells represent the cellular basis for a great deal of unrecognized plasticity programmed into the developing and post-developmental human, and while there is great promise in harnessing this plasticity for therapeutic advantage, their successful use rests on a deep understanding of their developmental imperatives and the developmental programs in which they engage...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017890/faulty-brca1-brca2-genes-how-poor-is-the-prognosis
#7
REVIEW
John O'Quigley
We take a critical look at the meaning behind the number 87% given to 25-year-old Sophie, a BRCA1 and BRCA2 carrier. Sophie has been told she has an 87% chance of getting breast cancer. She is contemplating a preventive double mastectomy after genetic counseling and her physician's advice. Some 92% of British general practitioners are in favor of prophylactic mastectomy as a treatment option for women similar to Sophie. The treatment decision results, to a very large extent, from the size of the number (87%) alone...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016274/mind-the-hype-a-critical-evaluation-and-prescriptive-agenda-for-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#8
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Catherine E Kerr, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and "key to building more resilient soldiers." Yet the mindfulness movement and empirical evidence supporting it have not gone without criticism. Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016240/reiterated-concerns-and-further-challenges-for-mindfulness-and-meditation-research-a-reply-to-davidson-and-dahl
#9
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
In response to our article, Davidson and Dahl offer commentary and advice regarding additional topics crucial to a comprehensive prescriptive agenda for future research on mindfulness and meditation. Their commentary raises further challenges and provides an important complement to our article. More consideration of these issues is especially welcome because limited space precluded us from addressing all relevant topics. While we agree with many of Davidson and Dahl's suggestions, the present reply (a) highlights reasons why the concerns we expressed are still especially germane to mindfulness and meditation research (even though those concerns may not be entirely unique) and (b) gives more context to other issues posed by them...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016238/outstanding-challenges-in-scientific-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#10
Richard J Davidson, Cortland J Dahl
Van Dam et al. raise a number of critical issues in contemporary research on mindfulness and meditation and offer a prescriptive agenda for future work in this area. While we agree with all of the key points made in their article, there are a number of important issues omitted that are central to a comprehensive agenda for future research in this area. This commentary highlights five key points: (a) Many of the key methodological issues the article raises are not specific to research on mindfulness; (b) contemplative practices are varied, and the landscape of modern scientific research has evolved to focus almost exclusively on one or two types of practice to the exclusion of other forms of practice that are potentially highly impactful;...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993113/the-cognitive-impact-of-chronic-low-back-pain-positive-effect-of-multidisciplinary-pain-therapy
#11
Marcus Schiltenwolf, Michael Akbar, Eva Neubauer, Simone Gantz, Herta Flor, Andreas Hug, Haili Wang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991847/medical-humanities-the-rx-for-uncertainty
#12
Danielle Ofri
While medical students often fear the avalanche of knowledge they are required to learn during training, it is learning to translate that knowledge into wisdom that is the greatest challenge of becoming a doctor. Part of that challenge is learning to tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty, a difficult feat for doctors who are taught to question anything that is not evidence based or peer reviewed. The medical humanities specialize in this ambiguity and uncertainty, which are hallmarks of actual clinical practice but rarely addressed in medical education...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990863/when-doctors-struggle-current-stressors-and-evaluation-recommendations-for-physicians-contemplating-suicide
#13
Elizabeth Brooks, Michael H Gendel, Sarah R Early, Doris C Gundersen
OBJECTIVE: Document current risk factors associated with physicians' suicide ideation among a group of doctors enrolled in a Physician Health Program. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study drawn from administrative data. Compared intake information between doctors who reported recent thoughts of suicide (n = 70) and those who did not (n = 1,572) using adjusted regression analysis. RESULTS: Current stressors included personal, financial, health and occupational problems; ideation was more likely with multiple stressors...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990002/two-cases-of-alpps-procedure-simultaneous-alpps-and-colorectal-resection-and-alpps-procedure-for-hepatic-malignancy-larger-than-15-centimeter
#14
Young Il Choi, Hyung Hwan Moon, Dong Hoon Shin
Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has recently been introduced as a new surgical technique to increase future liver remnant in patients with marginal liver volume contemplating major liver resection. We herein present two cases. Case 1: a 68-year-old male patient with colorectal liver metastasis was referred to our department. The future liver remnant (FLR) was 22%. We performed first-stage ALPPS and colorectal surgery concurrently and second stage operation was performed 8 days later...
August 2017: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983508/specific-reduction-in-cortisol-stress-reactivity-after-social-but-not-attention-based-mental-training
#15
Veronika Engert, Bethany E Kok, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Tania Singer
Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress-induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980452/rationale-and-study-design-of-intravenous-loop-diuretic-administration-in-acute-heart-failure-diur-ahf
#16
Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano Ruocco, Giorgio Vescovo, Roberto Valle, Salvatore Di Somma, Ranuccio Nuti
AIMS: Although loop diuretics are the most commonly used drugs in acute heart failure (AHF) treatment, their short-term and long-term effects are relatively unknown. The significance of worsening renal function occurrence during intravenous treatment is not clear enough. This trial aims to clarify all these features and contemplate whether continuous infusion is better than an intermittent strategy in terms of decongestion efficacy, diuretic efficiency, renal function, and long-term prognosis...
October 4, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980431/analysis-of-public-discourse-on-heart-transplantation-in-japan-using-social-network-service-data
#17
N Nawa, H Ishida, H Suginobe, S Katsuragi, H Baden, K Takahashi, J Narita, S Kogaki, K Ozono
The clarification of public concerns regarding heart transplantation is important for improving low organ donation rates in Japan. In the present study, we used the Twitter data of 4986 (between August 2015 and January 2016) and 1429 tweets (between April 2016 and May 2016) to analyze public discourse on heart transplantation in Japan and identify the reasons for low organ donation rates. We manually categorized all tweets relevant to heart transplantation into nine categories and counted the number of tweets in each category per month...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975868/approximate-reduction-of-linear-population-models-governed-by-stochastic-differential-equations-application-to-multiregional-models
#18
Luis Sanz, Juan Antonio Alonso
In this work we develop approximate aggregation techniques in the context of slow-fast linear population models governed by stochastic differential equations and apply the results to the treatment of populations with spatial heterogeneity. Approximate aggregation techniques allow one to transform a complex system involving many coupled variables and in which there are processes with different time scales, by a simpler reduced model with a fewer number of 'global' variables, in such a way that the dynamics of the former can be approximated by that of the latter...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973157/the-sport-participation-legacy-of-major-events-in-the-uk
#19
Girish Ramchandani, Richard Coleman, Elizabeth Christy
This paper examines the extent to which attending major sporting events leads to subsequent changes in the sport participation behaviour of spectators. The research covered seven single-sport events of World or European level held in the UK in 2014 and was concerned with spectators (aged 16 and over) who attended one of these events. Baseline data was gathered from a sample of spectators at each event using a face-to-face survey. Follow-up data was captured using an online survey at least nine months post-event...
September 15, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968438/microrna-16-feedback-loop-with-p53-and-wip1-can-regulate-cell-fate-determination-between-apoptosis-and-senescence-in-dna-damage-response
#20
Maria Vitória C Issler, José Carlos M Mombach
Cell fate regulation is an open problem whose comprehension impacts several areas of the biosciences. DNA damage induces cell cycle checkpoints that activate the p53 pathway to regulate cell fate mechanisms such as apoptosis or senescence. Experiments with different cell types show that the p53 pathway regulates cell fate through a switch behavior in its dynamics. For low DNA damage the pathway presents an oscillatory pattern associated with intense DNA damage repair while for high damage there are no oscillations and either p53 concentration increases inducing apoptosis or the cell enters a senescence state...
2017: PloS One
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