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Asthma therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928921/paucigranulocytic-asthma-the-uncoupling-of-airway-obstruction-from-inflammation
#1
Omar Tliba, Reynold A Panettieri
Among patients with asthma, heterogeneity exists regarding the pattern of airway inflammation and response to treatment, prompting the necessity of recognizing specific phenotypes. Based on the analysis of inflammatory cell count in induced sputum, patients with asthma can be classified in four unique phenotypes; eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed granulocytic, and paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA). PGA is an asthma phenotype with no evidence of elevated numbers of eosinophils or neutrophils in sputum or blood, and in which anti-inflammatory therapies are ineffective in controlling symptoms...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924418/glucocorticoid-exposure-and-fracture-risk-in-a-cohort-of-us-patients-with-selected-conditions
#2
A Balasubramanian, S W Wade, R A Adler, K Saag, N Pannacciulli, J R Curtis
PURPOSE: We evaluated systemic glucocorticoid exposure and fracture among patients with newly-diagnosed inflammatory and immune-modulated conditions. METHODS: Using administrative data, inception cohorts of RA, asthma/COPD, IBD, MS, lupus, and sarcoidosis patients age 18-64 years with benefits coverage ≥12 months before diagnosis (1/1/2005-12/31/2012) were followed to clinical fracture, cancer diagnosis, or 12/31/2012. Glucocorticoid users were new to therapy...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922064/managing-patients-with-chronic-cough-challenges-and-solutions
#3
Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Claire Launois, Maxime Dewolf, Antoine Dumazet, Sandra Dury, François Lebargy, Valérian Dormoy, Gaëtan Deslee
Chronic cough is a common complaint and a frequent cause of medical consultation. Its management can be difficult. We present here an overview of the current guidelines for the management of chronic cough. Different steps are detailed, including the initial research of an obvious etiology and alert signs that should lead to further investigation of underlying condition. The diagnosis of the most frequent causes: asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway cough syndrome should be considered, assessed and treated accordingly...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914685/glucocorticosteroids-administration-is-associated-with-increased-regulatory-t-cells-in-equine-asthmatic-lungs
#4
Roxane Boivin, Amandine Vargas, Patricia Cano, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Recurrent inflammation in severe equine asthma causes a remodeling of the airways leading to incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Despite the improvement of clinical signs and lung function with glucocorticoids (GC), inflammation, translated by an increased percentage of neutrophils, persists in the airways. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and play an important role in balancing the immune response by suppressing effector lymphocyte activity. However, interactions between Treg, neutrophils and glucocorticosteroids in vivo are unclear, particularly in asthma...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909018/successful-treatment-of-eosinophilic-otitis-media-associated-with-severe-bronchial-asthma-with-an-anti-il-5-monoclonal-antibody-mepolizumab
#5
Isao Suzaki, Yurika Kimura, Akihiko Tanaka, Kojiro Hirano, Atsushi Ishibashi, Tomomi Mizuyoshi, Izumi Ando, Tatsuya Kitajima, So Watanabe, Yasuyuki Hinonira, Hitome Kobayashi
Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM), which is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in middle ear effusion and the middle ear mucosa, is a refractory type of otitis media that is often associated with asthma. Although an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to prevent the progression of hearing loss in patients with EOM, there are currently no well-established treatments for this condition. We treated a 60-year-old male patient with asthma and EOM. The patient's asthma was poorly controlled, despite the use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta-agonist treatment, and the regular use of systemic corticosteroids...
June 13, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908547/oral-immunotherapy-to-wheat-in-allergic-asthmatic-female-a-case-report
#6
Ioana Adriana Muntean, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Diana Deleanu
Wheat is the most commonly grown cereal. Immunological reaction to wheat may be IgE or T-cell- mediated. Asthma could be induced by inhaled flour or by exposure to allergens present in bakery products. In patients with IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins there is no specific therapy, except oral immunotherapy (OIT). There are few data regarding OIT with wheat protein in allergic patients. We present a case of a 32-yearold female patient, who worked for 5 years in wheat and bakery products industry, who developed an occupational asthma and chronic urticaria after flour inhalation or ingestion of foods that containit...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907870/synergistic-activation-of-pro-inflammatory-type-2-cd8-t-lymphocytes-by-lipid-mediators-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#7
Bart Hilvering, Timothy S C Hinks, Linda Stöger, Emanuele Marchi, Maryam Salimi, Rahul Shrimanker, Wei Liu, Wentao Chen, Jian Luo, Simei Go, Timothy Powell, Jennifer Cane, Samantha Thulborn, Ayako Kurioka, Tianqi Leng, Jamie Matthews, Clare Connolly, Catherine Borg, Mona Bafadhel, Christian B Willberg, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Ratko Djukanović, Graham Ogg, Ian D Pavord, Paul Klenerman, Luzheng Xue
Human type-2 CD8+ T cells are a cell population with potentially important roles in allergic disease. We investigated this in the context of severe asthma with persistent airway eosinophilia-a phenotype associated with high exacerbation risk and responsiveness to type-2 cytokine-targeted therapies. In two independent cohorts we show that, in contrast to Th2 cells, type-2 cytokine-secreting CD8+ CRTH2+ (Tc2) cells are enriched in blood and airways in severe eosinophilic asthma. Concentrations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 ) and cysteinyl leukotriene E4 (LTE4 ) are also increased in the airways of the same group of patients...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907668/longterm-outcomes-of-188-japanese-patients-with-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#8
Aiko Saku, Shunsuke Furuta, Masaki Hiraguri, Kei Ikeda, Yoshihisa Kobayashi, Shin-Ichiro Kagami, Kazuhiro Kurasawa, Ryutaro Matsumura, Daiki Nakagomi, Takao Sugiyama, Takeshi Umibe, Norihiko Watanabe, Hiroshi Nakajima
OBJECTIVE: Patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) frequently experience relapses, which lead to cumulative organ damage. In this retrospective observational study, we aimed to reveal the risk factors for relapse in EGPA. METHODS: A total of 188 Japanese patients with EGPA diagnosed between 1996 and 2015 were identified from medical records in 10 hospitals. The diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria or Lanham's criteria...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906503/isolation-and-profiling-of-plasma-micrornas-biomarkers-for-asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis
#9
Ronaldo P Panganiban, Kristin A Lambert, Man-Hsun Hsu, Zoe Laryea, Faoud T Ishmael
Chronic inflammatory diseases can be particularly challenging to diagnose and characterize, as inflammatory changes in tissue may not be present in blood. There is a crucial need to develop non-invasive biomarkers that would be useful in diagnosing disease and selecting medical therapies. For example, there are no blood tests to diagnose asthma, a common inflammatory lung disease. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in blood is emerging as a potentially sensitive and useful biomarker of many diseases. In particular, we have characterized a cost-effective PCR-based array technology to measure and profile circulating miRNAs in the plasma of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma...
June 12, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906501/repurposing-drugs-as-inhaled-therapies-in-asthma
#10
Sandra D Anderson
For the first 40 years of the 20th century treatment for asthma occurred in response to an asthma attack. The treatments were given by injection or orally and included the adrenergic agonists adrenalin/epinephrine and ephedrine and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline. Epinephrine became available as an aerosol in 1930. After 1945, isoprenaline, a non-selective beta agonist, became available for oral use but it was most widely used by inhalation. Isoprenaline was short-acting with unwanted cardiac effects...
June 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906344/boehringer-ingelheim-satellite-symposium-choosing-the-right-controller-therapy-in-pediatric-patients-with-asthma
#11
Stanley J Szefler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905356/-biologics-in-rhinology-forthcoming-personalized-concepts-the-future-starts-today
#12
Adam M Chaker
Sinunasale Erkrankungen zählen mit zu den häufigsten chronischen Erkrankungen und führen zu einer erheblichen Störung der Lebensqualität, ein komorbides Asthma ist häufig. Trotz leitliniengerechter Therapie ist anzunehmen, dass mind. 20% der Patienten ihre Erkrankungssymptome nicht adäquat kontrollieren können. Neben den etablierten chirurgischen und konservativen Therapieoptionen finden sich nun vielversprechende Therapieansätze, die bspw. mittels therapeutischer Antikörper mechanistisch gezielt in die Pathophysiologie der Erkrankungen eingreifen können...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901144/expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-in-bronchial-asthma-and-its-bioinformatics-prediction
#13
Lishen Shan, Xinyuan Kang, Fen Liu, Xuxu Cai, Xiaohua Han, Yunxiao Shang
Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are associated with the occurrence and development of asthma. The aim of the present study was to analyze the secondary structure and B‑cell and T‑cell epitopes of VDR using online prediction software and aid in the future development of a highly efficient epitope‑based vaccine against asthma. Blood samples were collected from peripheral blood of asthmatic children. Reverse transcription quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of VDR in the peripheral blood...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895495/flavonoids-as-th1-th2-cytokines-immunomodulators-a-systematic-review-of-studies-on-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Maria Terezinha Santos Leite Neta, Rajiv Gandhi Sathiyabama, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds, extensively distributed in plants. T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines balance plays an essential role in the reaction of inflammatory, allergic and infectious processes and transplantation rejection. PURPOSE: This systematic review focuses on various classes of flavonoids with a view to evaluate whether Th1/Th2 cytokine-mediated pathways of immunoenhancement could reduce immune overwhelming reactions. METHODS: Articles in English published from inception to December 2017 reporting flavonoids with immunomodulatory activity for the management of immune-mediated disorders were acquired from PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science and a animal experiments where Th1 and Th2 cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of immunoregulatory therapy were included...
May 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893057/cartoons-to-improve-young-children-s-cooperation-with-inhaled-corticosteroids-a-preliminary-study
#15
Agnès Frémont, Rola Abou Taam, Stéphanie Wanin, Marie-Noëlle Lebras, Vincent Ollier, Sylvie Nathanson, Alice Hadchouel, David Drummond
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate if animated cartoons could increase the cooperation of young children with asthma during the delivery of their inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: Subjects were children aged 6-47 months having a physician diagnosis of asthma, who required an ICS therapy delivered through a pMDI/spacer twice a day for at least 2 months. Families who reported on a questionnaire that their child was frequently crying or moving during treatment delivery were asked to participate in a prospective, cross-over, randomized study...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892237/altered-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-of-right-cerebellum-posterior-lobe-in-asthmatic-patients-with-or-without-depressive-symptoms
#16
Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Ze Wang, Rongrong Bian, Wenhao Jiang, Yingying Yin, Yingying Yue, Zhenghua Hou, Yonggui Yuan
Background: Asthma is a chronic disease appeared to be associated with depression. But the underpinnings of depression in asthma remain unknown. In order to understand the neural mechanisms of depression in asthma, we used cerebral blood flow (CBF) to probe the difference between depressed asthmatic (DA) and non-depressed asthmatic (NDA) patients. Methods: Eighteen DA patients, 24 NDA patients and 57 healthy controls (HC) received pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) scan for measuring CBF, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan, severity of depression and asthma control assessment, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888928/controller-therapy-in-asians-and-whites-with-persistent-asthma
#17
Wansu Chen, Michael Schatz, Zhi Liang, Qiaowu Li, Ekaterina Sadikova, Zilu Zhang, Shalini Bagga, Robert S Zeiger
BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning the relative effectiveness of LTRAs compared to ICSs as monotherapy or LABA as add-on therapy in the Asian population. OBJECTIVES: In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the comparative effectiveness of montelukast to ICS as a first-line monotherapy and as an add-on in comparison with LABA on asthma exacerbations among Asian and non-Hispanic white persistent asthma patients in a large managed care organization. METHODS: The three add-on comparisons were montelukast plus low-dose ICS versus LABA plus low-dose ICS, montelukast plus low-dose ICS versus medium-dose ICS, and montelukast plus medium-dose ICS versus LABA plus medium-dose ICS...
June 11, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886099/effect-of-delayed-pmdi-actuation-on-the-lung-deposition-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-aerosol-drug
#18
Árpád Farkas, Alpár Horváth, Attila Kerekes, Attila Nagy, Szilvia Kugler, Lilla Tamási, Gábor Tomisa
Lack of coordination between the beginning of the inhalation and device triggering is one of the most frequent errors reported in connection with the use of pMDI devices. Earlier results suggested a significant loss in lung deposition as a consequence of late actuation. However, most of our knowledge on the effect of poor synchronization is based on earlier works on CFC devices emitting large particles with high initial velocities. The aim of this study was to apply numerical techniques to analyse the effect of late device actuation on the lung dose of a HFA pMDI drug emitting high fraction of extrafine particles used in current asthma and COPD therapy...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883053/mucus-t-helper-2-biomarkers-predict-chronic-rhinosinusitis-disease-severity-and-prior-surgical-intervention
#19
Justin H Turner, Ping Li, Rakesh K Chandra
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a diverse clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Early attempts to identify CRS endotypes and biomarkers have largely relied on analysis of surgically obtained tissue, thus limiting their practical utility. This study examined the ability of mucus T helper 2 (Th2) biomarkers to predict CRS disease severity and clinical characteristics. METHODS: CRS (n = 90) and healthy control subjects (n = 17) were prospectively enrolled prior to surgical intervention and mucus levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were determined using a multiplex cytometric bead assay...
June 8, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881435/different-gene-expressions-of-alpha-and-beta-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-asthmatics
#20
Kayvan Saeedfar, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Reza Masjedi
The response to glucocorticoids (GCs) therapy classifies severe refractory asthma (SRA) and mild asthma, so the glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs) gene expression may be involved in SRA pathogenesis. Thus, it is aimed to compare the expression levels of two GCR isoforms (GCRα and GCRβ) in SRA, mild asthmatics, and healthy controls. Total RNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes of 13 SRA patients, 14 mild asthma patients and 30 healthy volunteers. The expression levels of GCR isoforms were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
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