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Interal feeding

Becki Lawson, Robert A Robinson, Mike P Toms, Kate Risely, Susan MacDonald, Andrew A Cunningham
Provision of supplementary food for wild birds at garden feeding stations is a common, large-scale and year-round practice in multiple countries including Great Britain (GB). While these additional dietary resources can benefit wildlife, there is a concomitant risk of disease transmission, particularly when birds repeatedly congregate in the same place at high densities and through interactions of species that would not normally associate in close proximity. Citizen science schemes recording garden birds are popular and can integrate disease surveillance with population monitoring, offering a unique opportunity to explore inter-relationships between supplementary feeding, disease epidemiology and population dynamics...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Agnes M L Karlson, Martin Reutgard, Andrius Garbaras, Elena Gorokhova
The isotopic niche has become an established concept in trophic ecology. However, the assumptions behind this approach have rarely been evaluated. Evidence is accumulating that physiological stress can affect both magnitude and inter-individual variability of the isotopic signature in consumers via alterations in metabolic pathways. We hypothesized that stress factors (inadequate nutrition, parasite infestations, and exposure to toxic substances or varying oxygen conditions) might lead to suboptimal physiological performance and altered stable isotope signatures...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Josué O Suárez-Ortiz, Felipe Cortés-Salazar, Ariadna L Malagón-Carrillo, Verónica E López-Alonso, Juan M Mancilla-Díaz, Juan G Tejas-Juárez, Rodrigo E Escartín-Pérez
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mi Jin Lee, Ho Jin Kim
A novel and simple method for detecting 6 zearalenones in animal feed using liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoaffinity columns (IAC) was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the 6 zearalenones were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and mass spectrum with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of mobile phase A (water) and B (0.5% formic acid in ACN). Method validation was performed with linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision...
2018: PloS One
Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson, Zepeng Sun, Christopher A Klausmeier
The ubiquity of cooperative cross-feeding (a resource-exchange mutualism) raises two related questions: Why is cross-feeding favored over self-sufficiency, and how are cross-feeders protected from non-producing cheaters? The Black Queen Hypothesis suggests that if leaky resources are costly, then there should be selection for either gene loss or self-sufficiency, but selection against mutualistic inter-dependency. Localized interactions have been shown to protect mutualists against cheaters, though their effects in the presence of self-sufficient organisms are not well understood...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Amit Arora, Narendar Manohar, Dina Bedros, Anh Phong David Hua, Steven Yu Hsiang You, Victoria Blight, Shilpi Ajwani, John Eastwood, Sameer Bhole
Background: Dental decay in early childhood can be prevented by a model based on shared care utilising members of primary care team such as Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs) in health promotion and early intervention. The aims of this study were to identify the facilitators and barriers faced by CFHNs in recruiting research participants from disadvantaged backgrounds to a birth cohort study in South Western Sydney, Australia. Methods: Child and Family Health Nurses recruited mothers-infants dyads ( n  = 1036) at the first post-natal home visit as part of Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids Study, an ongoing birth cohort study in South Western Sydney...
2018: BMC Nursing
María Carmen Saucedo Figueredo, Juan Carlos Morilla Herrera, Mercedes San Alberto Giraldos, Inmaculada López Leiva, Álvaro León Campos, Celia Martí García, Silvia García Mayor, Shakira Kaknani Uttumchandani, José Miguel Morales Asencio
AIMS: To adapt the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Scale (EdFED) for use in a Spanish-speaking population and to assess its validity and reliability in patients with dementia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two stages: 1. Cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, review by committee of experts, pilot test and weighting of results); 2. Clinimetric validation comprising interobserver reliability assessment, test-retest reliability and internal consistency...
2018: PloS One
Stefano Cannicci, Marco Fusi, Filippo Cimó, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas, Sara Fratini
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of mangrove crabs has been commonly associated with tree zonation and abiotic factors such as ground temperature and soil granulometry. Conversely, no studies were designed to investigate the role of competition for resources and predation in shaping crab distribution in mangroves, despite these biotic factors are recognised as key determinants for spatial patterns observed in the communities colonising rocky and sandy intertidal habitats.We studied floral and faunal assemblages in two zones of a Sri Lankan mangrove, a man-made upper intertidal level and a natural eulittoral, mid-shore one...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
L M Du Plessis, M H McLachlan, S E Drimie
BACKGROUND: Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Catriona M Steele, Ashwini M Namasivayam-MacDonald, Brittany T Guida, Julie A Y Cichero, Janice Duivestein, Ben Hanson, Peter Lam, Luis F Riquelme
OBJECTIVE: To assess consensual validity, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale (IDDSI-FDS), a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. DESIGN: Participants assigned IDDSI-FDS scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Parameswara Rao Vuddanda, Mustafa Alomari, Cornelius C Dodoo, Sarah J Trenfield, Sitaram Velaga, Abdul W Basit, Simon Gaisford
Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant that is critical in reducing patient morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolic disorders. However, its narrow therapeutic index and large inter-individual variability can lead to complex dosage regimes. Formulating warfarin as an orodispersible film (ODF) using thermal ink-jet (TIJ) printing could enable personalisation of therapy to simplify administration. Commercial TIJ printers are currently unsuitable for printing the milligram dosages, typically required for warfarin therapy...
February 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
A Asher, A Shabtay, M Cohen-Zinder, Y Aharoni, J Miron, R Agmon, I Halachmi, A Orlov, A Haim, L O Tedeschi, G E Carstens, K A Johnson, A Brosh
This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining inter-animal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during 3 periods (P1, P2 and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated ME of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, 127 d, respectively...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sebastian Ortiz, Sonia M Hernandez, Michael J Yabsley, Trista I Becker, Benjamin Carswell, Yank Moore, Heather Fenton, Charlie S Bahnson, Kevin Niedringhaus, Elizabeth Elsmo, Lillian Orciari, Pamela Yager, Nancy L Stedman, Steven E Nelson, Terry M Norton
  The introduction of rabies virus (RABV) to barrier islands, which are often popular tourist destinations with resource-rich habitats and connectivity and proximity to the mainland, is especially concerning because it can easily become endemic due to factors like dense rabies-vector populations (e.g., raccoons [ Procyon lotor]), high inter- and intraspecies contact rates, and anthropogenic activities such as supplemental feeding of feral cats ( Felis catus). In January 2013, a neurologic raccoon found on the Jekyll Island (JI), Georgia causeway tested positive for rabies...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Masahiro Tsuji, Jacques-Olivier Coq, Yuko Ogawa, Yumi Yamamoto, Makiko Ohshima
Intrauterine hypoperfusion/ischemia is one of the major causes of intrauterine/fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Most studies of this phenomenon have been performed in either models with severe intrauterine ischemia or models with gradient degree of intrauterine hypoperfusion. No study has been performed in a model on uniform mild intrauterine hypoperfusion (MIUH). Two models have been used for studies of MIUH: a model based on suture ligation of either side of the arterial arcade formed with the uterine and ovarian arteries, and a transient model based on clipping the bilateral ovarian arteries and aorta having patency...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qin Fu, Xiaowei Li, Kangni Zheng, Yuebin Ke, Yingyu Wang, Lina Wang, Fugen Yu, Xi Xia
A confirmatory method for the determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed was developed and validated. Colistin A and colistin B were extracted from samples with the mixture of 10% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile and isolated with mixed-mode weak cation exchange cartridge. Analytes were separated from matrix components using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and detected with electrospray ionization on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Marcelo Araya-Salas, Dariusz Jakubas
Pair collaborative behavior may play an important role in avian reproduction. However, evidence for this mainly comes from certain ecological groups (e.g. passerines). We studied the coordination of parents in foraging and its effect on food provisioning rate and chick growth in a small seabird, the Dovekie (Little auk, Alle alle). The species exhibits a dual foraging strategy, where provisioning adults make foraging trips of short (mean ~2 h; to provide food for the chick) and long duration (mean ~ 13 h; mainly for adults self-maintenance, although the food is also brought to the chick)...
2018: PloS One
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
S F Castiglia, G Galeoto, A Lauta, A Palumbo, F Tirinelli, F Viselli, Valter Santilli, M L Sacchetti
The Barthel Index (BI) is widely used to determine eligibility criteria for inpatient rehabilitation and to monitor patients' recovery, irrespective of the illnesses that affect them. The culturally adapted Italian version of the Barthel Index (IcaBI) was recently validated. This paper reports the structural validity and inter-rater reliability of the IcaBI and its responsiveness to the results of inpatient rehabilitation. The IcaBI was administered to a cohort of 264 patients hospitalized in two rehabilitation centers in Rome, Italy...
October 2017: Functional Neurology
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