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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618173/inter-individual-differences-determine-the-outcome-of-wheat-bran-colonization-by-the-human-gut-microbiome
#1
Kim De Paepe, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Joran Verspreet, Christophe M Courtin, Tom Van de Wiele
Gut microbiota research reveals a vital role for the luminal and mucosal gut microbiota in human health. Fewer studies, however, have characterized the microbiome associated with undigested, insoluble dietary particles in the gut. These particles can act as a food source for bacteria and offer a physical platform to which they can attach. In this study, the microbiome colonizing wheat bran particles was analyzed. In a batch experiment, wheat bran particles were separately incubated with the fecal microbiota derived from ten donors and washed after 48h to remove loosely attached bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615664/investigation-of-material-removal-in-inner-jet-electrochemical-grinding-of-gh4169-alloy
#2
Hansong Li, Shen Niu, Qingliang Zhang, Shuxing Fu, Ningsong Qu
Electrochemical grinding (ECG) is a low-cost and highly efficient process for application to difficult-to-machine materials. In this process, the electrolyte supply mode directly affects machining stability and efficiency. This paper proposes a flow channel structure for an abrasive tool to be used for inner-jet ECG of GH4169 alloy. The tool is based on a dead-end tube with electrolyte outlet holes located in the sidewall. The diameter and number of outlet holes are determined through numerical simulation with the aim of achieving uniform electrolyte flow in the inter-electrode gap...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607212/macronutrients-in-breastmilk-of-mothers-of-preterm-infants
#3
Shiwani Mahajan, Deepak Chawla, Jasbinder Kaur, Suksham Jain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the variability in macronutrient and energy content of breastmilk of Indian women delivering at ≤34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, samples of breastmilk expressed manually for feeding of preterm neonates were collected from 106 mothers at 3±1 (n=26), 7±2 (n=34), 14±2 (n=24), 21±3 (n=12) and 28±3 (n=10) days after birth. Protein, fat and carbohydrate content were estimated and total energy content was calculated...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599361/hydraulic-modelling-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-variability-in-atlantic-salmon-parr-habitat-availability-in-an-upland-stream
#4
Luca Fabris, Iain Archibald Malcolm, Willem Bastiaan Buddendorf, Karen Jane Millidine, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Chris Soulsby
We show how spatial variability in channel bed morphology affects the hydraulic characteristics of river reaches available to Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) under different flow conditions in an upland stream. The study stream, the Girnock Burn, is a long-term monitoring site in the Scottish Highlands. Six site characterised by different bed geometry and morphology were investigated. Detailed site bathymetries were collected and combined with discharge time series in a 2D hydraulic model to obtain spatially distributed depth-averaged velocities under different flow conditions...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593913/excessive-weight-gain-in-exclusively-breast-fed-infants
#5
Carola Saure, Marisa Armeno, Consuelo Barcala, Vanesa Giudici, Carmen Silvia Mazza
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is recommended as the best source of nutrition in the first months of life and observational studies have associated exclusive breastfeeding with decreased weight gain and a protective effect against obesity in childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of a cohort of exclusively breastfed obese infants to determine factors that may lead to this unusual weight gain. METHODS: Infants seen between 2003 and 2015 who were exclusively breastfed and showed excessive weight gain in the first year of life were followed with a focus on features of the mother, the child, feeding patterns and the presence of concomitant factors that influence nutritional status...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588557/the-mechanism-of-starch-over-accumulation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-high-starch-mutants-identified-by-comparative-transcriptome-analysis
#6
Kwang M Koo, Sera Jung, Beom S Lee, Jin-Baek Kim, Yeong D Jo, Hong-Il Choi, Si-Yong Kang, Gook-H Chung, Won-Joong Jeong, Joon-Woo Ahn
The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556505/restoring-maximum-vertical-browsing-reach-in-sauropod-dinosaurs
#7
Gregory S Paul
The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals...
May 26, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551222/quantitation-of-fumonisin-b1-and-b2-in-feed-using-fmoc-pre-column-derivatization-with-hplc-and-fluorescence-detection
#8
Lori L Smith, Kyle A Francis, Joseph T Johnson, Cynthia L Gaskill
Pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was determined to be effective for quantitation of fumonisins B1 and B2 in feed. Liquid-solid extraction, clean-up using immunoaffinity solid phase extraction chromatography, and FMOC-derivatization preceded analysis by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence. Instrument response was unchanged in the presence of matrix, indicating no need to use matrix-matched calibrants. Furthermore, high method recoveries indicated calibrants do not need to undergo clean-up to account for analyte loss...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532305/production-and-use-of-estimates-for-monitoring-progress-in-the-health-sector-the-case-of-bangladesh
#9
Karar Zunaid Ahsan, Tazeen Tahsina, Afrin Iqbal, Nazia Binte Ali, Suman Kanti Chowdhury, Tanvir M Huda, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND:  In order to support the progress towards the post-2015 development agenda for the health sector, the importance of high-quality and timely estimates has become evident both globally and at the country level. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Based on desk review, key informant interviews and expert panel discussions, the paper critically reviews health estimates from both the local (i.e. nationally generated information by the government and other agencies) and the global sources (which are mostly modeled or interpolated estimates developed by international organizations based on different sources of information), and assesses the country capacity and monitoring strategies to meet the increasing data demand in the coming years...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487630/analysis-of-interrelationships-among-voluntary-and-prosthetic-leg-joint-parameters-using-cyclograms
#10
Farahiyah Jasni, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nor Elleeiana Mohd Syah, Tze Y Chung, Noor Azuan Abu Osman
The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486173/effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-on-prostaglandins-in-normal-and-tumor-colon-tissue-modulation-by-the-lipogenic-phenotype-of-colon-tumors
#11
Zora Djuric, Muhammad Nadeem Aslam, Becky R Simon, Ananda Sen, Yan Jiang, Jianwei Ren, Rena Chan, Tanu Soni, T M Rajendiran, William L Smith, Dean E Brenner
Dietary fish oils have potential for prevention of colon cancer, and yet the mechanisms of action in normal and tumor colon tissues are not well defined. Here we evaluated the impact of the colonic fatty acid milieu on the formation of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids. Distal tumors in rats were chemically induced to model inflammatory colonic carcinogenesis. After 21 weeks of feeding with either a fish oil diet containing an eicosapentaenoic acid/ω-6 fatty acid ratio of 0.4 or a Western fat diet, the relationships between colon fatty acids and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483467/the-effect-of-social-media-some-on-journal-impact-factor-and-parental-awareness-in-paediatric-urology
#12
F O'Kelly, G J Nason, R P Manecksha, S Cascio, F J Quinn, M Leonard, M A Koyle, W Farhat, M J Leveridge
BACKGROUND: Social media (SoMe) comprises a number of internet-based applications that have the capability to disseminate multimodal media and allow for unprecedented inter-user connectivity. The role of Twitter has been studied in conferences and education; moreover, there is increasing evidence that patients are more likely to use social media for their own health education. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media platforms on the impact factor of both urological and paediatric journals that publish on paediatric urology, and to assess parental awareness of social media in paediatric urology...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462587/conditionally-pathogenic-gut-microbes-promote-larval-growth-by-increasing-redox-dependent-fat-storage-in-high-sugar-diet-fed-drosophila
#13
Tae Woong Whon, Na-Ri Shin, Mi-Ja Jung, Dong-Wook Hyun, Hyun Sik Kim, Pil Soo Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
AIMS: Changes in the composition of the gut microbiota contribute to the development of obesity and subsequent complications that are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, the role of increased numbers of certain bacterial species during the progress of obesity and factor(s) controlling the community structure of gut microbiota remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate the inter-relationship between Drosophila melanogaster and their resident gut microbiota under chronic high-sugar diet (HSD) conditions...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459132/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-postnatal-dentoalveolar-and-palatal-growth-the-anatomical-basis-for-cad-cam-assisted-production-of-cleft-lip-palate-feeding-plates
#14
Franz X Bauer, Florian D Güll, Maximilian Roth, Lucas M Ritschl, Andrea Rau, Dominik Gau, Maximilian Gruber, Markus Eblenkamp, Bettina Hilmer, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Denys J Loeffelbein
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the dentoalveolar and palatal growth during the first months of life. Knowledge concerning this development is essential to avoid unwanted events such as mucosal ulcerations or restriction of growth when cleft-lip and palate (CLP) patients are treated. The results involve the generation of CAD/CAM CLP-feeding plates. METHODS: Intraoral impressions from 32 healthy newborns were taken monthly for 5 months, supplemented by measurements of body weight, length, and occipital-frontal head circumference...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433734/prospective-association-of-fetal-liver-blood-flow-at-30-weeks-gestation-with-newborn-adiposity
#15
Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Masanao Ohashi, Kaeko Sumiyoshi, Chigusa Ikenoue, Claudia Buss, Daniel L Gillen, Hyagriv N Simhan, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment and because the fetal liver is the primary organ in which nutrient interconversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432750/effects-of-feeding-two-rrr-%C3%AE-tocopherol-formulations-on-serum-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-muscle-%C3%AE-tocopherol-concentrations-in-horses-with-subclinical-vitamin-e-deficiency
#16
J C Brown, S J Valberg, M Hogg, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: Alpha-tocopherol (α-TP) supplementation is recommended for the prevention of various equine neuromuscular disorders. Formulations available include RRR-α-TP acetate powder and a more expensive but rapidly water-dispersible liquid RRR-α-TP (WD RRR-α-TP). No cost-effective means of rapidly increasing serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) α-TP with WD RRR-α-TP and then sustaining concentrations with RRR-α-TP acetate has yet been reported. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum, CSF and muscle α-TP concentrations in an 8-week dosing regimen in which horses were transitioned from WD RRR-α-TP to RRR-α-TP acetate...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390660/isotopic-niches-of-fin-whales-from-the-mediterranean-sea-and-the-celtic-sea-north-atlantic
#17
Krishna Das, Ophélie Holleville, Conor Ryan, Simon Berrow, Anita Gilles, Denis Ody, Loïc N Michel
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) is the most abundant and widespread mysticete species in the Mediterranean Sea, found mostly in deep, offshore waters of the western and central portion of the region. In the Mediterranean, this species is known to feed mainly on krill, in contrast to its Atlantic counterpart, which displays a more diversified diet. The International Whaling Commission recognizes several managements units in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea and the connectivity between these populations is still being debated...
June 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378989/study-of-the-non-parasitic-stage-in-ixodes-ricinus-after-co-feeding-with-dermacentor-reticulatus-in-three-infestations
#18
Katarzyna Bartosik, Alicja Buczek, Adam Borzęcki, Dorota Kulina
It was proved that transmission of some pathogens may occur between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on a host in the absence of systemic infection. The effect was studied of co-feeding of two different tick species Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus on the course of the non-parasitic stage. Species chosen for the experiment may share their habitats and co-infest animals in nature. In the course of the study the process of egg maturation, oviposition and larval hatching were investigated. In order to estimate if co-feeding influence can counteract host immunity, three subsequent infestations of rabbits were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371192/reconsidering-connectivity-in-the-sub-antarctic
#19
Katherine L Moon, Steven L Chown, Ceridwen I Fraser
Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Here, we reconsider connectivity in the sub-Antarctic region, identifying which taxa are relatively isolated, which are well connected, and the scales across which this connectivity occurs in both terrestrial and marine systems...
March 29, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366390/feeding-characteristics-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-thecate-mixotrophic-dinoflagellate-fragilidium-mexicanum
#20
Sunju Kim, Myung Gil Park
Prey spectrum and feeding process of the mixotrophic thecate dinoflagellate Fragilidium mexicanum strain Fm-LOHABE01 were examined using a culture isolated from Masan Bay, Korea in 2011 during a summer bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum. The novel 18S and 28S rDNA sequences for F. mexicanum were also used to explore inter-species relationships within the genus Fragilidium. The F. mexicanum fed on species belonging to four dinoflagellate genera (i.e., Alexandrium, Ceratium, Heterocapsa, and Scrippsiella) when separately offered a variety of prey, including dinoflagellates, raphidophytes, cryptophytes, and a ciliate...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
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