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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081160/estimates-of-abundance-and-trend-of-chilean-blue-whales-off-isla-de-chilo%C3%A3-chile
#1
Barbara Galletti Vernazzani, Jennifer A Jackson, Elsa Cabrera, Carole A Carlson, Robert L Brownell
Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004-2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#2
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055580/diagnosing-borreliosis
#3
Sally J Cutler, Nataliia Rudenko, Maryna Golovchenko, Wibke J Cramaro, Josiane Kirpach, Sara Savic, Iva Christova, Ana Amaro
Borrelia species fall into two groups, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) complex, the cause of Lyme borreliosis (also known as Lyme disease), and the relapsing fever group. Both groups exhibit inter- and intraspecies diversity and thus have variations in both clinical presentation and diagnostic approaches. A further layer of complexity is derived from the fact that ticks may carry multiple infectious agents and are able to transmit them to the host during blood feeding, with potential overlapping clinical manifestations...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044203/advances-with-neonatal-aerodigestive-science-in-the-pursuit-of-safe-swallowing-in-infants-invited-review
#4
Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Feeding, swallowing, and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory, and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal-, and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological-airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or disease...
January 2, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018647/alloparenting-is-associated-with-reduced-maternal-lactation-effort-and-faster-weaning-in-wild-chimpanzees
#5
Iulia Bădescu, David P Watts, M Anne Katzenberg, Daniel W Sellen
Alloparenting, when individuals other than the mother assist with infant care, can vary between and within populations and has potential fitness costs and benefits for individuals involved. We investigated the effects of alloparenting on the speed with which infants were weaned, a potential component of maternal fitness because of how it can affect inter-birth intervals, in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Uganda. We also provide, to our knowledge, the first description of alloparenting in this population and present a novel measure of the contribution of milk to infant diets through faecal stable nitrogen isotopes (δ(15)N)...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996109/reliability-and-validity-of-a-simplified-comprehensive-assessment-tool-for-feeding-support-kuchi-kara-taberu-index
#6
Keisuke Maeda, Hiroshi Shamoto, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Junko Enomoto, Mika Takeichi, Tamami Koyama
OBJECTIVES: To verify the reliability and validity and develop an English version of an instrument (Kuchi-Kara Taberu Index (KT Index)) to comprehensively assess and intervene in problems with eating and swallowing. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (mean age 88.3 ± 6.8; 80.0% female) who had lived in a nursing home for longer than 1 month (N = 115)...
December 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938415/triatomine-bugs-their-microbiota-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-asymmetric-responses-of-bacteria-to-an-infected-blood-meal
#7
Sebastián Díaz, Bianca Villavicencio, Nathália Correia, Jane Costa, Karen L Haag
BACKGROUND: Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are vectors of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The study of triatomine gut microbiota has gained relevance in the last years due to its possible role in vector competence and prospective use in control strategies. The objective of this study is to examine changes in the gut microbiota composition of triatomines in response to a T. cruzi-infected blood meal and identifying key factors determining those changes...
December 9, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#8
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931926/evaluating-wildlife-cattle-contact-rates-to-improve-the-understanding-of-dynamics-of-bovine-tuberculosis-transmission-in-michigan-usa
#9
Michael J Lavelle, Shannon L Kay, Kim M Pepin, Daniel A Grear, Henry Campa, Kurt C VerCauteren
Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#10
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890144/classification-of-a-driver-s-cognitive-workload-levels-using-artificial-neural-network-on-ecg-signals
#11
Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung, Wongi Hong, Wonsup Lee, Baekhee Lee, Heecheon You, Joonwoo Son, Seikwon Park
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887625/the-impact-of-temperature-and-precipitation-on-blacklegged-tick-activity-and-lyme-disease-incidence-in-endemic-and-emerging-regions
#12
James C Burtis, Patrick Sullivan, Taal Levi, Kelly Oggenfuss, Timothy J Fahey, Richard S Ostfeld
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Lyme disease shows high degrees of inter-annual variation in the northeastern United States, but the factors driving this variation are not well understood. Complicating matters, it is also possible that these driving factors may vary in regions with differing histories of Lyme disease endemism. We evaluated the effect of the number of hot (T > 25 °C), dry (precipitation = 0) days during the questing periods of the two immature Ixodes scapularis life stages (larval and nymphal) on inter-annual variation in Lyme disease incidence between 2000 and 2011 in long-term endemic versus recently endemic areas...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861238/complementary-feeding-and-diarrhea-and-respiratory-infection-among-hiv-exposed-tanzanian-infants
#13
P Kamenju, E Liu, E Hertzmark, D Spiegelman, R R Kisenge, R Kupka, S Aboud, K P Manji, C Duggan, W W Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between complementary feeding (CF) and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-24 months. DESIGN: We prospectively employed an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure CF practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833033/establishment-and-development-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-preterm-infants-in-a-lebanese-tertiary-hospital
#14
Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam Sarkis
The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE)...
November 8, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821171/comparison-of-molecular-quantification-of-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes-by-pfs25-qrt-pcr-and-qt-nasba-in-relation-to-mosquito-infectivity
#15
Helmi Pett, Bronner P Gonçalves, Alassane Dicko, Issa Nébié, Alfred B Tiono, Kjerstin Lanke, John Bradley, Ingrid Chen, Halimatou Diawara, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Harouna M Soumare, Sekou F Traore, Ibrahima Baber, Sodiomon B Sirima, Robert Sauerwein, Joelle Brown, Roly Gosling, Ingrid Felger, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: Quantifying gametocyte densities in natural malaria infections is important to estimate malaria transmission potential. Two molecular methods (Pfs25 mRNA quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and Pfs25 mRNA quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA)) are commonly used to determine gametocyte densities in clinical and epidemiological studies and allow gametocyte detection at densities below the microscopic threshold for detection. Here, reproducibility of these measurements and the association between estimated gametocyte densities and mosquito infection rates were compared...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812361/transcriptome-analysis-of-green-peach-aphid-myzus-persicae-insight-into-developmental-regulation-and-inter-species-divergence
#16
Rui Ji, Yujun Wang, Yanbin Cheng, Meiping Zhang, Hong-Bin Zhang, Li Zhu, Jichao Fang, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808421/identification-and-quantification-of-thymol-metabolites-in-plasma-liver-and-duodenal-wall-of-broiler-chickens-using-uhplc-esi-qtof-ms
#17
Jana Pisarčíková, Vladimíra Oceľová, Štefan Faix, Iveta Plachá, Angela I Calderón
In the present study, we aimed to develop a method for thymol sulfate and thymol glucuronide determination in plasma, liver, and duodenal wall of broiler chickens after feeding with a Thymus vulgaris essential oil at the different concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% w/w). UHPLC coupled with Accurate-Mass QTOF-MS was used for identification and quantification of thymol metabolites. A novel Waters Oasis Prime HLB SPE cartridges were applied to sample clean-up with extraction recoveries ranged from 85 to 92%. The presence of thymol glucuronide was confirmed by MS software according to molecular formula, score, mass error, and double bond equivalent...
November 3, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780868/inter-domain-synergism-is-required-for-efficient-feeding-of-cellulose-chain-into-active-site-of-cellobiohydrolase-cel7a
#18
Riin Kont, Jeppe Kari, Kim Borch, Peter Westh, Priit Väljamäe
Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779869/ion-mobility-derived-collision-cross-section-as-an-additional-identification-point-for-multiresidue-screening-of-pesticides-in-fish-feed
#19
Jorge Regueiro, Noelia Negreira, Marc H G Berntssen
Ion mobility spectrometry allows for the measurement of the collision cross section (CCS), which provides information about the shape of an ionic molecule in the gas phase. Although the hyphenation of traveling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) has been mainly used for structural elucidation purposes, its potential for fast screening of small molecules in complex samples has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The current work explores the capabilities of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a new design TWIMS-QTOFMS for the screening and identification of a large set of pesticides in complex salmon feed matrices...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753137/appropriate-exposure-estimates-for-wildlife-risk-assessments-of-crop-protection-products-based-on-continuous-radio-telemetry-a-case-study-with-woodpigeons
#20
Jan-Dieter Ludwigs, Markus Ebeling, Timothy B Fredricks, Roger C Murfitt, Steven Kragten
The registration of pesticides follows guidance published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a default, the EFSA guidance document on risk assessment for birds and mammals assumes that animals feed exclusively on pesticide-treated fields. However, the guidance document suggests refining the risk via the proportion of food animals obtain from a treated field or specific crop (expressed via the portion of diet obtained from a treated area [PT value]). The EFSA guidance equalizes the portion of food taken from a treated area per day with the portion of time spent potentially foraging over the course of a day within this area...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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