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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912798/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-reveals-a-broad-distribution-of-metabolic-pathways-for-the-degradation-of-host-synthetized-mucin-glycans-and-utilization-of-mucin-derived-monosaccharides
#1
Dmitry A Ravcheev, Ines Thiele
The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910286/potential-dna-barcodes-for-melilotus-species-based-on-five-single-loci-and-their-combinations
#2
Fan Wu, Jinxing Ma, Yuqin Meng, Daiyu Zhang, Blaise Pascal Muvunyi, Kai Luo, Hongyan Di, Wenli Guo, Yanrong Wang, Baochang Feng, Jiyu Zhang
Melilotus, an annual or biennial herb, belongs to the tribe Trifolieae (Leguminosae) and consists of 19 species. As an important green manure crop, diverse Melilotus species have different values as feed and medicine. To identify different Melilotus species, we examined the efficiency of five candidate regions as barcodes, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and two chloroplast loci, rbcL and matK, and two non-coding loci, trnH-psbA and trnL-F. In total, 198 individuals from 98 accessions representing 18 Melilotus species were sequenced for these five potential barcodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893046/the-association-between-cariogenic-factors-and-the-occurrence-of-early-childhood-caries-in-children-from-salem-district-of-india
#3
Arokiaraj Stephen, Ramesh Krishnan, Paul Chalakkal
INTRODUCTION: Various aetiological factors for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) have been suggested in literature, but the role of each factor has been disputed in various studies. AIM: To evaluate the association between ECC and its related factors in children between three to six years of age, from rural, semi-urban and urban schools in the district of Salem (India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of children between three to six years of age, selected randomly from schools in semi-urban, urban and rural schools at Salem...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891073/sexual-dimorphism-in-jaw-muscles-of-the-japanese-sparrowhawk-accipiter-gularis
#4
H Wang, J Yan, Z Zhang
Materials suitable for anatomical research of raptorial birds are rare. Bird-eating raptors show distinct inter-sexual differences in body size and parental roles. The large females catch larger prey and prepare small morsels to feed their young using their hooked beaks. Here, we investigated the architectural properties of different jaw muscles of the Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and examined whether there is sexual dimorphism in their architectural design. The results showed that musculus depressor mandibulae, the opener of the lower jaw, was characterized by relatively long fascicle length, whereas musculus pterygoideus was characterized by its larger mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in both sexes...
September 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886162/inter-annual-cascade-effect-on-marine-food-web-a-benthic-pathway-lagging-nutrient-supply-to-pelagic-fish-stock
#5
Lohengrin Dias de Almeida Fernandes, Eduardo Barros Fagundes Netto, Ricardo Coutinho
Currently, spatial and temporal changes in nutrients availability, marine planktonic, and fish communities are best described on a shorter than inter-annual (seasonal) scale, primarily because the simultaneous year-to-year variations in physical, chemical, and biological parameters are very complex. The limited availability of time series datasets furnishing simultaneous evaluations of temperature, nutrients, plankton, and fish have limited our ability to describe and to predict variability related to short-term process, as species-specific phenology and environmental seasonality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868547/investigation-of-a-common-gene-expression-signature-in-gastrointestinal-cancers-using-systems-biology-approaches
#6
Kaveh Baghaei, Nazanin Hosseinkhan, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, M R Zali
According to GLOBOCAN 2012, the incidence and the mortality rate of colorectal, stomach and liver cancers are the highest among the total gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Here we aimed to find the common genes and pathways that are simultaneously deregulated in these three malignancies using systems biology approaches. Here we conducted a differential expression analysis on high-quality gene expression datasets of gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To address the inter gene correlations that were neglected in differential expression studies, we also applied differential co-expression analysis on the understudied datasets...
September 4, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868529/the-development-of-the-mother-infant-mutualistic-screening-scale
#7
Emily Zimmerman, Chantal Lau
BACKGROUND: The integrity of a mother-infant dyad is essential for the proper development of maternal behavior and infant growth/ development. At present, there is a lack of objective approaches to monitor mother-infant behavioral exchanges. OBJECTIVES: This is an exploratory prospective study designed to evaluate the Mother-Infant Mutualistic Screening Scale (MIMSS), a novel observational tool focused on monitoring the mutual/ reciprocal sensitivity and responsiveness that mother and infant express toward one another's behaviors/ actions during the obligatory setting of daily meal times...
2017: Journal of Pediatrics and Mother Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862684/position-fingerprint-based-beam-selection-in-millimeter-wave-heterogeneous-networks
#8
Zufan Zhang, Yanbo Chen
The traditional beam selection algorithms determine the optimal beam direction by feeding back the perfect channel state information (CSI) in a millimeter wave (mmWave) massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system. Popular beam selection algorithms mostly focus on the methods of feedback and exhaustive search. In order to reduce the extra computational complexity coming from the redundant feedback and exhaustive search, a position fingerprint (PFP)-based mmWave multi-cell beam selection scheme is proposed in this paper...
September 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861065/effect-of-pre-weaning-diet-on-the-ruminal-archaeal-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-of-dairy-calves
#9
Juliana Dias, Marcos I Marcondes, Melline F Noronha, Rafael T Resende, Fernanda S Machado, Hilário C Mantovani, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Garret Suen
At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860992/rewarding-effects-of-operant-dry-licking-behavior-on-neuronal-firing-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#10
Enrico Patrono, Jumpei Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yusaku Takamura, Ikhruud C Chinzorig, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Certain eating behaviors are characterized by a trend of elevated food consumption. However, neural mechanisms mediating the motivation for food consumption are not fully understood. Food impacts the brain-rewarding-system via both oral-sensory and post-ingestive information. Recent studies have reported an important role of visceral gut information in mediating dopamine (DA) release in the brain rewarding system. This is independent of oral sensation, suggesting a role of the gut-brain-DA-axis in feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857333/mri-assessment-of-the-postprandial-gastrointestinal-motility-and-peptide-response-in-healthy-humans
#11
A Khalaf, C L Hoad, A Menys, A Nowak, S A Taylor, S Paparo, M Lingaya, Y Falcone, G Singh, R C Spiller, P A Gowland, L Marciani, G W Moran
BACKGROUND: Feeding triggers inter-related gastrointestinal (GI) motor, peptide and appetite responses. These are rarely studied together due to methodological limitations. Recent MRI advances allow pan-intestinal, non-invasive assessment of motility in the undisturbed gut. This study aimed to develop a methodology to assess pan-intestinal motility and transit in a single session using MRI and compare imaging findings to GI peptide responses to a test meal and symptoms in a healthy volunteer cohort...
August 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851348/assessment-of-nutrition-and-physical-activity-environments-in-family-child-care-homes-modification-and-psychometric-testing-of-the-environment-and-policy-assessment-and-observation
#12
Amber E Vaughn, Stephanie Mazzucca, Regan Burney, Truls Østbye, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Alison Tovar, Dianne S Ward
BACKGROUND: Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) for use in FCCHs...
August 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819142/development-and-inter-laboratory-assessment-of-droplet-digital-pcr-assays-for-multiplex-quantification-of-15-genetically-modified-soybean-lines
#13
Alexandra Bogožalec Košir, Bjørn Spilsberg, Arne Holst-Jensen, Jana Žel, David Dobnik
Quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is often required for their labelling or for tolerance thresholds. Standard-curve-based simplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the prevailing technology, which is often combined with screening analysis. With the rapidly growing number of GMOs on the world market, qPCR analysis becomes laborious and expensive. Innovative cost-effective approaches are therefore urgently needed. Here, we report the development and inter-laboratory assessment of multiplex assays to quantify GMO soybean using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803957/a-standardization-of-the-novelty-suppressed-feeding-test-protocol-in-rats
#14
Arantxa Blasco-Serra, Eva M González-Soler, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Alfonso A Valverde-Navarro
Tests based on hyponeophagia phenomena are the most widely used to check the efficacy and efficiency of new-generation chronic antidepressant treatments. Even so, these tests lack strict consensus about their methodology, which reduces their validity, reproducibility and makes translatability difficult. Therefore, after an extensive literature review on this subject, we propose a methodological protocol for the Novelty-Suppressed Feeding Test to normalize this situation. Animals were induced to a reserpine-induced depression model and were then chronically treated with duloxetine, desvenlafaxine or vehicle...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790145/inter-chromosomal-transfer-of-immune-regulation-during-infection-of-barley-with-the-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#15
Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony Ve Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P Wise
Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes 2HL and 1HS...
August 8, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775196/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-enat-p-in-ethiopia-protocol
#16
Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Md Atiqul Islam, Nigussie Tadesse Sharew, Shimels Hussien Mohammed, Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne
INTRODUCTION: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review conducted in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the national coverage and identify the associated factors of IYCF practices in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINHAL, EBSCO, Web of Science and WHO Global Health Library databases will be searched for all available publications from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2017...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774057/molecular-weight-cut-off-and-structural-analysis-of-vacuum-assisted-titania-membranes-for-water-processing
#17
Siti Nurehan Abd Jalil, David K Wang, Christelle Yacou, Julius Motuzas, Simon Smart, João C Diniz da Costa
This work investigates the structural formation and analyses of titania membranes (TM) prepared using different vacuum exposure times for molecular weight (MW) cut-off performance and oil/water separation. Titania membranes were synthesized via a sol-gel method and coated on macroporous alumina tubes followed by exposure to a vacuum between 30 and 1200 s and then calcined at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses showed that the crystallite size and particle size of titania increased as a function of vacuum time...
November 18, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768551/feed-additive-probiotics-accelerate-yet-antibiotics-delay-intestinal-microbiota-maturation-in-broiler-chicken
#18
Pengfei Gao, Chen Ma, Zheng Sun, Lifeng Wang, Shi Huang, Xiaoquan Su, Jian Xu, Heping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. RESULTS: Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared...
August 3, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758081/development-of-a-dysphagia-screening-test-for-preterm-infants-dst-pi
#19
Kyoung Moo Lee, Young Tak Seo
OBJECTIVE: To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. METHODS: Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755724/effects-of-elevated-co2-on-phytoplankton-community-biomass-and-species-composition-during-a-spring-phaeocystis-spp-bloom-in-the-western-english-channel
#20
Matthew Keys, Gavin Tilstone, Helen S Findlay, Claire E Widdicombe, Tracy Lawson
A 21-year time series of phytoplankton community structure was analysed in relation to Phaeocystis spp. to elucidate its contribution to the annual carbon budget at station L4 in the western English Channel (WEC). Between 1993-2014 Phaeocystis spp. contributed ∼4.6% of the annual phytoplankton carbon and during the March - May spring bloom, the mean Phaeocystis spp. biomass constituted 17% with a maximal contribution of 47% in 2001. Upper maximal weekly values above the time series mean ranged from 63 to 82% of the total phytoplankton carbon (∼42-137mg carbon (C)m(-3)) with significant inter-annual variability in Phaeocystis spp...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
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