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Interal feeding

Sandra Antunes, Joana Couto, Joana Ferrolho, Fábio Rodrigues, João Nobre, Ana S Santos, M Margarida Santos-Silva, José de la Fuente, Ana Domingos
Ticks are among the most prevalent blood-feeding arthropods, and they act as vectors and reservoirs for numerous pathogens. Sialotranscriptomic characterizations of tick responses to blood feeding and pathogen infections can offer new insights into the molecular interplay occurring at the tick-host-pathogen interface. In the present study, we aimed to identify and characterize Rhipicephalus bursa salivary gland (SG) genes that were differentially expressed in response to blood feeding and Babesia ovis infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
D A Kenny, C Fitzsimons, S M Waters, M McGee
Improvements in feed efficiency of beef cattle have the potential to increase producer profitability and simultaneously lower the environmental footprint of beef production. Although there are many different approaches to measuring feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice. Defined as the difference between an animal's actual and predicted feed intake (based on weight and growth), RFI is conceptually independent of growth and body size. In addition, other measurable traits related to energy expenditure such as estimates of body composition can be included in the calculation of RFI to also force independence from these traits...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mohammad T Jafari, Mohammad Saraji, Mansoure Kermani
Carbon-silica hybrid nanofibers as high performance coatings for solid-phase microextraction fibers were used for analyzing some pesticides by using gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry. To that end, the fibers were prepared by carbonizing sol-gel based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile and tetraethyl orthosilicate nanofibers as carbon and silica precursors, respectively. Different parameters affecting the electrospinning and the extraction processes including spinning distance, voltage, feeding rate, stirring rate, salt concentration, temperature and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Liang Chen, Xiaoyi Ding, Zizhou He, Siqi Fan, Kuriakose T Kunnath, Kai Zheng, Rajesh N Davé
A solventless process for simultaneously milling and dry coating microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was investigated for producing fine excipients in five different sizes (∼20, 25, 30, 35, 40µm) having high bulk density (BD), good flow function coefficient (FFC), and excellent compaction. Avicel PH-102, used as the starting material, was milled and coated with two grades of silicas, hydrophobic and hydrophilic (R972P and A200), using a fluid energy mill (FEM). Through judicious selection of the FEM feed rate, feeding pressure, and grinding pressure, five desired milled sizes were produced...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
R Ewan Fordyce, Felix G Marx
Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest animals on Earth, thanks to their ability to filter huge volumes of small prey from seawater. Mysticetes appeared during the Late Eocene, but evidence of their early evolution remains both sparse and controversial [1, 2], with several models competing to explain the origin of baleen-based bulk feeding [3-6]. Here, we describe a virtually complete skull of Llanocetus denticrenatus, the second-oldest (ca. 34 Ma) mysticete known. The new material represents the same individual as the type and only specimen, a fragmentary mandible...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yanxia Tang, Ning Zhang, Bingyu Zhang, Xiaoyun Lei, Xiaoping Wu
A hydrophilic ionic liquids based polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) column (poly(ionic liquid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate); poly(IL-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)) was prepared for the first time in a capillary and utilized in PMME for the enrichment of glycopeptide antibiotics (GAs), followed by the online coupling analysis of capillary liquid chromatography with amperometric detection (cLC-AD). The prepared monolith exhibited large through pores and good storage stability, as well as a selective extraction machanism for GAs that was attributed to the hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic, electrostatic and π-π interactions between GAs and the imidazolium cations or hydroxyl groups on the surface of absorbent...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Niels M Schmidt, Jesper B Mosbacher, Eero J Vesterinen, Tomas Roslin, Anders Michelsen
Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and late winter. We used molecular analysis to identify the plant taxa consumed, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the dietary niche breadth and dietary overlap...
April 26, 2018: Oecologia
Yun Kai Li, Xiao di Gao, Lin Yu Wang, Lin Fang
As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carolina Muñoz-González, Gilles Feron, Francis Canon
Whole saliva is a mixture composed by the secretions of the major and minor salivary glands and the crevicular fluid, bacteria, cells and food debris. Its properties (flow and composition) are highly intra- and inter-individually dependent and reflect the health status of individuals. Saliva plays a key role in the eating process and on the perception of flavour. Flavour corresponds to the combined effect of taste sensations, aromatics and chemical feeling factors evoked by food in the oral cavity. It is a key determinant of food consumption and intake...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Qi Jia, Dan Li, Xinlu Wang, Shuming Yang, Yongzhong Qian, Jing Qiu
A sensitive method for simultaneous determination of amantadine and rimantadine in feed was developed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Qtrap-MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode, and employing the mixed cation exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction column as sample cleanup and amantadine-d15 and rimantadine-d4 as internal standards, respectively. Compared to traditional MRM mode, for the targeted drugs in feed simultaneously both the secondary mass spectra and MRM information can be obtained using UHPLC-Qtrap-MS with MRM-IDA-EPI mode, and thus more accurate qualitative confirmation results achieved even at lower concentration of 0...
April 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Xiaohuan Miao, Lijun Xu, Haipu Li, Zhaoguang Yang
Olaquindox, carbadox, and cyadox are chemically synthesized antibacterial and growth promoting agents for animals. At high doses they may exert mutagenicity and hepatic and adrenal toxicities in animals. Regrettably, these substances are frequently abused or misused when added into animal feeds. Thus, developing a sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous determination of olaquindox, carbadox, and cyadox in different kinds of animal feeds is crucially important for food safety monitoring. In this paper we optimized instrumental conditions, various extraction solutions, different kinds of solid phase extraction cartridges, and effects of pH on the loading solvents of the Oasis HLB cartridge...
April 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
N Siwińska, A Żak, M Słowikowska, K Kubiak, Z Jaworski, A Niedzwiedź
Hair is a more biologically stable material than other tissues and contains a relatively constant level of minerals, drugs or toxins. The content of essential elements in hair depends on dietary and non-dietary factors. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of diet on the elemental composition and morphological properties of the hair of healthy Polish Konik horses. Mane hair was collected from 19 horses living in The National Park in Popielno in Poland. Six of these horses were free-ranged all year with permanent access to pasture, while 13 horses were kept in the stable and fed oats, hay and straw...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Zahirah Dhurmeea, Heidi Pethybridge, Chandani Appadoo, Nathalie Bodin
Lipid composition in the reproductive and somatic tissues were investigated for female albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean, between latitude 18-21°S and longitude 56-60°E, from January 2014 to March 2015. Highest total lipids (TL) were found in the gonads of spawning-capable females (SCP) (mainly phospholipids, PL, triacylglycerols, TAG and wax esters, WE) and in the liver of females in the late regressing and regenerating ovary phases (mainly TAG, PL and sterols, ST). Muscle TL was low but exhibited high inter-individual variability...
2018: PloS One
Bereket Epheson, Zewdie Birhanu, Dessalegn Tamiru, Garumma Tolu Feyissa
BACKGROUND: Each year, more than millions of under-five children die due to under-nutrition, and many of these deaths are associated with inappropriate feeding practices. This study aimed to assess complementary feeding practices in Damot Weydie District, South Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among four-hundred and one mothers who had children aged 6-23 months in Damot Weydie District. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data using a face-to-face interview...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kai-Chun Chang, Yu-Ting Chang, Chin-En Tsai
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of two β-agonists (ractopamine and salbutamol) in pig hair samples. An isotope of ractopamine-d5 or salbutamol-d6 as an internal standard was used to carry out quantitative analysis. Concentrated sodium hydroxide was used to pretreat hair samples and then purified by the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracted solution was evaporated and reconstituted for injection in the instrument with electrospray ionization (ESI) operating in a positive multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Holger Schultheis, Laura A Carlson
Mapping spatial expressions such as "behind the cup" to a spatial region requires two processes that have been largely explored independently: reference frame selection and spatial term assignment (Logan & Sadler, 1996). Reference frame selection carves a space into regions. Spatial term assignment evaluates these regions by determining the acceptability of the term for the given configuration. Here we present a systematic investigation of the relation and interplay of these two processes by asking whether (a) information from spatial term assignment feeds back to selection and (b) whether competition during selection is graded...
March 16, 2018: Cognition
Becki Lawson, Robert A Robinson, Mike P Toms, Kate Risely, Susan MacDonald, Andrew A Cunningham
Provision of supplementary food for wild birds at garden feeding stations is a common, large-scale and year-round practice in multiple countries including Great Britain (GB). While these additional dietary resources can benefit wildlife, there is a concomitant risk of disease transmission, particularly when birds repeatedly congregate in the same place at high densities and through interactions of species that would not normally associate in close proximity. Citizen science schemes recording garden birds are popular and can integrate disease surveillance with population monitoring, offering a unique opportunity to explore inter-relationships between supplementary feeding, disease epidemiology and population dynamics...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Agnes M L Karlson, Martin Reutgard, Andrius Garbaras, Elena Gorokhova
The isotopic niche has become an established concept in trophic ecology. However, the assumptions behind this approach have rarely been evaluated. Evidence is accumulating that physiological stress can affect both magnitude and inter-individual variability of the isotopic signature in consumers via alterations in metabolic pathways. We hypothesized that stress factors (inadequate nutrition, parasite infestations, and exposure to toxic substances or varying oxygen conditions) might lead to suboptimal physiological performance and altered stable isotope signatures...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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