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Interal feeding

Jan-Dieter Ludwigs, Markus Ebeling, Timothy B Fredricks, Roger C Murfitt, Steven Kragten
The registration of pesticides follows guidance published by the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA. As a default, the EFSA guidance document on risk assessment for birds and mammals assumes that animals feed exclusively on pesticide-treated fields. However, the guidance document suggests refining the risk via the proportion of food animals obtain from a treated field or specific crop (expressed via the so-called PT value). The EFSA guidance equalizes the portion of food taken from a treated area per day with the portion of time spent potentially foraging over the course of a day within this area...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Birju A Shah, Alison Migliori, Itsuka Kurihara, Surendra Sharma, Yow-Pin Lim, James Padbury
OBJECTIVE: To examine circulating levels of inter-alpha inhibitor protein (IaIp) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), and matched controls to assess the diagnostic accuracy of IaIp to differentiate NEC from SIP and to compare receiver operating characteristics of IaIp for NEC with C-reactive protein (CRP). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, nested case-control study of infants with feeding intolerance was carried out...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Lydie Ryšavá, Jaroslav Kříž
Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Lydie Ryšavá, Jaroslav Kříž, Lucie Kašparová, Tereza Křížová, Monika Žoltá, Petra Lisníková
Monitoring of Ioduria and Iodine saturation are essential tools for evaluation of effectivness of measures aimed at elimination of diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Between 1995 and 2016 monitoring of ioduria was udertaken in various population groups in Czech Republic. The most recent study (2015) found only 37 % of pregnant women in optimal range of ioduria (150-300 mcg/l), in iodopenic range 27 %, while 6 % of these had severe iodopenia below 50 mcg/l. In a group of 3y old children investigated in the same year, 57 % were found to have Ioduria within the recommended range (90-299 mcg/l), 24 % had higher than recommended Ioduria (300-499 mcg/l) and 8 % excessive saturation (over 500 mcg/l)...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Susanne Kramer, Dörte Dibbern, Julia Moll, Maike Huenninghaus, Robert Koller, Dirk Krueger, Sven Marhan, Tim Urich, Tesfaye Wubet, Michael Bonkowski, François Buscot, Tillmann Lueders, Ellen Kandeler
The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nazneen Hussain, Archana Singh, Sougata Saha, Mattaparthi Venkata Satish Kumar, Pradip Bhattacharyya, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Yuanfei Zhou, Jian Peng
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control...
October 2, 2016: Nutrients
Li Li, Liru Xia, Yongfu Zhao, Min Wang, Xizhi Jiang
BACKGROUND: Mycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. Fast and easy multiplex screening could be thought as a useful tool for detection of multi-contaminate food and feed commodities. RESULTS: A highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic arrays for detecting mycotoxins zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 were fabricated using UV induced copolymerization...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Pili Kamenju, Enju Liu, Ellen Hertzmark, Donna Spiegelman, Rodrick Kisenge, Roland Kupka, Said Aboud, Karim P Manji, Christopher Duggan, Wafaie W Fawzi
Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency...
September 30, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Ivan Calandra, Gaëlle Labonne, Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Thomas M Kaiser, Sophie Montuire
In mammals, tooth function, and its efficiency, depends both on the mechanical properties of the food and on chewing dynamics. These aspects have rarely been studied in combination and/or at the intra-specific level. Here we applied 3D dental surface texture analysis to a sample of field voles (Microtus agrestis) trapped from Finnish Lapland at different seasons and localities to test for inter-population variations. We also explored intra-individual variation in chewing dynamics by analysing two facets on the second upper molars...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kazutoyo Miura, Will J R Stone, Karin M Koolen, Bingbing Deng, Luwen Zhou, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Emily Locke, Merribeth Morin, Teun Bousema, Robert W Sauerwein, Carole A Long, Koen J Dechering
BACKGROUND: An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine may play an important role in malaria elimination efforts, and a robust biological assay is essential for its development. The standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA) for Plasmodium falciparum infection of mosquitoes is considered a "gold standard" assay to measure transmission-blocking activity of test antibodies, and has been utilized widely in both non-clinical and clinical studies. While several studies have discussed the inherent variability of SMFA within a study group, there has been no assessment of inter-laboratory variation...
2016: Malaria Journal
Yuzhan Yang, Aibin Zhan, Lei Cao, Fanjuan Meng, Wenbin Xu
Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain...
2016: PeerJ
Renata S Mendonça, Tomoko Kanamori, Noko Kuze, Misato Hayashi, Henry Bernard, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
Orangutans have a long period of immaturity and the longest inter-birth interval (IBI) of all mammals, which can explained by their solitary life style, preventing the mother from rearing two offspring simultaneously (solitary life hypothesis). We collected data on mother-offspring dyads living in a primary lowland forest in Danum Valley, East Borneo in an effort to examine the developmental and behavioral patterns of the subspecies Pongo pygmaeus morio. We analyzed developmental changes in mother-offspring distance, contact, and activity budgets in orangutans ranging from 1 to 7 years of age...
September 6, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Laura D Kramer
The inter-relationships among viruses, vectors and vertebrate hosts are complex and dynamic and shaped by biotic (e.g., viral strain, vector genetics, host susceptibility) and abiotic (e.g., temperature, rainfall, human land use) factors. It is anticipated that changes in climate, as predicted by the most recent Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, will result in landscape changes and consequent changes in spatiotemporal patterns of arbovirus transmission. To anticipate evolving patterns of virus activity in a dynamically changing environment, it is important to understand how interconnectedness of mosquito and virus biology together with climate influence arbovirus transmission intensity...
August 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
H C Ball, R L Londraville, J W Prokop, John C George, R S Suydam, C Vinyard, J G M Thewissen, R J Duff
The processes of lipid deposition and utilization, via the gene leptin (Lep), are poorly understood in taxa with varying degrees of adipose storage. This study examines how these systems may have adapted in marine aquatic environments inhabited by cetaceans. Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are ideal study animals-they possess large subcutaneous adipose stores (blubber) and undergo bi-annual migrations concurrent with variations in food availability. To answer long-standing questions regarding how (or if) energy and lipid utilization adapted to aquatic stressors, we quantified variations in gene transcripts critical to lipid metabolism related to season, age, and blubber depth...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Antonella Petrillo, Roberta Fusco, Salvatore Filice, Vincenza Granata, Orlando Catalano, Paolo Vallone, Maurizio Di Bonito, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Massimo Rinaldo, Immacolata Capasso, Mario Sansone
PURPOSE: To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. METHODS: 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient...
2016: PloS One
Callum F Ross, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, David A Reed, Thomas A Stewart, Andrea B Taylor
It has been hypothesized that mandibular corpus morphology of primates is related to the material properties of the foods that they chew. However, chewing foods with different material properties is accompanied by low levels of variation in mandibular strain patterns in macaques. We hypothesized that if variation in primate mandible form reflects adaptations to feeding on foods with different material and geometric properties, then this variation will be driven primarily by differences in oral food processing behavior rather than differences in chewing per se...
September 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Maud Marsot, Marina Béral, Axelle Scoizec, Yoann Mathevon, Benoit Durand, Aurélie Courcoul
Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne)...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Novella L Razzolini, Oriol Oms, Diego Castanera, Bernat Vila, Vanda Faria Dos Santos, Àngel Galobart
A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations...
2016: Scientific Reports
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