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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329840/determination-of-colistin-in-animal-tissues-egg-milk-and-feed-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Qin Fu, Xiaowei Li, Kangni Zheng, Yuebin Ke, Yingyu Wang, Lina Wang, Fugen Yu, Xi Xia
A confirmatory method for the determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed was developed and validated. Colistin A and colistin B were extracted from samples with the mixture of 10% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile and isolated with mixed-mode weak cation exchange cartridge. Analytes were separated from matrix components using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and detected with electrospray ionization on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320525/seabird-parents-provision-their-chick-in-a-coordinated-manner
#2
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Marcelo Araya-Salas, Dariusz Jakubas
Pair collaborative behavior may play an important role in avian reproduction. However, evidence for this mainly comes from certain ecological groups (e.g. passerines). We studied the coordination of parents in foraging and its effect on food provisioning rate and chick growth in a small seabird, the Dovekie (Little auk, Alle alle). The species exhibits a dual foraging strategy, where provisioning adults make foraging trips of short (mean ~2 h; to provide food for the chick) and long duration (mean ~ 13 h; mainly for adults self-maintenance, although the food is also brought to the chick)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318328/contrasting-network-features-between-free-living-and-particle-attached-bacterial-communities-in-taihu-lake
#3
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306359/the-culturally-adapted-italian-version-of-the-barthel-index-icabi-assessment-of-structural-validity-inter-rater-reliability-and-responsiveness-to-clinically-relevant-improvements-in-patients-admitted-to-inpatient-rehabilitation-centers
#4
S F Castiglia, G Galeoto, A Lauta, A Palumbo, F Tirinelli, F Viselli, Valter Santilli, M L Sacchetti
The Barthel Index (BI) is widely used to determine eligibility criteria for inpatient rehabilitation and to monitor patients' recovery, irrespective of the illnesses that affect them. The culturally adapted Italian version of the Barthel Index (IcaBI) was recently validated. This paper reports the structural validity and inter-rater reliability of the IcaBI and its responsiveness to the results of inpatient rehabilitation. The IcaBI was administered to a cohort of 264 patients hospitalized in two rehabilitation centers in Rome, Italy...
October 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290732/on-modelling-the-interaction-between-two-rotating-bodies-with-statistically-distributed-features-an-application-to-dressing-of-grinding-wheels
#5
A Spampinato, D A Axinte
The mechanisms of interaction between bodies with statistically arranged features present characteristics common to different abrasive processes, such as dressing of abrasive tools. In contrast with the current empirical approach used to estimate the results of operations based on attritive interactions, the method we present in this paper allows us to predict the output forces and the topography of a simulated grinding wheel for a set of specific operational parameters (speed ratio and radial feed-rate), providing a thorough understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating these processes...
December 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288682/sources-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-accumulation-variability-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#6
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273816/novel-mealtime-duration-measures-reliability-and-preliminary-associations-with-clinical-feeding-and-swallowing-performance-in-self-feeding-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Avinash Mishra, Justine J Sheppard, Cagla Kantarcigil, Andrew M Gordon, Georgia A Malandraki
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine (a) the reliability of newly developed measures of mealtime duration and (b) their relationship to clinical feeding/swallowing performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). Method: Seventeen self-feeding children (9 boys, 8 girls) with SCP (age range = 5;1 [years;months] to 17;6, Gross Motor Function Classification System range = I-IV) were assessed during mealtimes using the Dysphagia Disorder Survey (DDS; Sheppard, Hochman, & Baer, 2014)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244845/diet-and-stable-isotope-analyses-reveal-the-feeding-ecology-of-the-orangeback-squid-sthenoteuthis-pteropus-steenstrup-1855-mollusca-ommastrephidae-in-the-eastern-tropical-atlantic
#8
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224877/effects-of-early-postpartum-sodium-salicylate-treatment-on-long-term-milk-intake-and-blood-parameters-of-dairy-cows
#9
A J Carpenter, C M Ylioja, L K Mamedova, K E Olagaray, B J Bradford
Previous research has shown that cows who receive treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after calving may have increased milk yield beginning near peak lactation, resulting in greater 305-d milk production. It has not been demonstrated whether this response is associated with greater feed intake following the first 3 wk of lactation. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were measured daily for 56 cows over the first 120 d in milk. Cows in their second parity and greater were blocked by parity and alternately enrolled 12 to 36 h after calving into 1 of 2 treatments: either 3 daily drenches of water or 3 daily drenches of a similar volume of water containing 125 g of sodium salicylate (SAL) beginning 12 to 36 h after calving...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221044/side-lobe-level-reduction-in-bio-inspired-optical-phased-array-antennas
#10
Julián L Pita, Ivan Aldaya, Octávio J S Santana, Luís E E de Araujo, Paulo Dainese, Lucas H Gabrielli
Phased arrays are expected to play a critical role in visible and infrared wireless systems. Their improved performance compared to single element antennas finds uses in communications, imaging, and sensing. However, fabrication of photonic antennas and their feeding network require long element separation, leading to the appearance of secondary radiation lobes and, consequently, crosstalk and interference. In this work, we experimentally show that by arranging the elements according to the Fermat's spiral, the side lobe level (SLL) can be reduced...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192904/specific-substrate-driven-changes-in-human-faecal-microbiota-composition-contrast-with-functional-redundancy-in-short-chain-fatty-acid-production
#11
Nicole Reichardt, Maren Vollmer, Grietje Holtrop, Freda M Farquharson, Daniel Wefers, Mirko Bunzel, Sylvia H Duncan, Janice E Drew, Lynda M Williams, Graeme Milligan, Thomas Preston, Douglas Morrison, Harry J Flint, Petra Louis
The diet provides carbohydrates that are non-digestible in the upper gut and are major carbon and energy sources for the microbial community in the lower intestine, supporting a complex metabolic network. Fermentation produces the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have health-promoting effects for the human host. Here we investigated microbial community changes and SCFA production during in vitro batch incubations of 15 different non-digestible carbohydrates, at two initial pH values with faecal microbiota from three different human donors...
December 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184101/a-meta-proteomics-approach-to-study-the-interspecies-interactions-affecting-microbial-biofilm-development-in-a-model-community
#12
Jakob Herschend, Zacharias B V Damholt, Andrea M Marquard, Birte Svensson, Søren J Sørensen, Per Hägglund, Mette Burmølle
Microbial biofilms are omnipresent in nature and relevant to a broad spectrum of industries ranging from bioremediation and food production to biomedical applications. To date little is understood about how multi-species biofilm communities develop and function on a molecular level, due to the complexity of these biological systems. Here we apply a meta-proteomics approach to investigate the mechanisms influencing biofilm formation in a model consortium of four bacterial soil isolates; Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176011/estimation-of-fractions-metabolized-by-hepatic-cyp-enzymes-using-a-concept-of-inter-system-extrapolation-factors-isefs-a-comparison-with-the-chemical-inhibition-method
#13
Ken-Ichi Umehara, Felix Huth, Helen Gu, Hilmar Schiller, Tycho Heimbach, Handan He
BACKGROUND: For estimation of fractions metabolized (fm) by different hepatic recombinant human CYP enzymes (rhCYP), calculation of inter-system extrapolation factors (ISEFs) has been proposed. METHODS: ISEF values for CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 were measured. A CYP2C9 ISEF was taken from a previous report. Using a set of compounds, fractions metabolized by CYP enzymes (fm,CYP) values calculated with the ISEFs based on rhCYP data were compared with those from the chemical inhibition data...
November 27, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175447/suppressive-and-enhancing-effects-of-nicotine-on-food-seeking-behavior
#14
Korinna Romero, Carter W Daniels, Cassandra D Gipson, Federico Sanabria
The present study examined how systemic low doses of nicotine affect the microstructure of reinforced food-seeking behavior in rats. Rats were first given an acute saline or nicotine treatment (0.1-0.6mg/kg, with an inter-injection interval of at least 48h), and then a chronic saline or nicotine treatment (0.3mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days). Immediately after each injection, rats were required to press a lever five times to obtain food that was available at unpredictable times (on average every 80s) with constant probability...
November 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174146/characteristics-of-feed-efficiency-within-and-across-lactation-in-dairy-cows-and-the-effect-of-genetic-selection
#15
A M Hurley, N Lopez-Villalobos, S McParland, E Lewis, E Kennedy, M O'Donovan, J L Burke, D P Berry
The objective of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic inter- and intra-relationships within and among alternative feed efficiency metrics across different stages of lactation and parities; the expected effect of genetic selection for feed efficiency on the resulting phenotypic lactation profiles was also quantified. A total of 8,199 net energy intake (NEI) test-day records from 2,505 lactations on 1,290 cows were used. Derived efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168612/seed-loss-before-seed-predation-experimental-evidence-of-the-negative-effects-of-leaf-feeding-insects-on-acorn-production
#16
Tara Canelo, Álvaro Gaytán, Guillermo González-Bornay, Raul Bonal
Insect herbivory decreases plant fitness by constraining plant growth, survival and reproductive output. Most studies on the effects of herbivory in trees rely on correlational inter-individual comparisons and could thus be affected by confounding factors linked to both herbivory and plant performance. Using the Mediterranean Holm oak (Quercus ilex) as study model, we followed an experimental approach in which leaf-feeding insects (mainly Lepidoptera caterpillars) were excluded from some shoots in all study trees...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163645/hypervitaminosis-d3-in-broiler-chicks-histopathological-immunomodulatory-and-immunohistochemical-approach
#17
R Kumar, R S Brar, H S Banga
The present study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of higher doses (1,00,000 IU i.e. 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of vitamin D3, concomitantly with bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides: LPS) to study the immunomodulatory potential of vitamin D3 in IBL-80 broiler chicks. The chicks were divided into four groups [group I (NSS), group II (LPS), group III (Vit. D3 + NSS), and group IV (Vit. D3 + LPS)] containing eight chicks in each group, treated accordingly for 21 days. Birds were kept under close observation for apparent clinical signs and symptoms...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#18
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146305/validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-residues-in-broiler-liver
#19
Alejandra P Magnoli, María L González Pereyra, María P Monge, Lilia R Cavaglieri, Stella M Chiacchiera
Aflatoxin B1 is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is the predominant mycotoxin found in raw materials used for the manufacture of broiler feeds. The aim of the present study was to develop a new and optimized method for the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) residues in broiler liver using solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) detection...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138201/effect-of-iron-and-zinc-biofortified-pearl-millet-consumption-on-growth-and-immune-competence-in-children-aged-12-18-months-in-india-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Saurabh Mehta, Julia L Finkelstein, Sudha Venkatramanan, Samantha L Huey, Shobha A Udipi, Padmini Ghugre, Caleb Ruth, Richard L Canfield, Anura V Kurpad, Ramesh D Potdar, Jere D Haas
INTRODUCTION: Biofortified crops represent a sustainable agricultural solution for the widespread micronutrient malnutrition in India and other resource-limited settings. This study aims to investigate the effect of the consumption of foods prepared with iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZn-PM) by children on biomarkers of iron and zinc status, growth, and immune function. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised controlled feeding trial in identified slums of Mumbai, India among 200 children aged between 12 and 18 months...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
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