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asthma pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635907/-the-problem-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-asthmatic-patients
#1
E G Sheludko, D E Naumov, Yu M Perelman, V P Kolosov
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626043/the-diverse-roles-of-arrestin-scaffolds-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Yuri K Peterson, Louis M Luttrell
The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620429/novel-approaches-to-ultrasonography-of-the-lung-and-pleural-space-where-are-we-now
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Lichtenstein
This review article is an update of what should be known for practicing basic lung ultrasound in the critically ill (LUCI) and is also of interest for less critical disciplines (e.g. pulmonology). It pinpoints on the necessity of a professional machine (not necessarily a sophisticated one) and probe. It lists the 10 main signs of LUCI and some of the main protocols made possible using LUCI: the BLUE protocol for a respiratory failure, the FALLS protocol for a circulatory failure, the SESAME protocol for a cardiac arrest and the investigation of a ventilated acute respiratory distress syndrome patient, etc...
June 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619712/targeting-acetylcholine-receptor-m3-prevents-the-progression-of-airway-hyperreactivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-childhood-asthma
#4
Kruti R Patel, Yan Bai, Kenneth G Trieu, Juliana Barrios, Xingbin Ai
Asthma often progresses into adulthood from early-life episodes of adverse environmental exposures. However, how the injury to developing lungs contributes to the pathophysiology of persistent asthma remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified an age-related mechanism along the cholinergic nerve-airway smooth muscle (ASM) axis that underlies prolonged airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in mice. We showed that ASM continued to mature until ∼3 wk after birth. Coinciding with postnatal ASM maturation, there was a critical time window for the development of ASM hypercontractility after cholinergic stimulation...
June 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606156/expression-of-mrna-il-17f-and-sil-17f-in-atopic-asthma-patients
#5
Mochammad Hatta, Eko E Surachmanto, Andi Asadul Islam, Syarifuddin Wahid
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of airway that involves many cells and elements. Chronic inflammation caused by increase Airway hyperresponsiveness that cause recurrent episodic symptoms of breathlessness, wheezing, chest tightness and coughing, especially at night or early morning. Interleukin 17F is a cytokine that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma attacks. Some studies show a variety of IL-17F roles in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation due to an allergic reaction...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601047/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#6
Zahra Alizadeh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian Adcock, Mostafa Moin
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic airway inflammatory disease with different clinical phenotypes caused by diverse triggers and pathophysiological mechanisms. Asthma heritability has been established in many genetic studies but it is evident that only genetic elements are not responsible for the development of asthma. Increasing rate of asthma incidence during past decades has implicated the role of epigenetics in development of asthma. Environmental factors perform as initiator signals through epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589122/the-future-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-emerging-pathophysiological-concepts-and-potential-new-avenues-of-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer J P Collins, Dick Tibboel, Ismé M de Kleer, Irwin K M Reiss, Robbert J Rottier
Yearly more than 15 million babies are born premature (<37 weeks gestational age), accounting for more than 1 in 10 births worldwide. Lung injury caused by maternal chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia, postnatal ventilation, hyperoxia, or inflammation can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most common adverse outcomes in these preterm neonates. BPD patients have an arrest in alveolar and microvascular development and more frequently develop asthma and early-onset emphysema as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586774/the-use-of-mouse-asthma-models-to-successfully-discover-and-develop-novel-drugs
#8
Michelle M Epstein, Cornelia Tilp, Klaus J Erb
The past 20 years have seen a proliferation of scientific data on the pathophysiology of asthma. Most of these data were generated in mice using tool reagents, gene-deficient or transgenic animals. In contrast, studies on disease pathogenesis in patients are scarce. Previously, a good novel antiasthma target for drug development was one that abrogated asthma in mice when it was knocked out, neutralized or induced asthma when it was overexpressed. This type of approach led to many drug candidates that worked in mice but unfortunately failed in patients, thereby demonstrating that the results of experiments in mice are not always predictive of clinical efficacy...
June 7, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585516/salivary-sp-d-may-be-a-biomarker-reflecting-small-airway-inflammation-and-asthma-exacerbation
#9
S Okazaki, H Murai, S Kidoguchi, E Nomura, N Itoh, N Hashimoto, T Hamada, A Kawakita, M Yasutomi, Y Ohshima
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Background: Noninvasive and child-friendly biomarkers are important tools for understanding the various phenotypes of childhood asthma. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of salivary surfactant protein (SP)-D in assessing the pathophysiology of childhood asthma. METHODS: We measured salivary concentrations of SP-D and forced oscillation technique (FOT) indexes in 19 healthy controls and 21 asthmatic children...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583618/new-anti-eosinophil-drugs-for-asthma-and-copd-targeting-the-trait
#10
REVIEW
Elisabeth H Bel, Anneke Ten Brinke
Asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD) are prevalent chronic inflammatory airway diseases that are responsible for a large global disease burden. Both diseases are complex and heterogeneous, and are increasingly recognized as overlapping syndromes that may share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms and treatable traits. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is considered the most influential treatable trait of chronic airway disease, and over the last decade several monoclonal antibodies and small molecule therapies have been developed to target this trait...
June 2, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570148/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-obesity-and-metabolism-an-emerging-frontier-in-lung-health-and-disease
#11
Benjamin T Suratt, Niki D J Ubags, Deepa Rastogi, Kelan G Tantisira, Benjamin J Marsland, Irina Petrache, Janice B Allen, Jason H T Bates, Fernando Holguin, Meredith C McCormack, Evangelos D Michelakis, Stephen M Black, Manu Jain, Ana L Mora, Viswanathan Natarajan, Yury I Miller, Michael B Fessler, Konstantin G Birukov, Ross S Summer, Stephanie A Shore, Anne E Dixon
The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561329/sputum-basophils-and-asthma-diagnosis-dawn-of-a-new-era
#12
EDITORIAL
Michaela Fux, Christophe von Garnier
More than 40 years ago, Kimura et al. discovered that basophils are enriched in sputum samples of asthma patients (1). Since then, various scientific approaches have attempted to elucidate the role of basophils in the pathophysiology of asthma. The scarcity of basophils and technical limitations of earlier studies have made it difficult to increase our understanding how basophils affect the disease course in asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 31, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561150/-preoperative-optimization-of-pulmonary-diseases-an-approach
#13
Haitham Mutlak, Achim Grünewaldt
Preoperative identification of patients with an increased risk for perioperative pulmonary complications is crucial for the anesthesiological management. These complications were underestimated in the past, but are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality when occuring. Patients with preexisting pulmonary diseases are at increased risk for perioperative pulmonary complications. In the recent past more emphasis was placed on preoperative optimization of the underlying pulmonary diseases like COPD or Asthma bronchiale...
May 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555089/stigmasterol-modulates-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-guinea-pig-model-of-ovalbumin-induced-asthma
#14
Aaron Opoku Antwi, David Darko Obiri, Newman Osafo
We explored the potential benefits of stigmasterol in the treatment of asthma, an airway disorder characterized by immune pathophysiology and with an ever-increasing worldwide prevalence. We assessed the modulatory effect of the intraperitoneal administration of stigmasterol on experimentally induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The effect of stigmasterol on inflammatory cell proliferation, oxidative stress, lung histopathology, and remodeling was investigated. The results showed significant suppressive effects on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory damage...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553015/interluekin-35-in-asthma-and-its-potential-as-an-effective-therapeutic-agent
#15
REVIEW
Peng Gao, Zhenzhong Su, Xuejiao Lv, Jie Zhang
Interleukin- (IL-) 35 is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family and a heterodimeric protein formed by Epstein-Barr-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. Emerging evidence shows that IL-35 is a key player in the regulation of cellular communication, differentiation, and inflammation. Altered IL-35 expression has been found in disease conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and, more recently, asthma. In cancer, IL-35 is involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. In rheumatoid arthritis, IL-35 acts as a negative regulator of inflammation...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552275/delayed-type-of-allergic-skin-reaction-to-candida-albicans-in-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis-cases
#16
Nozomu Wakayama, Shoji Matsune, Kimihiro Okubo
OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is frequently complicated by asthma, and recognized as refractory and persistent rhinosinusitis. However, the detailed pathophysiology of ECRS has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we investigated the association between recurrent ECRS and intradermal testing to multi-antigens including Candida albicans. METHODS: The subjects were 49 cases of bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis including 24 ECRS cases. They underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and submitted to pathological examination...
May 25, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549723/tracheobronchomalacia
#17
Abhishek Biswas, Michael A Jantz, P S Sriram, Hiren J Mehta
The term tracheobronchomalacia refers to excessively compliant and collapsible central airways leading to symptoms. Although seen as a coexisting condition with various other pulmonary condition, it may cause symptoms by itself. The condition is often misdiagnosed as asthma, bronchitis or just chronic cough due to a lack of specific pathognomonic history and clinical findings. The investigation revolves around different modes of imaging, lung function testing and usually confirmed by flexible bronchoscopy. The treatment widely varies based on the cause, with most cases treated conservatively with non-invasive ventilation...
May 23, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549270/the-effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-the-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Martha M C Elwenspoek, Annette Kuehn, Claude P Muller, Jonathan D Turner
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539639/the-absence-of-interferon-%C3%AE-promotor-stimulator-1-ips-1-predisposes-to-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-like-pathology-in-response-to-pneumoviral-infection-in-mice
#19
Jennifer Simpson, Jason P Lynch, Zhixuan Loh, Vivian Zhang, Rhiannon B Werder, Kirsten Spann, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#20
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
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