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asthma pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725641/mechanisms-mediating-pediatric-severe-asthma-and-potential-novel-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Aldara Martin Alonso, Sejal Saglani
Although a rare disease, severe therapy-resistant asthma in children is a cause of significant morbidity and results in utilization of approximately 50% of health-care resources for asthma. Improving control for children with severe asthma is, therefore, an urgent unmet clinical need. As a group, children with severe asthma have severe and multiple allergies, steroid resistant airway eosinophilia, and significant structural changes of the airway wall (airway remodeling). Omalizumab is currently the only add-on therapy that is licensed for use in children with severe asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702854/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-pulmonary-diseases-associated-with-aspergillosis-is-there-a-connection
#2
Maria N Gamaletsou, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: We studied the relationship between GORD and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), or Aspergillus bronchitis. BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is well known to initiate or exacerbate pulmonary inflammatory conditions, inducing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. METHODS: We reviewed four patients referred with elevated Aspergillus serology markers and marked pulmonary symptoms for ABPA, CPA, and Aspergillus bronchitis, and discussed the underlying pathophysiological relationship with GORD...
July 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684600/frontline-science-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-subtype-1-is-a-critical-modulator-of-mast-cell-degranulation-and-stress-induced-pathophysiology
#3
Saravanan Ayyadurai, Amelia J Gibson, Susan D'Costa, Elizabeth L Overman, Laura J Sommerville, Ashwini C Poopal, Emily Mackey, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
Life stress is a major risk factor in the onset and exacerbation of mast cell-associated diseases, including allergy/anaphylaxis, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Although it is known that mast cells are highly activated upon stressful events, the mechanisms by which stress modulates mast cell function and disease pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 (CRF1) in mast cell degranulation and associated disease pathophysiology...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683596/reslizumab-in-the-treatment-of-inadequately-controlled-asthma-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-elevated-blood-eosinophils-clinical-trial-evidence-and-future-prospects
#4
Jorge Máspero
Eosinophils have long been implicated as playing a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma in many patients, and eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important asthma endotype. Eosinophil differentiation, maturation, migration, and survival are primarily under the control of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Reslizumab is a humanized monoclonal (immunoglobulin G4/κ) antibody that binds with high affinity to circulating human IL-5 and downregulates the IL-5 signaling pathway, potentially disrupting the maturation and survival of eosinophils...
July 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677827/the-overlaps-of-asthma-or-copd-with-osa-a-focused-review
#5
REVIEW
Robert L Owens, Madalina M Macrea, Mihaela Teodorescu
Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are the most common respiratory disorders worldwide. Given demographic and environmental changes, prevalence for each is likely to increase. Although exact numbers are not known, based on chance alone, many people will be affected by both lower airways obstruction and concomitant upper airway obstruction during sleep. Some recent studies suggest that there is a reciprocal interaction, with chronic lung disease predisposing to OSA, and OSA worsening control and outcomes from chronic lung disease...
July 5, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669635/neuropsychiatry-phenotype-in-asthma-psychological-stress-induced-alterations-of-the-neuroendocrine-immune-system-in-allergic-airway-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Isao Ohno
Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS) upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation...
June 29, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658564/a-clustering-approach-to-identify-and-characterize-the-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-phenotype
#7
Keita Hirai, Toshihiro Shirai, Masayuki Suzuki, Taisuke Akamatsu, Takahito Suzuki, Ichiro Hayashi, Akito Yamamoto, Takefumi Akita, Satoru Morita, Kazuhiro Asada, Daiki Tsuji, Kazuyuki Inoue, Kunihiko Itoh
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases. The phenotypes that have clinical features of both asthma and COPD are still incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the best discriminators of the asthma-COPD overlap phenotype from asthma and COPD subgroups using a clustering approach. METHODS: This study assessed pathophysiological parameters, including mRNA expression levels of T helper cell-related transcription factors, namely, TBX21 (Th1), GATA3 (Th2), RORC (Th17), and FOXP3 (Treg), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma patients (n = 152) and in COPD patients (n = 50)...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658558/the-atopic-march-current-insights-into-skin-barrier-dysfunction-and-epithelial-cell-derived-cytokines
#8
REVIEW
Hongwei Han, Florence Roan, Steven F Ziegler
Atopic dermatitis often precedes the development of other atopic diseases. The atopic march describes this temporal relationship in the natural history of atopic diseases. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie this relationship are poorly understood, epidemiological and genetic data have suggested that the skin might be an important route of sensitization to allergens. Animal models have begun to elucidate how skin barrier defects can lead to systemic allergen sensitization. Emerging data now suggest that epithelial cell-derived cytokines such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25 may drive the progression from atopic dermatitis to asthma and food allergy...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656279/silencing-of-%C3%AE-1-integrin-regulates-airway-remodeling-by-regulating-the-transcription-of-soce%C3%A2-associated-genes-in-asthmatic-mice
#9
Chen Qiu, Wenwen Liu, Fei Shi, Mengjie Fen, Lili Ren, Hui Qi
The incidence of asthma is increasing globally; however, current treatments are only able to cure a certain proportion of patients. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. β1 integrin serves a role in the pathophysiology of asthma through the development of airway remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate silencing of the β1 integrin gene in pre‑clinical models of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin through intraperitoneal injection and repeated aerosolized ovalbumin...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653989/allergens-with-protease-activity-from-house-dust-mites
#10
REVIEW
Manuel Reithofer, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid
Globally, house dust mites (HDM) are one of the main sources of allergens causing Type I allergy, which has a high risk of progressing into a severe disabling disease manifestation such as allergic asthma. The strong protease activities of a number of these allergens are thought to be involved in several steps of the pathophysiology of this allergic disease. It has been a common notion that protease activity may be one of the properties that confers allergenicity to proteins. In this review we summarize and discuss the roles of the different HDM proteases in the development of Type I allergy...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647490/sex-biased-eicosanoid-biology-impact-for-sex-differences-in-inflammation-and-consequences-for-pharmacotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Simona Pace, Lidia Sautebin, Oliver Werz
The incidence, severity and progression of autoimmune diseases (e.g. scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis) and certain inflammatory diseases (e.g. asthma) are sex-biased where these pathologies dominate in women. However, other immune disorders such as sepsis, post-surgery infections and gout display higher incidence and severity in men. The molecular and cellular basis underlying this sex dimorphism remains incompletely elucidated but may provide important insights for sex-specific pharmacotherapy...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647381/leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-attenuated-airway-inflammation-and-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-double-stranded-rna-induced-asthma-exacerbation-model
#12
Mariko Ujino, Naoya Sugimoto, Yuta Koizumi, Shoki Ro, Yasuhiro Kojima, Kamiyama-Hara Asae, Naomi Yamashita, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase
BACKGROUND: Viral infections are the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation, but the key molecules involved in this process have not been fully identified. Although cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) have been postulated as the key mediators, their precise roles remain largely unclear. To investigate the roles of cysLTs in virus-induced asthma exacerbation, we developed a murine model using a viral double-stranded RNA analog, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and analyzed the effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) administration...
June 21, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646903/human-adipose-tissue-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-act-differentially-on-lung-mechanics-and-inflammation-in-experimental-allergic-asthma
#13
Ligia Lins de Castro, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Patricia Albuquerque Garcia Redondo, Tatiana Paula Teixeira Ferreira, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marco Aurélio Martins, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be difficult to treat due to its complex pathophysiology. Most current drugs focus on controlling the inflammatory process, but are unable to revert the changes of tissue remodeling. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are effective at reducing inflammation and tissue remodeling; nevertheless, no study has evaluated the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) on established airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635907/-the-problem-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-asthmatic-patients
#14
E G Sheludko, D E Naumov, Yu M Perelman, V P Kolosov
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626043/the-diverse-roles-of-arrestin-scaffolds-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Yuri K Peterson, Louis M Luttrell
The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620429/novel-approaches-to-ultrasonography-of-the-lung-and-pleural-space-where-are-we-now
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Lichtenstein
This review article is an update of what should be known for practicing basic lung ultrasound in the critically ill (LUCI) and is also of interest for less critical disciplines (e.g. pulmonology). It pinpoints on the necessity of a professional machine (not necessarily a sophisticated one) and probe. It lists the 10 main signs of LUCI and some of the main protocols made possible using LUCI: the BLUE protocol for a respiratory failure, the FALLS protocol for a circulatory failure, the SESAME protocol for a cardiac arrest and the investigation of a ventilated acute respiratory distress syndrome patient, etc...
June 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619712/targeting-acetylcholine-receptor-m3-prevents-the-progression-of-airway-hyperreactivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-childhood-asthma
#17
Kruti R Patel, Yan Bai, Kenneth G Trieu, Juliana Barrios, Xingbin Ai
Asthma often progresses into adulthood from early-life episodes of adverse environmental exposures. However, how the injury to developing lungs contributes to the pathophysiology of persistent asthma remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified an age-related mechanism along the cholinergic nerve-airway smooth muscle (ASM) axis that underlies prolonged airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in mice. We showed that ASM continued to mature until ∼3 wk after birth. Coinciding with postnatal ASM maturation, there was a critical time window for the development of ASM hypercontractility after cholinergic stimulation...
June 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606156/expression-of-mrna-il-17f-and-sil-17f-in-atopic-asthma-patients
#18
Mochammad Hatta, Eko E Surachmanto, Andi Asadul Islam, Syarifuddin Wahid
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of airway that involves many cells and elements. Chronic inflammation caused by increase Airway hyperresponsiveness that cause recurrent episodic symptoms of breathlessness, wheezing, chest tightness and coughing, especially at night or early morning. Interleukin 17F is a cytokine that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma attacks. Some studies show a variety of IL-17F roles in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation due to an allergic reaction...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601047/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#19
Zahra Alizadeh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian Adcock, Mostafa Moin
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic airway inflammatory disease with different clinical phenotypes caused by diverse triggers and pathophysiological mechanisms. Asthma heritability has been established in many genetic studies but it is evident that only genetic elements are not responsible for the development of asthma. Increasing rate of asthma incidence during past decades has implicated the role of epigenetics in development of asthma. Environmental factors perform as initiator signals through epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589122/the-future-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-emerging-pathophysiological-concepts-and-potential-new-avenues-of-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer J P Collins, Dick Tibboel, Ismé M de Kleer, Irwin K M Reiss, Robbert J Rottier
Yearly more than 15 million babies are born premature (<37 weeks gestational age), accounting for more than 1 in 10 births worldwide. Lung injury caused by maternal chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia, postnatal ventilation, hyperoxia, or inflammation can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most common adverse outcomes in these preterm neonates. BPD patients have an arrest in alveolar and microvascular development and more frequently develop asthma and early-onset emphysema as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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