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asthma pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934047/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-phosphodiesterase-type-4-inhibitor-chf6001-on-bronchoalveolar-lavage-lymphocytes-from-asthma-patients
#1
Thomas Southworth, Manminder Kaur, Lynsey Hodgson, Fabrizio Facchinetti, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytes play a key role in asthma pathophysiology, secreting various cytokines involved in chronic inflammation. CHF6001 is a highly potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor designed for inhaled administration and has been shown to reduce the late asthmatic response. However, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on the different cytokines produced by lung lymphocytes from asthma patients has not been examined. METHODS: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CHF6001 and the corticosteroid, 17-BMP, on T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulated Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine release from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from mild (n = 12) and moderate asthma (n = 12) patients...
June 19, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930242/atopic-dermatitis
#2
REVIEW
Stephan Weidinger, Lisa A Beck, Thomas Bieber, Kenji Kabashima, Alan D Irvine
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 20% and substantial effects on quality of life. AD is characterized by intense itch, recurrent eczematous lesions and a fluctuating course. AD has a strong heritability component and is closely related to and commonly co-occurs with other atopic diseases (such as asthma and allergic rhinitis). Several pathophysiological mechanisms contribute to AD aetiology and clinical manifestations. Impairment of epidermal barrier function, for example, owing to deficiency in the structural protein filaggrin, can promote inflammation and T cell infiltration...
June 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928501/oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-respiratory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Alice C-H Chen, Lucy Burr, Michael A McGuckin
Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related states that can occur in cells as part of normal physiology but occur frequently in diseases involving inflammation. In this article, we review recent findings relating to the role of oxidative and ER stress in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic nonmalignant diseases of the lung, including infections, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. We also explore the potential of drugs targeting oxidative and ER stress pathways to alleviate disease...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922064/managing-patients-with-chronic-cough-challenges-and-solutions
#4
Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Claire Launois, Maxime Dewolf, Antoine Dumazet, Sandra Dury, François Lebargy, Valérian Dormoy, Gaëtan Deslee
Chronic cough is a common complaint and a frequent cause of medical consultation. Its management can be difficult. We present here an overview of the current guidelines for the management of chronic cough. Different steps are detailed, including the initial research of an obvious etiology and alert signs that should lead to further investigation of underlying condition. The diagnosis of the most frequent causes: asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway cough syndrome should be considered, assessed and treated accordingly...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921555/the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-6-8-year-old-first-graders-in-taipei
#5
Ciao-Lin Ho, Lu-I Chang, Wei-Fong Wu
BACKGROUND: Despite the advance in the understanding of etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD), its prevalence has increased annually in Taiwan. PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence, and personal and environmental risk factors of AD. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted via health centers of elementary schools in Taipei city. We used the Chinese version of ISAAC questionnaire to examine possible personal and environmental risk factors of AD...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910798/effect-of-dietary-fiber-and-metabolites-on-mast-cell-activation-and-mast-cell-associated-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Jelle Folkerts, Ralph Stadhouders, Frank A Redegeld, See-Ying Tam, Rudi W Hendriks, Stephen J Galli, Marcus Maurer
Many mast cell-associated diseases, including allergies and asthma, have seen a strong increase in prevalence during the past decades, especially in Western(ized) countries. It has been suggested that a Western diet may contribute to the prevalence and manifestation of allergies and asthma through reduced intake of dietary fiber and the subsequent production of their metabolites. Indeed, dietary fiber and its metabolites have been shown to positively influence the development of immune disorders via changes in microbiota composition and the regulation of B- and T-cell activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905356/-biologics-in-rhinology-forthcoming-personalized-concepts-the-future-starts-today
#7
Adam M Chaker
Sinunasale Erkrankungen zählen mit zu den häufigsten chronischen Erkrankungen und führen zu einer erheblichen Störung der Lebensqualität, ein komorbides Asthma ist häufig. Trotz leitliniengerechter Therapie ist anzunehmen, dass mind. 20% der Patienten ihre Erkrankungssymptome nicht adäquat kontrollieren können. Neben den etablierten chirurgischen und konservativen Therapieoptionen finden sich nun vielversprechende Therapieansätze, die bspw. mittels therapeutischer Antikörper mechanistisch gezielt in die Pathophysiologie der Erkrankungen eingreifen können...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904594/towards-precision-medicine-the-application-of-omics-technologies-in-asthma-management
#8
Chiara Scelfo, Carla Galeone, Francesca Bertolini, Marco Caminati, Patrizia Ruggiero, Nicola Facciolongo, Francesco Menzella
Asthma is a chronic obstructive respiratory disease characterised by bronchial inflammation. Its biological and clinical features have been widely explored and a number of pharmacological treatments are currently available. Currently several aspects of asthma pathophysiological background remain unclear, and this is crucial for the traditional asthma phenotype approach as well as for new endotype definition. In this scenario, the identification of new molecular and clinical biomarkers may be helpful in order to better understand the disease, define specific diagnostic tools and highlight relevant novel targets for pharmacology treatments...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900607/local-allergic-rhinitis-implications-for-management
#9
Paloma Campo, Ibon Eguiluz-Gracia, Gador Bogas, María Salas, Carmen Plaza Serón, Natalia Pérez, C Mayorga, M J Torres, Mohammed Shamji, Carmen Rondon
A significant proportion of rhinitis patients without systemic IgE-sensitization tested by skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) display nasal reactivity upon nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT). This disease phenotype has been termed local allergic rhinitis (LAR). LAR is an underdiagnosed entity affecting children and adults from different parts of the world, with moderate-to-severe symptoms, impairment of quality of life and rapid progression to symptom worsening. LAR is a stable phenotype and not merely an initial state of AR...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900603/the-enigmatic-role-of-the-neutrophil-in-asthma-friend-foe-or-indifferent
#10
Robert J Snelgrove, Dhiren F Patel, Tulsi Patel, Clare M Lloyd
Whilst severe asthma has classically been categorised as a predominantly Th2 driven pathology, there has in recent years been a paradigm shift with the realisation that it is a heterogeneous disease that may manifest with quite disparate underlying inflammatory and remodelling profiles. A subset of asthmatics, particularly those with a severe, corticosteroid refractory disease, present with a prominent neutrophilic component. Given the potential of neutrophils to impart extensive tissue damage and promote inflammation, it has been anticipated that these cells are closely implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of severe asthma...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890236/a-bispecific-antibody-strategy-to-target-multiple-type-2-cytokines-in-asthma
#11
Marie Godar, Kim Deswarte, Karl Vergote, Michael Saunders, Hans de Haard, Hamida Hammad, Christophe Blanchetot, Bart N Lambrecht
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease in which innate and adaptive immune cells act together to cause eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia (GCM) and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). In clinical trials employing biologicals against interleukin (IL)-4Rα or IL-5, only a subset of moderate-to-severe asthmatics responded favorably, suggesting that distinct pathophysiological mechanisms are at play in subgroups of patients, called endotypes. However, the effect of multiple cytokine blockade using bispecific antibodies (Ab) has not been tested...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885665/bacterial-biogeography-of-adult-airways-in-atopic-asthma
#12
Juliana Durack, Yvonne J Huang, Snehal Nariya, Laura S Christian, K Mark Ansel, Avraham Beigelman, Mario Castro, Anne-Marie Dyer, Elliot Israel, Monica Kraft, Richard J Martin, David T Mauger, Sharon R Rosenberg, Tonya S King, Steven R White, Loren C Denlinger, Fernando Holguin, Stephen C Lazarus, Njira Lugogo, Stephen P Peters, Lewis J Smith, Michael E Wechsler, Susan V Lynch, Homer A Boushey
BACKGROUND: Perturbations to the composition and function of bronchial bacterial communities appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma. Unraveling the nature and mechanisms of these complex associations will require large longitudinal studies, for which bronchoscopy is poorly suited. Studies of samples obtained by sputum induction and nasopharyngeal brushing or lavage have also reported asthma-associated microbiota characteristics. It remains unknown, however, whether the microbiota detected in these less-invasive sample types reflect the composition of bronchial microbiota in asthma...
June 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883053/mucus-t-helper-2-biomarkers-predict-chronic-rhinosinusitis-disease-severity-and-prior-surgical-intervention
#13
Justin H Turner, Ping Li, Rakesh K Chandra
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a diverse clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Early attempts to identify CRS endotypes and biomarkers have largely relied on analysis of surgically obtained tissue, thus limiting their practical utility. This study examined the ability of mucus T helper 2 (Th2) biomarkers to predict CRS disease severity and clinical characteristics. METHODS: CRS (n = 90) and healthy control subjects (n = 17) were prospectively enrolled prior to surgical intervention and mucus levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were determined using a multiplex cytometric bead assay...
June 8, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881388/eicosapentaenoic-acid-enhances-the-effects-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-experimental-allergic-asthma
#14
Soraia Carvalho Abreu, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Adriana Lopes da Silva, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Tainá Batista de Oliveira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Lígia Lins de Castro, Natália Recardo Amorim, Vanessa Martins, Luisa H A Silva, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Patricia Rieken Macêdo Rocco
Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodeling. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy mitigates lung inflammation in experimental allergic asthma; however, its ability to reduce airway remodeling is limited. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) potentiates the therapeutic properties of MSCs in experimental allergic asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879991/is-ige-or-eosinophils-the-key-player-in-allergic-asthma-pathogenesis-are-we-asking-the-right-question
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Matucci, Alessandra Vultaggio, Enrico Maggi, Ismail Kasujee
Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a marked heterogeneity in pathophysiology and etiology. The heterogeneity of BA may be related to the inducing mechanism(s) (allergic vs non-allergic), the histopathological background (eosinophilic vs non-eosinophilic), and the clinical manifestations, particularly in terms of severity and frequency of exacerbations. Asthma can be divided into at least two different endotypes based on the degree of Th2 inflammation (T2 'high' and T2 'low'). For patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunoglobulin E (IgE) or interleukin (IL)-5 are now available as add-on treatments...
June 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873194/pulsus-paradoxus
#16
REVIEW
Malay Sarkar, Rajeev Bhardwaz, Irappa Madabhavi, Srinivas Gowda, Kushal Dogra
OBJECTIVES: Reviewed the etiologies, pathophysiologic mechanisms, detection and clinical significance of pulsus paradoxus in various conditions. DATA SOURCE: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the CINAHL from inception to June 2017. We used the following search terms: Pulsus paradoxus, pericardial effusion, acute asthma, ventricular interdependence and so forth. All types of study were chosen. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Legendary physician Sir William Osler truly said that "Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870159/can-inflammatory-markers-in-induced-sputum-be-used-to-detect-phenotypes-and-endotypes-of-pediatric-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma
#17
Miriam C N Eller, Karina P Vergani, Beatriz M Saraiva-Romanholo, Leila Antonangelo, Claudio Leone, Joaquim C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: The phenotypes and endotypes of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) have not been fully elucidated in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate inflammatory markers in the induced sputum of children with STRA and to compare them with those present in a group of children who achieved control. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (6-18 years of age) diagnosed with severe asthma (GINA criteria) who had undergone treatment for at least 6 months was comprehensively followed for 3 months...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869791/precision-medicine-in-united-airways-disease-a-treatable-traits-approach
#18
REVIEW
Anthony Ca Yii, Tunn-Ren Tay, Xue Ning Choo, Mariko Sy Koh, Augustine Kh Tee, De-Yun Wang
United airways disease (UAD) is the concept that the upper and lower airways, which are anatomically and immunologically related, form a single organ. According to this concept, upper and lower airway diseases are frequently comorbid because they reflect manifestations of a single underlying disease at different sites of the respiratory tract. Allergic asthma-allergic rhinitis is the archetypal UAD, but emerging data indicate that UAD is a heterogeneous condition and consists of multiple phenotypes (observable clinical characteristics) and endotypes (pathobiologic mechanisms)...
June 5, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869108/chronic-pulmonary-disease-is-associated-with-pain-spreading-and-restless-legs-syndrome-in-middle-aged-women-a-population-based-study
#19
Zou Ding, Romana Stehlik, Jan Hedner, Jan Ulfberg, Ludger Grote
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of chronic pain conditions and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (CPD). We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors for pain and RLS in a population-based sample of females with comorbid CPD. METHOD: Questionnaire-based data from 2745 women aged 18-64 years were analyzed regarding comorbid CPD status (severe bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). Pain status was assessed according to symptoms reflecting severity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS rating 0-10) and duration and spreading (limited spread or widespread) of pain...
June 4, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845404/asthma-environment-and-pollution-where-the-rubber-hits-the-road
#20
Sankaran Krishnan, Sherin Panacherry
The detrimental effects of environmental pollution on one's health are undeniable and have been demonstrated time and time again. Breathing in pollutants in ambient air often has consequences throughout the body, including cardiovascular disease, effects on the reproductive system, and oncologic implications. In the respiratory system, chronic exposure yields a number of outcomes, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma exacerbations, increased rates of hospitalizations, and increased severity of acute illnesses...
May 30, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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