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asthma pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081237/co-occurrence-of-asthma-and-nephrolithiasis-in-children
#2
Ganesh K Kartha, Ina Li, Suzy Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Manoj Monga
It has been proposed that epithelial dysfunction and inflammation may predispose patients to kidney stone formation. Asthma is another chronic condition related to epithelial dysfunction and inflammation. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with asthma would have an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis. Furthermore, we investigated if asthma patients with nephrolithiasis have clinical characteristics and urine profiles that point to mechanisms of stone formation. We evaluated 865 pediatric patients who had a diagnosis of nephrolithiasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068678/literature-review-of-gender-differences-in-respiratory-conditions-a-focus-on-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#3
Chiara Cadeddu, Silvio Capizzi, Delia Colombo, Mihaela Nica, Antonio Giulio De Belvis
BACKGROUND: Gender differences are evident in many common health conditions, especially respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review was to identify published studies describing gender differences in asthma and COPD, in particular regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, with a focus on Italian data. METHODS: a literature review was performed from April to November 2015, using the PubMed scientific database and the following ??eywords: "gender differences" and "asthma" for the asthma review and "gender differences" and "COPD" for the COPD review...
September 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065276/using-imaging-as-a-biomarker-for-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Abhaya Trivedi, Chase Hall, Eric A Hoffman, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mario Castro
There have been significant advancements in the various imaging techniques being used for the evaluation of asthmatic patients, both from a clinical and research perspective. Imaging characteristics can be used to identify specific asthmatic phenotypes and provide a more detailed understanding of endotypes contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography can be used to assess pulmonary structure and function. It has been shown that specific airway and lung density measurements using computed tomography correlate with clinical parameters, including severity of disease and pathology, but also provide unique phenotypes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056993/effect-of-active-vitamin-d3-on-vegf-induced-adam33-expression-and-proliferation-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-implications-for-asthma-treatment
#5
Sung-Ho Kim, Qing-Mei Pei, Ping Jiang, Min Yang, Xue-Jiao Qian, Jiang-Bo Liu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthma. Recent evidence indicates that a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) may influence asthma pathogenesis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)33 has been identified as playing a role in the pathophysiology of asthma...
January 5, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036144/revisiting-type-2-high-and-type-2-low-airway-inflammation-in-asthma-current-knowledge-and-therapeutic-implications
#6
Douglas Robinson, Marc Humbert, Roland Buhl, Alvaro A Cruz, Hiromasa Inoue, Stephan Korom, Nicola A Hanania, Parameswaran Nair
Asthma is a complex respiratory disorder characterized by marked heterogeneity in individual patient disease triggers and response to therapy. Several asthma phenotypes have now been identified, each defined by a unique interaction between genetic and environmental factors, including inflammatory, clinical and trigger-related phenotypes. Endotypes further describe the functional or pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the patient's disease. Type 2-driven asthma is an emerging nomenclature for a common subtype of asthma and is characterized by the release of signature cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems...
December 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035475/increased-baff-expression-in-nasal-polyps-is-associated-with-local-ige-production-th2-response-and-concomitant-asthma
#7
Dilidaer, Yan Zheng, Zhuofu Liu, Xianting Hu, Jia Zhang, Li Hu, Miaomiao Han, Dehui Wang, Huabin Li
B-cell activating factor of the TNF family is critical for the survival and maturation of B cells and play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In this study, nasal tissues were enrolled from 25 CRSwNP patients (asthmatic, 16; non-asthmatic, 9), 12 CRSsNP patients and ten control subjects, respectively. The immunoreactivity of BAFF, CD20 and CD138 were examined using immunohistochemistry staining. The mRNA expression of BAFF, CD20, εGLT, AID, GATA3 and CRTH2 were examined using real-time RT-PCR...
December 29, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977296/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-in-asthma-novel-roles-and-therapeutic-approaches
#8
Edwin J Yoo, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Reynold A Panettieri
Asthma manifests as airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Immune cells and airway structural cells orchestrate asthma pathophysiology, leading to mucus secretion, airway narrowing, and obstruction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a lipid kinase, plays a crucial role in many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving asthma pathophysiology, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PI3K in the pathogenesis of asthma and discuss novel therapeutic approaches to treatment...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976413/medicinal-chemistry-pharmacology-and-clinical-implications-of-trpv1-receptor-antagonists
#9
REVIEW
Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Stefania Baraldi, Stefania Gessi, Stefania Merighi, Pier Andrea Borea
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel expressed on sensory neurons triggering an influx of cations. TRPV1 receptors function as homotetramers responsive to heat, proinflammatory substances, lipoxygenase products, resiniferatoxin, endocannabinoids, protons, and peptide toxins. Its phosphorylation increases sensitivity to both chemical and thermal stimuli, while desensitization involves a calcium-dependent mechanism resulting in receptor dephosphorylation. TRPV1 functions as a sensor of noxious stimuli and may represent a target to avoid pain and injury...
December 15, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939043/periostin-the-bone-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
L Idolazzi, E Ridolo, A Fassio, D Gatti, M Montagni, M Caminati, I Martignago, C Incorvaia, G Senna
In recent years the relationship between bone, metabolism and many pathophysiologic mechanisms involving other organs and the immune system, was increasingly apparent. This observation concerns vitamin D, osteopontin and periostin (PO). PO is expressed in the periosteum of long bones but also in many other tissues and organs, including heart, kidney, skin and lungs, being enhanced by mechanical stress or injury. PO has a relevant physiological function in promoting injury repair in a large number of tissues...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931299/association-of-allergy-immunology-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#11
Charles J Calais, Brian D Robertson, Douglas E Beakes
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive upper airway collapse that results in nonrefreshing sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, and, ultimately, adverse consequences on quality of life, the cardiovascular system, and neurocognitive performance. OSA has traditionally been linked to body habitus (obesity and increased neck circumference), racial demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and sedative use. Numerous other conditions are linked to OSA, which may have clinical relevance. Specifically, asthma and nasal obstructive syndromes, e...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906698/ige-and-eosinophils-as-therapeutic-targets-in-asthma
#13
Tanvi R Patel, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, which is being more widely recognized as a broad-spectrum disease that encompasses multiple patient characteristics and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Suboptimal asthma control leads to increasing burden of healthcare costs and loss of productivity to society. Biologic therapies targeted at IgE and eosinophils can be used in poorly controlled allergic and eosinophilic asthma, respectively...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905186/severe-asthma-current-management-targeted-therapies-and-future-directions-a-roundtable-report
#14
REVIEW
Vanessa M McDonald, Steven Maltby, Helen K Reddel, Gregory G King, Peter A B Wark, Lorraine Smith, John W Upham, Alan L James, Guy B Marks, Peter G Gibson
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness. Asthma is common and directly affects 10% of Australians, 1-5% of adults in Asia and 300 million people worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disorder with many clinical, molecular, biological and pathophysiological phenotypes. Current management strategies successfully treat the majority of patients with asthma who have access to them. However, there is a subset of an estimated 5-10% of patients with asthma who have severe disease and are disproportionately impacted by symptoms, exacerbations and overall illness burden...
January 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899696/selective-antagonism-of-trpa1-produces-limited-efficacy-in-models-of-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#15
Sonya G Lehto, Andy D Weyer, Beth D Youngblood, Maosheng Zhang, Ruoyuan Yin, Weiya Wang, Yohannes Teffera, Melanie Cooke, Cheryl L Stucky, Laurie Schenkel, Stephanie Geuns-Meyer, Bryan D Moyer, Kenneth D Wild, Narender R Gavva
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel has been implicated in pathophysiological processes that include asthma, cough, and inflammatory pain. Agonists of TRPA1 such as mustard oil and its key component allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) cause pain and neurogenic inflammation in humans and rodents, and TRPA1 antagonists have been reported to be effective in rodent models of pain. In our pursuit of TRPA1 antagonists as potential therapeutics, we generated AMG0902, a potent (IC90 of 300 nM against rat TRPA1), selective, brain penetrant (brain to plasma ratio of 0...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894811/critical-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-allergic-asthma
#16
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Seyyede Masoume Athari, Fateme Beyzay, Masoud Movassaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mehdi Taghavi
Allergic asthma is an airway disease, characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction, chronic inflammation of the airway, and thickness of smooth muscle in the respiratory tract. Asthma is orchestrated by an excessive Th2-adaptive immune response, in which innate immunity plays a key role. Recently TLRs have received more and more attention as they are central to orchestrate the innate immune responses. TLRs are localized as integral membrane or intracellular glycoproteins with those on the cell surface sensing microbial antigens and the ones, localized in intracellular vesicles, sensing microbial nucleic acid species...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872847/strengths-pitfalls-and-lessons-from-longitudinal-childhood-asthma-cohorts-of-children-followed-up-into-adult-life
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Tai
Asthma is a common problem worldwide and longitudinal studies of children followed up into adult life enable the assessment of clinical outcomes, examine the pattern of lung function outcomes, and importantly provide insight into aetiology and prognosis for patients with asthma. The aim of this review is to examine the major childhood asthma cohort studies which have continued into adult life, describing the strengths and weaknesses and the lessons that can be learnt regarding pathophysiology and potential future directions for research...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867084/new-concepts-in-asthma-clinical-phenotypes-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Andreas R Koczulla, Claus F Vogelmeier, Holger Garn, Harald Renz
Asthma is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. Recent evidence indicates that the pathogenesis shows a high degree of heterogeneity. Patient subsets have been identified that exhibit different cellular and molecular patterns of dysregulation. A prominent example is eosinophilic Th2-driven asthma. These unique and molecular patterns are termed endotypes. Characterization of endotypes has broad implications for therapeutic interventions. Although ∼80% of asthmatic patients respond well to standard anti-inflammatory therapies, the remaining subset particularly consisting of severe patients requires a more specialized endotype-specific approach...
November 17, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856660/effect-of-il-17-receptor-a-blockade-with-brodalumab-in-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ajay Nirula, Jon Nilsen, Paul Klekotka, Greg Kricorian, Ngozi Erondu, Jennifer E Towne, Chris B Russell, David A Martin, Alison L Budelsky
IL-17 cytokines are expressed by a variety of cells and mediate host defence against extracellular pathogens. IL-17 is upregulated at sites of inflammation and can synergize with other cytokines, such as TNF-α, to amplify the inflammatory response. Activation of these signalling pathways has been hypothesized to contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, RA, PsA and asthma. Thus the IL-17 signalling pathway is an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to modulate aberrant inflammatory responses...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842596/integrative-analysis-of-genetic-data-sets-reveals-a-shared-innate-immune-component-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-its-co-morbidities
#20
Sumaiya Nazeen, Nathan P Palmer, Bonnie Berger, Isaac S Kohane
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that tends to co-occur with other diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, infections, cerebral palsy, dilated cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, and schizophrenia. However, the molecular basis of this co-occurrence, and whether it is due to a shared component that influences both pathophysiology and environmental triggering of illness, has not been elucidated. To address this, we deploy a three-tiered transcriptomic meta-analysis that functions at the gene, pathway, and disease levels across ASD and its co-morbidities...
November 14, 2016: Genome Biology
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