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asthma pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#1
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#2
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216598/clinical-signs-staphylococcus-and-atopic-eczema-related-seromarkers
#3
Kam Lun Hon, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Jeng Sum C Kung, Ting Fan Leung, Christopher W K Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
: Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE), selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg), T helper (Th) and antigen-presenting cells (APC) are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215300/the-role-of-neurotrophins-in-inflammation-and-allergy
#4
S Manti, P Brown, M K Perez, G Piedimonte
Allergic inflammation is the result of a specific pattern of cellular and humoral responses leading to the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, which, in turn, results in physiological and structural changes affecting target tissues such as the airways and the skin. Eosinophil activation and the production of soluble mediators such as IgE antibodies are pivotal features in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. In the past few years, however, convincing evidence has shown that neurons and other neurosensory structures are not only a target of the inflammatory process but also participate in the regulation of immune responses by actively releasing soluble mediators...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188833/metabolomic-profiling-of-lung-function-in-costa-rican-children-with-asthma
#5
Rachel S Kelly, Yamini Virkud, Rachel Giorgio, Juan C Celedón, Scott T Weiss, Jessica Lasky-Su
BACKGROUND: The development of novel therapeutics and treatment regimens for the management of asthma is hindered by an incomplete understanding of its heterogeneous nature and pathophysiology. Metabolomics can provide an integrated and global profile of a biological system in a dysregulated state, making it a valuable tool to identify biomarkers along the disease development pathway and to understand the biological mechanisms driving that pathway. METHODS: Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling was conducted on plasma samples provided at recruitment for 380 children with asthma from the 'Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Cohort'...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170342/linking-childhood-allergic-asthma-phenotypes-with-endotype-through-integrated-systems-biology-current-evidence-and-research-needs
#6
Hyunok Choi, Won-Min Song, Bin Zhang
Asthma and other complex diseases results from a complex web of interactions involving inflammation, immunity, cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolic perturbations across multiple organ systems. The extent to which various degrees of the age at onset, symptom severity, and the natural progression of the disease reflect multiple disease subtypes, influenced by unique process of development remains unknown. One of the most critical challenges to our understanding stems from incomplete understanding of the mechanisms...
February 7, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161280/allergy-genuflection-it-s-surmount-with-special-focus-on-ear-nose-and-throat
#7
REVIEW
D Gupta, L Deshmukh, R Gupta, S S Sandhu
The system that protects body from infectious agents is immune system. On occasions, the system seldom reacts with some foreign particles and causes allergy. Allergies of the ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences, including impairment and emotional strain that lowers the quality of life of patients. This is further responsible for the common cold, cough, tonsillitis, dermal infection, chest pain and asthma-like conditions which disturb one's day to day life. The present review enlightens some common ENT allergies which one can suffer more frequently in one's lifetime, and ignorance leads to making the condition chronic...
February 1, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160515/allergic-asthma-an-overview-of-metabolomic-strategies-leading-to-the-identification-of-biomarkers-in-the-field
#8
Alma Villaseñor, Domenico Rosace, David Obeso, Marina Pérez-Gordo, Tomás Chivato, Coral Barbas, Domingo Barber, María M Escribese
Allergic asthma is a prominent disease especially during childhood. Indoor allergens, in general, and particularly house dust mites (HDM) are the most prevalent sensitizers associated with allergic asthma. Available data shows that 65 to 130 million people are mite-sensitized worldwide and as many as 50% of these are asthmatic. In fact, sensitization to HDM in the first years of life can produce devastating effects on pulmonary function leading to asthmatic syndromes that can be fatal. To date, there has been considerable research into the pathological pathways and structural changes associated with allergic asthma...
February 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148916/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-autoimmunity-emerging-regulators-in-rheumatic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Medya M Shikhagaie, Kristine Germar, Suzanne M Bal, Xavier Romero Ros, Hergen Spits
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and group 3 ILCs, based on the transcription factors they depend on for their development and function, and the cytokines they produce. Emerging data indicate that ILCs not only have protective functions but can also have detrimental effects when dysregulated, leading to chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atopic dermatitis...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143691/changing-paradigms-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-the-role-of-biologic-therapies
#10
Rohit K Katial, Greg W Bensch, William W Busse, Bradley E Chipps, Joshua L Denson, Anthony N Gerber, Joshua S Jacobs, Monica Kraft, Richard J Martin, Parameswaran Nair, Michael E Wechsler
Cytokine antagonists are monoclonal antibodies that offer new treatment options for refractory asthma but will also increase complexity because they are effective only for patients with certain asthma subtypes that remain to be more clearly defined. The clinical and inflammatory heterogeneity within refractory asthma makes it difficult to manage the disease and to determine which, if any, biologic therapy is suitable for a specific patient. The purpose of this article is to provide a data-driven discussion to clarify the use of biologic therapies in patients with refractory asthma...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139319/paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion-pvfm-in-pediatric-otolaryngology
#11
Blake Smith, Claudio Milstein, Bryan Rolfes, Samantha Anne
INTRODUCTION: Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is a condition in which the vocal cords exhibit inappropriate inspiratory adduction, and it has been poorly studied in the pediatric population. METHODS: Pediatric patients diagnosed with PVCM by a pediatric otolaryngologist and doctor of speech pathology from 2008 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients in whom another cause for their respiratory disturbance was eventually identified were excluded. Patient demographics, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134501/the-current-and-future-role-of-biomarkers-in-type-2-cytokine-mediated-asthma-management
#12
REVIEW
I D Pavord, S Afzalnia, A Menzies-Gow, L G Heaney
Assessment and management of asthma is complicated by the heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie its clinical presentation, which are not necessarily reflected in standardized management paradigms and which necessitate an individualized approach to treatment. This is particularly important with the emerging availability of a variety of targeted forms of therapy that may only be appropriate for use in particular patient subgroups. The identification of biomarkers can potentially aid diagnosis and inform prognosis, help guide treatment decisions and allow clinicians to predict and monitor response to treatment...
February 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115224/the-burden-of-obesity-in-asthma-and-copd-role-of-adiponectin
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Bianco, Ersilia Nigro, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Maria Gabriella Matera, Olga Scudiero, Gennaro Mazzarella, Aurora Daniele
The influence of obesity on development, severity and prognosis of both asthma and COPD is attracting growing interest. The impact of obesity on the respiratory system ranges from structural modifications (decline of total lung capacity) to humoral alterations. Adipose tissue strongly contributes to the establishment of an inflammatory state being an important source of adipokines. Amongst adipokines, adiponectin is an important component of organ cross talk with adipose tissue exerting protective effects on a variety of pathophysiological processes...
January 20, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108847/airway-mucus-inflammation-and-remodeling-emerging-links-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Julia Duerr, Matthias Hagner, Raman Agrawal, Marcus A Mall
Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105144/sesamin-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-through-the-suppression-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation
#15
Liangchang Li, Hongmei Piao, Mingyu Zheng, Zhewu Jin, Liguang Zhao, Guanghai Yan
The aim of the present study is to determine the role of sesamin, the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil, on the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. A BALB/c mouse model with allergic asthma was used to evaluate the effects of sesamin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine histological changes...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102054/extracellular-vesicles-a-key-mediator-to-link-environmental-microbiota-to-airway-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Youngwoo Choi, Hanki Park, Hae Sim Park, Yoon Keun Kim
Asthma is considered the hallmark of chronic airway inflammation, in which several inflammatory cells of the innate and adaptive immune system act together. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors; however, precise mechanisms for airway inflammation remain unclear. The human microbiota provides an increasingly favored explanation for inflammatory diseases; an altered microbiota composition has been shown to regulate immune responses. However, given the complexity of the microbiota, additional research is needed to elucidate its role in the development of disease...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081237/co-occurrence-of-asthma-and-nephrolithiasis-in-children
#18
Ganesh K Kartha, Ina Li, Suzy Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Manoj Monga
It has been proposed that epithelial dysfunction and inflammation may predispose patients to kidney stone formation. Asthma is another chronic condition related to epithelial dysfunction and inflammation. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with asthma would have an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis. Furthermore, we investigated if asthma patients with nephrolithiasis have clinical characteristics and urine profiles that point to mechanisms of stone formation. We evaluated 865 pediatric patients who had a diagnosis of nephrolithiasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068678/literature-review-of-gender-differences-in-respiratory-conditions-a-focus-on-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#19
Chiara Cadeddu, Silvio Capizzi, Delia Colombo, Mihaela Nica, Antonio Giulio De Belvis
BACKGROUND: Gender differences are evident in many common health conditions, especially respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review was to identify published studies describing gender differences in asthma and COPD, in particular regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, with a focus on Italian data. METHODS: a literature review was performed from April to November 2015, using the PubMed scientific database and the following ??eywords: "gender differences" and "asthma" for the asthma review and "gender differences" and "COPD" for the COPD review...
September 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065276/using-imaging-as-a-biomarker-for-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Abhaya Trivedi, Chase Hall, Eric A Hoffman, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mario Castro
There have been significant advancements in the various imaging techniques being used for the evaluation of asthmatic patients, both from a clinical and research perspective. Imaging characteristics can be used to identify specific asthmatic phenotypes and provide a more detailed understanding of endotypes contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography can be used to assess pulmonary structure and function. It has been shown that specific airway and lung density measurements using computed tomography correlate with clinical parameters, including severity of disease and pathology, but also provide unique phenotypes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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