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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453651/neurotrophins-in-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Juliana Barrios, Xingbin Ai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Current treatment focuses on symptomatic relief by temporally dampening inflammation and relaxing the airway. Novel combative strategies against asthma and hopefully a cure are yet to be developed. The goal of this review is to summarize recent literature on neurotrophins (NTs) in experimental models and clinical settings of asthma research. RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight studies of early phases of asthma that collectively reveal a profound impact of elevated NT levels following initial detrimental insults on long-term airway dysfunction...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450204/ppars-key-regulators-of-airway-inflammation-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-asthma
#2
Asoka Banno, Aravind T Reddy, Sowmya P Lakshmi, Raju C Reddy
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, significantly impacting quality of life and healthcare costs. While current therapies are effective in controlling many patients' symptoms, a large number continue to experience exacerbations or treatment-related adverse effects. Alternative therapies are thus urgently needed. Accumulating evidence has shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear hormone receptors, comprising PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, is involved in asthma pathogenesis and that ligand-induced activation of these receptors suppresses asthma pathology...
2018: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445292/late-onset-asthma-current-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Tsunahiko Hirano, Kazuto Matsunaga
Because the pathophysiology of asthma has diverse characteristics, to manage the disease effectively, it is important for clinicians to distinguish among the clinical phenotypes. Among them, adult-onset asthma, that is, late-onset asthma (LOA), is increasing because of the aging of the population. The phenotype of LOA is largely divided into two types according to the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, T-helper (Th)2- and non-Th2-associated LOA. Especially in Th2 LOA related to rhinosinusitis, as pulmonary function at onset is poor and asthma exacerbations occur frequently, it is important to detect this phenotype in the early phase by using a biomarker of Th2-type inflammation such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO )...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441652/bladder-pain-syndrome-interstitial-cystitis-is-associated-with-asthma-a-case-control-study
#4
Shiu-Dong Chung, Chung-Chien Huang, Herng-Ching Lin, Li-Ting Kao
OBJECTIVE: Although asthma and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) are considered to share similar pathophysiological pathways, the relationship between asthma and BPS/IC is uncertain. This case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship between prior asthma and BPS/IC using a large database in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 500 female patients with BPS/IC as cases and 500 propensity score-matched females without BPS/IC as controls...
February 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436209/focus-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-ger-and-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-lpr-new-pragmatic-insights-in-clinical-practice
#5
M Gelardi, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427981/environmental-causes-of-asthma
#6
Donald W Cockcroft
Environmental factors which cause asthma are those that induce airway inflammation with eosinophils (more common) or neutrophils along with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The most common of these (indeed the most common cause of asthma) are IgE-mediated inhalant allergen exposures. Allergen-induced AHR and inflammation are both associated with the allergen-induced late asthmatic response (LAR). Although allergens were previously recognized only as causes of symptoms and bronchoconstriction in asthmatics, we now appreciate them as causes of the fundamental pathophysiologic features of asthma...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423535/the-population-impact-of-rheumatic-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-in-relation-to-other-non-communicable-disorders-comparing-two-estimation-approaches
#7
Daniela Simões, Fábio Azevedo Araújo, Teresa Monjardino, Milton Severo, Ivo Cruz, Loreto Carmona, Raquel Lucas
The aim of this study was to quantify the population impact of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) with other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), using two complementary strategies: standard multivariate models based on global burden of disease (GBD)-defined groups vs. empirical mutually exclusive patterns of NCDs. We used cross-sectional data from the Portuguese Fourth National Health Survey (n = 23,752). Six GBD-defined groups were included: RMDs, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes or renal failure, and stroke or myocardial infarction...
February 8, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404159/presence-of-headache-and-migraine-in-asthma-patients
#8
Muzaffer Onur Turan, Çiğdem Çelik Susuz, Pakize Ayşe Turan
OBJECTIVES: Migraine is a diseases characterized with severe headaches, with neurological and systemic findings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of migraine and to examine whether there is a relationship between atopic disorders, parental history and migraine in asthma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 288 asthma outpatients, who had the diagnosis by an early or late test of reversibility showing a reversible airway obstruction according to hospital database were included...
April 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397301/-vocal-cord-dyskinesia-and-or-asthma
#9
J J Braun, C Delmas, A Charloux, P Schultz, F de Blay
INTRODUCTION: Vocal cord dyskinesia or vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is characterized by intermittent abnormal adduction of the vocal cords leading to airflow limitation at the level of the larynx, in the absence of local organic disease. It may occur in isolation or in association with asthma. The pathophysiology is complex and poorly understood. Wheeze, stridor or apparent upper airway obstruction are the most common symptoms. It occurs in a wide age range, more commonly in women, and diagnosis is often delayed and leads to unnecessary treatments (intubation, tracheostomy and high dose steroids)...
January 31, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389730/biomarkers-and-asthma-management-analysis-and-potential-applications
#10
Levi B Richards, Anne H Neerincx, Job J M H van Bragt, Peter J Sterk, Elisabeth H D Bel, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma features a high degree of heterogeneity in both pathophysiology and therapeutic response, resulting in many asthma patients being treated inadequately. Biomarkers indicative of underlying pathological processes could be used to identify disease subtypes, determine prognosis and to predict or monitor treatment response. However, the newly identified as well as more established biomarkers have different applications and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: Conventional markers for type 2-high asthma, such as blood eosinophils, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, serum IgE and periostin, feature limited sensitivity and specificity despite their significant correlations...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369067/evidence-establishing-a-link-between-prenatal-and-early-life-stress-and-asthma-development
#11
Maria José Rosa, Alison G Lee, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g., maternal anxiety or depression) increase the risk for childhood respiratory disorders...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368450/frequency-dependent-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-mouse-model-of-emphysema-and-allergic-inflammation
#12
Kentaro Tamura, Koichiro Matsumoto, Satoru Fukuyama, Keiko Kan-O, Yumiko Ishii, Ken Tonai, Miyoko Tatsuta, Aimi Enokizu, Hiromasa Inoue, Yoichi Nakanishi
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic airway inflammatory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, have different etiologies and pathophysiologies. Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) has recently been used for patients with mixed asthma and COPD. The pathophysiological mechanisms of ACO have not been clearly understood due to the lack of an appropriate murine model. To investigate its pathophysiology, we examined a murine model by allergen challenge in surfactant protein-D (SP-D)-deficient mice that spontaneously developed pulmonary emphysema...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361392/preschool-wheeze-genes-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Chinedu Nwokoro, Jonathan Grigg
Preschool wheeze is a common but poorly understood cause of respiratory morbidity that is both distinct from and overlaps with infantile bronchiolitis and school age asthma. Attempts at classification by epidemiology, pathophysiology, therapeutic response and clinical phenotype are imperfect and yet fundamental to both treatment choice and research design. The four main therapeutic classes for preschool wheeze, namely beta2 agonists, anticholinergics, corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers are employed with variable and often scanty evidence base, with evidence for a genetic influence on response variations...
December 5, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360534/immune-effects-of-the-neurotoxins-ciguatoxins-and-brevetoxins
#14
Ophelie Pierre, Laurent Misery, Matthieu Talagas, Raphaele Le Garrec
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and brevetoxins (PbTxs) are phycotoxins that can accumulate along the marine food chain and thus cause seafood poisoning in humans, namely "ciguatera fish poisoning" (CFP) and "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP), respectively. CFP is characterized by early gastrointestinal symptoms and typical sensory disorders (paraesthesia, pain, pruritus and cold dysaesthesia), which can persist several weeks and, in some cases, several months or years. NSP is considered a mild form of CFP with similar but less severe symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355509/severe-asthma-in-primary-care-identification-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer L Trevor, Bradley E Chipps
Most patients with asthma are managed by primary care providers. Severe asthma is associated with substantial morbidity and health care resource use, and long-term sequelae of severe asthma include airway remodeling and a greater risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These consequences highlight the importance of early identification and improved management of patients with severe asthma. Although treatment guidelines can be confusing and it can be difficult to keep abreast of updates, routine assessments of lung function, frequency and severity of exacerbations, symptom control, and medication adherence in the primary care setting provide the necessary information for identifying severe asthma and determining appropriate management strategies...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341360/comparison-of-respiratory-system-impedance-in-asthma-and-copd-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A single assessment of within-breath variations of respiratory system reactance (Xrs) at 5 Hz (ΔX5) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been reported to be useful for the detection of pathophysiological changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We examined longitudinal changes in respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and Xrs during tidal breathing between stable asthma and COPD patients in order to clarify the features of changes of respiratory system impedance and airflow limitation for these conditions...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339735/phenotype-and-functional-features-of-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-immortalized-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-from-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-donors
#17
J K Burgess, A Ketheson, A Faiz, K A Limbert Rempel, B G Oliver, J P T Ward, A J Halayko
Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of hTERT immortalisation of human ASM cells as a research tool. Specifically we compared proliferative capacity, inflammatory mediator release and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hTERT immortalised and parent primary ASM cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334288/targeted-anti-il-13-therapies-in-asthma-current-data-and-future-perspectives
#18
Polyxeni Ntontsi, Evgenia Papathanassiou, Stelios Loukides, Petros Bakakos, Georgios Hillas
The identification of patients with severe asthma who will benefit from a personalized management approach remains an unmet need. Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine possessing a significant role in asthma pathogenesis and progression of disease. Humanised monoclonal antibodies against IL-13 and IL-13 and IL-4 receptors are mainly proposed as add-on therapy in patients with TH2-high inflammation with uncontrolled asthma despite maximum therapy. Areas covered: The role of IL-13 in airway inflammation in severe asthma, the targeted anti-IL-13 therapies and biomarkers that predict response to anti-IL-13 treatment are discussed...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333270/lessons-from-ten-years-of-genome-wide-association-studies-of-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Cristina T Vicente, Joana A Revez, Manuel A R Ferreira
Twenty-five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of asthma were published between 2007 and 2016, the largest with a sample size of 157242 individuals. Across these studies, 39 genetic variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other were reported to associate with disease risk at a significance threshold of P<5 × 10-8, including 31 in populations of European ancestry. Results from analyses of the UK Biobank data (n=380 503) indicate that at least 28 of the 31 associations reported in Europeans represent true-positive findings, collectively explaining 2...
December 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317916/exposure-to-no2-co-and-pm2-5-is-linked-to-regional-dna-methylation-differences-in-asthma
#20
Mary Prunicki, Laurel Stell, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Mariangels de Planell-Saguer, Richard W Lucas, S Katharine Hammond, John R Balmes, Xiaoying Zhou, Tara Paglino, Chiara Sabatti, Rachel L Miller, Kari C Nadeau
Background: DNA methylation of CpG sites on genetic loci has been linked to increased risk of asthma in children exposed to elevated ambient air pollutants (AAPs). Further identification of specific CpG sites and the pollutants that are associated with methylation of these CpG sites in immune cells could impact our understanding of asthma pathophysiology. In this study, we sought to identify some CpG sites in specific genes that could be associated with asthma regulation (Foxp3 and IL10) and to identify the different AAPs for which exposure prior to the blood draw is linked to methylation levels at these sites...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
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