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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774634/study-of-hyperpigmentation-in-human-skin-disorder-using-different-electron-microscopy-techniques
#1
Seulgi Noh, Hyosun Choi, Ji Soo Kim, Il-Hwan Kim, Ji Young Mun
There is a global trend of increase in the demand for three-dimensional electron microscopy with high resolution. The ultrastructural change and related functional studies are necessary to investigate biological phenomena. In this study, currently available 3D reconstruction techniques of electron microscopes (serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy) were used to investigate hyperpigmentary disorders in human skin. In the basal layer of the epidermis in the human skin, there are melanocytes that produce melanin and keratinocytes that act as a barrier against environmental damage...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772098/insights-in-particulate-matter-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-focus-on-the-epithelium
#2
Katrien C De Grove, Sharen Provoost, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Tania Maes
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem throughout the world. In particular, exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the development and exacerbation of several respiratory diseases, including asthma. Although the adverse health effects of PM have been demonstrated for many years, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully identified. In this review, we focus on the role of the lung epithelium and specifically highlight multiple cytokines in PM-induced respiratory responses...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768212/mtor-senses-environmental-cues-to-shape-the-fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-response-to-inflammation
#3
Thomas Karonitsch, Richard K Kandasamy, Felix Kartnig, Barbara Herdy, Karolina Dalwigk, Birgit Niederreiter, Johannes Holinka, Florian Sevelda, Reinhard Windhager, Martin Bilban, Thomas Weichhart, Marcus Säemann, Thomas Pap, Günter Steiner, Josef S Smolen, Hans P Kiener, Giulio Superti-Furga
Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic master regulators, including mTOR, regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Resident mesenchymal tissue components are increasingly recognized as key effector cells in inflammation. Whether mTOR also controls the inflammatory response in fibroblasts is insufficiently studied. Here, we show that TNF signaling co-opts the mTOR pathway to shift synovial fibroblast (FLS) inflammation toward an IFN response. mTOR pathway activation is associated with decreased NF-κB-mediated gene expression (e...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760082/a-cytokine-network-involving-il-36%C3%AE-il-23-and-il-22-promotes-antimicrobial-defense-and-recovery-from-intestinal-barrier-damage
#4
Vu L Ngo, Hirohito Abo, Estera Maxim, Akihito Harusato, Duke Geem, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Asma Nusrat, Timothy L Denning
The gut epithelium acts to separate host immune cells from unrestricted interactions with the microbiota and other environmental stimuli. In response to epithelial damage or dysfunction, immune cells are activated to produce interleukin (IL)-22, which is involved in repair and protection of barrier surfaces. However, the specific pathways leading to IL-22 and associated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production in response to intestinal tissue damage remain incompletely understood. Here, we define a critical IL-36/IL-23/IL-22 cytokine network that is instrumental for AMP production and host defense...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754454/heparinoid-suppresses-der-p-induced-il-1%C3%AE-production-by-inhibiting-erk-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-keratinocytes
#5
Ryo Utsunomiya, Xiuju Dai, Masamoto Murakami, Hidenori Okazaki, Teruko Tsuda, Hideki Mori, Ken Shiraishi, Mikiko Tohyama, Koji Sayama
Epidermal keratinocytes initiate skin inflammation by activating immune cells. The skin barrier is disrupted in atopic dermatitis (AD) and epidermal keratinocytes can be exposed to environmental stimuli, such as house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We showed previously that HDM allergens activate the NLRP3 inflammasome of keratinocytes, thereby releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Heparinoid is an effective moisturizer for atopic dry skin. However, a recent report showed that heparinoid treatment can improve inflammation of lichen planus...
May 13, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751765/lipophilic-components-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-induce-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-human-endothelial-cells-through-ahr-dependent-pathway-s
#6
Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751055/temporal-and-spatial-changes-in-glial-cells-during-chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia-role-in-neurodegeneration
#7
A Dheer, V Jain, N Kushwah, R Kumar, D Prasad, S B Singh
Ascend to high altitude results in a drastic change in the environmental conditions an individual is exposed to. As the altitude increases there is a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen leading to a unique condition known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and it has been well established that hypobaric hypoxia leads to neurodegeneration in different brain regions. However, the response of glial cells during hypobaric hypoxia needs to be explored yet. The present study was aimed to understand the role of glial cells viz...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748500/quantitative-determining-of-ultra-trace-aluminum-ion-in-environmental-samples-by-liquid-phase-microextraction-assisted-anodic-stripping-voltammetry
#8
Liuyang Zhang, Jinju Luo, Xinyu Shen, Chunya Li, Xian Wang, Bei Nie, Huaifang Fang
Direct detecting of trace amount Al(III) in aqueous solution by stripping voltammetry is often frustrated by its irreversible reduction, resided at −1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl reference), which is in a proximal potential of proton reduction. Here, we described an electroanalytical approach, combined with liquid phase microextraction (LPME) using ionic liquid (IL), to quantitatively assess trace amount aluminum in environmental samples. The Al(III) was caged by 8-hydroxyquinoline, forming a superb hydrophobic metal⁻chelate, which sequentially transfers and concentrates in the bottom layer of IL-phase during LPME...
May 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744542/ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-for-enhanced-enzymatic-delignification
#9
Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Masahiro Goto
Ionic liquids (ILs), a potentially attractive "green," recyclable alternative to environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly exploited as solvents and/or cosolvents and/or reagents in a wide range of applications, including pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for further processing. The enzymatic delignification of biomass to degrade lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, has received much attention as an environmentally friendly process for clean separation of biopolymers including cellulose and lignin...
May 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740348/could-sodium-chloride-be-an-environmental-trigger-for-immune-mediated-diseases-an-overview-of-the-experimental-and-clinical-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Eric Toussirot, Matthieu Béreau, Charline Vauchy, Philippe Saas
Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739244/the-relationship-between-some-neonatal-and-maternal-factors-during-pregnancy-with-the-prevalence-of-congenital-malformations-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Salman Daliri, Hamid Safarpour, Jafar Bazyar, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Arezoo Karimi, Rahman Anvary
INTRODUCTION: Congenital malformations are one of the main causes of death and disability in children. These malformations arise during embryogenesis and fetal development during pregnancy due to exposure to some environmental factors and genetic mutations. Given the high prevalence of congenital malformations in Iran, the current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between some neonatal and maternal factors during pregnancy with the prevalence of congenital malformations in Iran...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736225/molecular-changes-in-obese-and-depressive-patients-are-similar-to-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
Laleh Habibi, Abbas Tafakhori, Rasoul Hadiani, Maryam Maserat-Mashhadi, Zeinab Kafrash, Shahla Torabi, Mohammad Azhdarzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Akrami, Morteza Mahmoudi, Rasoul Dinarvand
Background: Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are categorized as multifactorial conditions with different molecular and environmental causes. Disturbance of important signaling pathways, such as energy metabolism and inflammation induced by environmental agents, is involved in the pathophysiology of NDs. It has been proposed that changes in the lifestyle and nutrition (metabolism) during mid-life could trigger and accumulate cellular and molecular damages resulting in NDs during aging. Methods: In order to test the hypothesis, we investigated the expression level of two energy metabolism-related [forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3A)] and two pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6] genes, using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 7, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729861/on-line-coupling-of-hydrophilic-ionic-liquids-based-polymer-monolith-microextraction-to-capillary-liquid-chromatography-with-amperometric-detection-an-ultrasensitive-residue-analysis-method-for-glycopeptide-antibiotics
#13
Yanxia Tang, Ning Zhang, Bingyu Zhang, Xiaoyun Lei, Xiaoping Wu
A hydrophilic ionic liquids based polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) column (poly(ionic liquid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate); poly(IL-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)) was prepared for the first time in a capillary and utilized in PMME for the enrichment of glycopeptide antibiotics (GAs), followed by the online coupling analysis of capillary liquid chromatography with amperometric detection (cLC-AD). The prepared monolith exhibited large through pores and good storage stability, as well as a selective extraction machanism for GAs that was attributed to the hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic, electrostatic and π-π interactions between GAs and the imidazolium cations or hydroxyl groups on the surface of absorbent...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729112/the-il-33-st2-myd88-axis-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-proliferation-in-the-murine-liver
#14
Lei Xu, Wei Li, Xiaofan Wang, Lina Zhang, Qianqian Qi, Liyang Dong, Chuan Wei, Yanan Pu, Yalin Li, Jifeng Zhu, Sha Zhou, Feng Liu, Xiaojun Chen, Chuan Su
Hepatic Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for maintaining local immune homeostasis in the liver. However, the environmental cues required for hepatic Treg cell homeostasis are unclear. In this study, we showed that the IL-33 receptor ST2 was preferentially expressed on Treg cells in the mouse liver, but it was more lowly expressed in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and blood. More importantly, we found that IL-33 promoted the proliferation of hepatic Treg cells through myeloid differentiation factor MyD88 signaling concomitant with increased CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727174/exposure-to-vinyl-chloride-and-its-influence-on-western-diet-induced-cardiac-remodeling
#15
Yaqin Liang, Anna L Lang, Jian Zhang, Jing Chen, Kai Wang, Liya Chen, Juliane I Beier, Yan Qian, Lu Cai
Obesity, usually caused by high fat diets (HFD), is a major public health issue worldwide, causing obesity associated cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the environmental toxicant vinyl chloride (VC) can exacerbate HFD-induced fatty liver disease. However, whether VC serves to enhance obesity-associated cardiomyopathy remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the interaction of western diet (WD) containing relatively low fat (42%) with VC on cardiac remodeling and its underling mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to WD coinhalation of low-dose VC (<1 ppm/d) for 12 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720424/il-2-enhances-gut-homing-potential-of-human-naive-regulatory-t-cells-early-in-life
#16
Peter S Hsu, Catherine L Lai, Mingjing Hu, Brigitte Santner-Nanan, Jane E Dahlstrom, Cheng Hiang Lee, Ayesha Ajmal, Amanda Bullman, Susan Arbuckle, Ahmed Al Saedi, Lou Gacis, Reta Nambiar, Andrew Williams, Melanie Wong, Dianne E Campbell, Ralph Nanan
Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin+ Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA+ ) Treg cells later in life...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710614/organic-uv-filters-exposure-induces-the-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-human-macrophages
#17
Junjie Ao, Tao Yuan, Li Gao, Xiaodan Yu, Xiaodong Zhao, Ying Tian, Wenjin Ding, Yuning Ma, Zhemin Shen
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters, found in many personal care products, are considered emerging contaminants due to growing concerns about potential long-term deleterious effects. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; and butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM) on human macrophages. Our results indicated that exposure to these four UV filters significantly increased the production of various inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, particular tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705830/the-mammary-microenvironment-in-mastitis-in-humans-dairy-ruminants-rabbits-and-rodents-a-one-health-focus
#18
REVIEW
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
The One Health concept promotes integrated evaluation of human, animal, and environmental health questions to expedite advances benefiting all species. A recognition of the multi-species impact of mastitis as a painful condition with welfare implications leads us to suggest that mastitis is an ideal target for a One Health approach. In this review, we will evaluate the role of the mammary microenvironment in mastitis in humans, ruminants and rabbits, where appropriate also drawing on studies utilising laboratory animal models...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696536/transgenic-up-regulation-of-claudin-6-decreases-fine-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#19
Joshua B Lewis, Jared S Bodine, Jason R Gassman, Samuel Arce Muñoz, Dallin C Milner, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein that contributes to tight junctional complexes and has been implicated in the maintenance of lung epithelial barriers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that genetic up-regulation of Cldn-6 influences inflammation in mice exposed to short-term environmental diesel particulate matter (DPM). Mice were subjected to ten exposures of nebulized DPM (PM2.5) over a period of 20 days via a nose-only inhalation system (Scireq, Montreal, Canada). Using real-time RT-PCR, we discovered that the Cldn6 gene was up-regulated in control mice exposed to DPM and in lung-specific transgenic mice that up-regulate Cldn-6 (Cldn-6 TG)...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695657/coexistence-of-il-6-572c-g-and-icam-1-k469e-polymorphisms-among-patients-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#20
Guangyong Tian, Shanshan Zhang, Jingya Yang
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a multifactorial disease, and its etiology remains elusive. SSNHL is possibly caused by both the environmental factors and genetic alterations. Recently, several studies suggested that inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSNHL, and certain gene polymorphisms may have correlations with SSNHL. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) functions both as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory factor. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin family that is also involved in inflammation response...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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