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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334455/modulating-the-molybdenum-coordination-sphere-of-escherichia-coli-trimethylamine-n-oxide-reductase
#1
Paul Kaufmann, Benjamin R Duffus, Biljana Mitrova, Chantal Iobbi-Nivol, Christian Teutloff, Manfred Nimtz, Lothar Jänsch, Ulla Wollenberger, Silke Leimkühler
The well-studied enterobacterium Escherichia coli present in the human gut is able to reduce TMAO to trimethylamine (TMA) during anaerobic respiration. The TMAO reductase TorA is a monomeric, bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (bis-MGD) cofactor-containing enzyme belonging to the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family of molybdoenzymes. We report on a system for the in vitro reconstitution of TorA with molybdenum cofactors (Moco) from different sources. Higher TMAO reductase activities for TorA were obtained when using Moco-sources containing a sulfido ligand at the molybdenum atom...
January 15, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#2
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333697/lactic-acid-bacteria-may-impact-intestinal-barrier-function-by-modulating-goblet-cells
#3
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333342/is-there-a-link-between-aging-and-microbiome-diversity-in-exceptional-mammalian-longevity
#4
Graham M Hughes, John Leech, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Jose V Lopez, Emma C Teeling
A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331731/deoxynivalenol-gut-microbiota-and-immunotoxicity-a-potential-approach
#5
REVIEW
Yuxiao Liao, Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well...
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#6
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#8
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#9
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326360/immunopet-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-imaging-cd4-t-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis
#10
Amanda Christine Freise, Kirstin A Zettlitz, Felix Bergara Salazar, Richard Tavaré, Wen-Ting K Tsai, Arion Hadjioannou, Nora Rozengurt, Jonathan Braun, Anna M Wu
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans are characterized in part by aberrant CD4+ T cell responses. Currently, identification of foci of inflammation within the gut requires invasive procedures such as colonoscopy and biopsy. Molecular imaging with antibody fragment probes could be used to noninvasively monitor cell subsets causing intestinal inflammation. Here, GK1.5 cys-diabody (cDb), an anti-mouse CD4 antibody fragment derived from the GK1.5 hybridoma, was used as a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for CD4+ T cells in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of IBD...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326279/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Takeshi Kitai, W H Wilson Tang
Accumulating evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the gut microbiota and host diseases. In addition to alterations in the gut microbial composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent technological developments of molecular and biochemical analyses enable us to detect and characterize the gut microbiota via assessment and classification of its genomes and corresponding metabolites. These advances have provided emerging data supporting the role of gut microbiota in various physiological activities including host metabolism, neurological development, energy homeostasis, and immune regulation...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325896/gut-flora-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-accelerates-endothelial-cell-senescence-and-vascular-aging-through-oxidative-stress
#12
Yilang Ke, Dang Li, Mingming Zhao, Changjie Liu, Jia Liu, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma levels of TMAO in young adults (18-44 years old), older adults (≥65 years old), and 1-month-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 10-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistance 1 (SAMR1) models...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#13
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324223/navigating-the-microbiota-seas-triangulation-finds-a-way-forward
#14
Connor E Rosen, Noah W Palm
Identifying members of the intestinal microbiota that play causal roles in shaping human disease susceptibility has been an ongoing challenge. In their recent paper in Nature, Surana and Kasper (2017) present a new strategy that may help "triangulate" causal and therapeutically useful bacteria from the human gut.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#15
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321570/transfer-of-a-bla-ctx-m-1-carrying-plasmid-between-different-escherichia-coli-strains-within-the-human-gut-explored-by-whole-genome-sequencing-analyses
#16
Per Kristian Knudsen, Karianne Wiger Gammelsrud, Kristian Alfsnes, Martin Steinbakk, Tore G Abrahamsen, Fredrik Müller, Jon Bohlin
Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants contributes to dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Such transfer of resistance genes within the human gut has been documented in some in vivo studies. The present study investigated seven bla CTX-M-1-carrying Escherichia coli isolates from three consecutive faecal samples collected from one cystic fibrosis patient in a nine-months period, by analysing whole genome sequencing data. The analyses showed that the seven E. coli isolates represented three genetically diverse strains...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321519/maturation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-risk-of-asthma-in-childhood
#17
Jakob Stokholm, Martin J Blaser, Jonathan Thorsen, Morten A Rasmussen, Johannes Waage, Rebecca K Vinding, Ann-Marie M Schoos, Asja Kunøe, Nadia R Fink, Bo L Chawes, Klaus Bønnelykke, Asker D Brejnrod, Martin S Mortensen, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Søren J Sørensen, Hans Bisgaard
The composition of the human gut microbiome matures within the first years of life. It has been hypothesized that microbial compositions in this period can cause immune dysregulations and potentially cause asthma. Here we show, by associating gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing during the first year of life with subsequent risk of asthma in 690 participants, that 1-year-old children with an immature microbial composition have an increased risk of asthma at age 5 years. This association is only apparent among children born to asthmatic mothers, suggesting that lacking microbial stimulation during the first year of life can trigger their inherited asthma risk...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320746/sada-expressing-staphylococci-in-the-human-gut-show-increased-cell-adherence-and-internalization
#18
Arif Luqman, Mulugeta Nega, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Patrick Ebner, Friedrich Götz
A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319802/functional-analysis-of-arginine-decarboxylase-gene-spea-of-bacteroides-dorei-by-markerless-gene-deletion
#19
Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Yuta Sugiyama, Misaki Nara, Aya Kitakata, Shin Kurihara
Polyamine concentrations in the intestine are regulated by their biosynthesis by hundreds of gut microbial species and these polyamines are involved in host health and disease. However, polyamine biosynthesis has not been sufficiently analyzed in major members of the human gut microbiota, possibly owing to a lack of gene manipulation systems. In this study, we successfully performed markerless gene deletion in Bacteroides dorei, one of the major members of the human gut microbiota. The combination of a thymidine kinase gene (tdk) deletion mutant and a counter-selection marker tdk, which has been applied in other Bacteroides species, was used for the markerless gene deletion...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318244/metabolic-fate-of-strawberry-polyphenols-after-chronic-intake-in-healthy-older-adults
#20
Amandeep K Sandhu, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Tammy M Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Strawberries contain a wide array of nutrients and phytochemicals including polyphenols such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. These polyphenols are absorbed and metabolized to various phenolic metabolites/conjugates in the body, which may play a role in disease risk reduction. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic fate of strawberry polyphenols after chronic (90 days) supplementation of freeze-dried strawberry (24 g d-1, equivalent to 2 cups of fresh strawberries) vs. control powder in 19 healthy older adults...
January 10, 2018: Food & Function
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