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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330380/automatic-segmentation-of-the-solid-core-and-enclosed-vessels-in-subsolid-pulmonary-nodules
#1
Jean-Paul Charbonnier, Kaman Chung, Ernst T Scholten, Eva M van Rikxoort, Colin Jacobs, Nicola Sverzellati, Mario Silva, Ugo Pastorino, Bram van Ginneken, Francesco Ciompi
Subsolid pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered in lung cancer screening and clinical routine. Compared to other nodule types, subsolid nodules are associated with a higher malignancy probability for which the size and mass of the nodule and solid core are important indicators. However, reliably measuring these characteristics on computed tomography (CT) can be hampered by the presence of vessels encompassed by the nodule, since vessels have similar CT attenuation as solid cores. This can affect treatment decisions and patient management...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324670/dietary-carotenoid-intakes-and-prostate-cancer-risk-a-case-control-study-from-vietnam
#2
Dong Van Hoang, Ngoc Minh Pham, Andy H Lee, Duong Nhu Tran, Colin W Binns
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk. A sample of 652 participants (244 incident prostate cancer patients, aged 64-75 years, and 408 age frequency-matched controls) were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013-2015. The habitual diet was ascertained with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and other factors including demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed via face-to-face interviews by trained nurses...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322294/ticagrelor-inhibits-platelet-tumor-cell-interactions-and-metastasis-in-human-and-murine-breast-cancer
#3
Alison J Gareau, Colin Brien, Simon Gebremeskel, Robert S Liwski, Brent Johnston, Michael Bezuhly
Activated platelets promote the proliferation and metastatic potential of cancer cells. Platelet activation is largely mediated through ADP engagement of purinergic P2Y12 receptors on platelets. We examined the potential of the reversible P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, an agent used clinically to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, to reduce tumor growth and metastasis. In vitro, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 human mammary carcinoma cells exhibited decreased interaction with platelets treated with ticagrelor compared to untreated platelets...
January 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304755/computational-approach-to-discriminate-human-and-mouse-sequences-in-patient-derived-tumour-xenografts
#4
Maurizio Callari, Ankita Sati Batra, Rajbir Nath Batra, Stephen-John Sammut, Wendy Greenwood, Harry Clifford, Colin Hercus, Suet-Feung Chin, Alejandra Bruna, Oscar M Rueda, Carlos Caldas
BACKGROUND: Patient-Derived Tumour Xenografts (PDTXs) have emerged as the pre-clinical models that best represent clinical tumour diversity and intra-tumour heterogeneity. The molecular characterization of PDTXs using High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) is essential; however, the presence of mouse stroma is challenging for HTS data analysis. Indeed, the high homology between the two genomes results in a proportion of mouse reads being mapped as human. RESULTS: In this study we generated Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from samples with known mixtures of mouse and human DNA or RNA and from a cohort of human breast cancers and their derived PDTXs...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298688/enhanced-response-rate-to-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinomas-harbouring-brca1-and-brca2-aberrations
#5
Robert L Hollis, Alison M Meynert, Michael Churchman, Tzyvia Rye, Melanie Mackean, Fiona Nussey, Mark J Arends, Andrew H Sims, Colin A Semple, C Simon Herrington, Charlie Gourley
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10-15% of ovarian carcinomas (OC) are attributed to inherited susceptibility, the majority of which are due to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2). These patients display superior clinical outcome, including enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Here, we seek to investigate whether BRCA1/2 status influences the response rate to single-agent pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in high grade serous (HGS) OC. METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight patients treated with single-agent PLD were identified retrospectively from the Edinburgh Ovarian Cancer Database...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287968/dna-repair-pathway-alterations-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-responders-to-radium-223
#6
Jorge D Ramos, Elahe A Mostaghel, Colin C Pritchard, Evan Y Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279331/trace-derivatives-of-kynurenine-potently-activate-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr
#7
Seung-Hyeon Seok, Zhi-Xiong Ma, John B Feltenberger, Hongbo Chen, Hui Chen, Cameron Scarlett, Ziqing Lin, Kenneth A Satyshur, Marissa Cortopassi, Colin R Jefcoate, Ying Ge, Weiping Tang, Christopher A Bradfield, Yongna Xing
Cellular metabolites act as important signaling cues, but are subject to complex unknown chemistry. Kynurenine is a tryptophan metabolite that plays a crucial role in cancer and the immune system. Despite its atypical, non-ligand-like, highly polar structure, kynurenine activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a PAS family transcription factor that responds to diverse environmental and cellular ligands. The activity of kynurenine increases 100-1000-fold by incubation or long-term storage, and relies on the hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket of AHR, with identical structural signatures for AHR induction before and after activation...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259745/identification-of-an-indazole-based-pharmacophore-for-the-inhibition-of-fgfr-kinases-using-fragment-led-de-novo-design
#8
Lewis D Turner, Abbey J Summers, Laura O Johnson, Margaret A Knowles, Colin W G Fishwick
Structure-based drug design (SBDD) has become a powerful tool utilized by medicinal chemists to rationally guide the drug discovery process. Herein, we describe the use of SPROUT, a de novo-based program, to identify an indazole-based pharmacophore for the inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinases, which are validated targets for cancer therapy. Hit identification using SPROUT yielded 6-phenylindole as a small fragment predicted to bind to FGFR1. With the aid of docking models, several modifications to the indole were made to optimize the fragment to an indazole-containing pharmacophore, leading to a library of compounds containing 23 derivatives...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259115/structure-of-the-human-monomeric-neet-protein-mint-and-its-role-in-regulating-iron-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cancer-cells
#9
Colin H Lipper, Ola Karmi, Yang Sung Sohn, Merav Darash-Yahana, Heiko Lammert, Luhua Song, Amy Liu, Ron Mittler, Rachel Nechushtai, José N Onuchic, Patricia A Jennings
The NEET family is a relatively new class of three related [2Fe-2S] proteins (CISD1-3), important in human health and disease. While there has been growing interest in the homodimeric gene products of CISD1 (mitoNEET) and CISD2 (NAF-1), the importance of the inner mitochondrial CISD3 protein has only recently been recognized in cancer. The CISD3 gene encodes for a monomeric protein that contains two [2Fe-2S] CDGSH motifs, which we term mitochondrial inner NEET protein (MiNT). It folds with a pseudosymmetrical fold that provides a hydrophobic motif on one side and a relatively hydrophilic surface on the diametrically opposed surface...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246590/developing-a-national-simulation-based-surgical-skills-bootcamp-in-general-thoracic-surgery
#10
Colin Schieman, Hideki Ujiie, Laura Donahoe, Waël Hanna, Richard Malthaner, Simon Turner, Kasia Czarnecka, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: The use surgical simulation across all subspecialties has gained widespread adoption in the last decade. A number of factors, including the small number of trainees, identified gaps in surgical skill training from cross-sectional surveys, increased national collaboration, and support from the national specialty committee identified a need to construct a surgical skills "bootcamp" in thoracic surgery in Canada. OBJECTIVE: The goals of the surgical skills bootcamp, as identified by the residency training program directors and the national specialty committee were to create a national, centralized, simulation-based skills workshop that focused on key foundational procedures within thoracic surgery, particularly those identified as areas of weakness by former residents; to smooth the transition to intraoperative teaching; to provide exposure to important but not necessarily universally available procedures such as advanced endoscopy; to teach non-medical expert competencies, and lastly to provide a venue for networking for residents across the country...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246314/characterization-and-molecular-mechanism-of-peptide-conjugated-gold-nanoparticle-inhibiting-p53-hdm2-interaction-in-retinoblastoma
#11
Sushma Kalmodia, Sowmya Parameswaran, Kalaivani Ganapathy, Wenrong Yang, Colin J Barrow, Jagat R Kanwar, Kislay Roy, Madavan Vasudevan, Kirti Kulkarni, Sailaja V Elchuri, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Inhibition of the interaction between p53 and HDM2 is an effective therapeutic strategy in cancers that harbor a wild-type p53 protein such as retinoblastoma (RB). Nanoparticle-based delivery of therapeutic molecules has been shown to be advantageous in localized delivery, including to the eye, by overcoming ocular barriers. In this study, we utilized biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to deliver anti-HDM2 peptide to RB cells. Characterization studies suggested that GNP-HDM2 was stable in biologically relevant solvents and had optimal cellular internalization capability, the primary requirement of any therapeutic molecule...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237803/anti-tumor-activity-of-entrectinib-a-pan-trk-ros1-and-alk-inhibitor-in-etv6-ntrk3-positive-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Kristen M Smith, Patrick C Fagan, Elena Pomari, Giuseppe Germano, Chiara Frasson, Colin Walsh, Ian M Silverman, Paolo Bonvini, Gang Li
Activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family tyrosine kinases by chromosomal rearrangement has been shown to drive a wide range of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. TRK fusions are actionable targets as evidenced by recent clinical trial results in solid tumors. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) is an investigational, orally available, CNS-active, highly potent and selective kinase inhibitor against TRKA/B/C, ROS1 and ALK kinase activities. Here, we demonstrate that TRK kinase inhibition by entrectinib selectively targets preclinical models of TRK fusion-driven hematologic malignancies...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235563/cell-and-molecular-biology-a-new-section-joins-the-fight-against-cancer
#13
EDITORIAL
Colin R Goding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235103/dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-recurrence-and-progression-in-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#14
Ellen Westhoff, Xifeng Wu, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Seth P Lerner, Yuanqing Ye, Maosheng Huang, Colin P Dinney, Alina Vrieling, Huakang Tu
The association of dietary factors with urinary bladder cancer prognosis has scarcely been investigated, and results of studies conducted to date are inconsistent. We investigated whether empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with risks of recurrence and progression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. Data from 595 newly diagnosed NMIBC patients from an ongoing prospective cohort study were used to derive dietary patterns using exploratory factor analysis. Factor scores were calculated and then categorized in sex-specific tertiles...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234632/an-ecological-study-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-incidence-in-texas
#15
Luca Cicalese, Loren Raun, Ali Shirafkan, Laura Campos, Daria Zorzi, Mauro Montalbano, Colin Rhoads, Valia Gazis, Katherine Ensor, Cristiana Rastellini
Introduction: Primary liver cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related death in both the United States and the world at large. Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises 90% of these primary liver cancers and has numerous known etiologies. Evaluation of these identified etiologies and other traditional risk factors cannot explain the high incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas. Texas is home to the second largest petrochemical industry and agricultural industry in the nation; industrial activity and exposure to pathogenic chemicals have never been assessed as potential links to the state's increased incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231963/body-composition-in-long-term-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-diagnosed-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-focus-on-sarcopenic-obesity
#16
Christopher J C Marriott, Lesley F Beaumont, Troy H Farncombe, Amy N Cranston, Uma H Athale, Valerie N Yakemchuk, Colin E Webber, Ronald D Barr
BACKGROUND: The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227997/normalized-emphysema-scores-on-low-dose-ct-validation-as-an-imaging-biomarker-for-mortality
#17
Leticia Gallardo-Estrella, Esther Pompe, Pim A de Jong, Colin Jacobs, Eva M van Rikxoort, Mathias Prokop, Clara I Sánchez, Bram van Ginneken
The purpose of this study is to develop a computed tomography (CT) biomarker of emphysema that is robust across reconstruction settings, and evaluate its ability to predict mortality in patients at high risk for lung cancer. Data included baseline CT scans acquired between August 2002 and April 2004 from 1737 deceased subjects and 5740 surviving controls taken from the National Lung Screening Trial. Emphysema scores were computed in the original scans (origES) and after applying resampling, normalization and bullae analysis (normES)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217139/er-and-pr-expression-and-survival-after-endometrial-cancer
#18
Deborah Smith, Colin J R Stewart, Edward M Clarke, Felicity Lose, Claire Davies, Jane Armes, Andreas Obermair, Donal Brennan, Penelope M Webb, Christina M Nagle, Amanda B Spurdle
OBJECTIVE: To measure association between endometrial carcinoma ER and PR status and endometrial cancer (EC) survival, accounting for inter-observer variation. METHODS: The intensity and proportion of tumor cell expression of ER and PR in ECs were assessed independently and semi-quantitatively by two pathologists using digital images of duplicate tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Cases with inconsistent initial assessment were reviewed and final scoring agreed. The association between overall and EC-specific survival and hormone receptor expression (intensity, proportion and combined) was assessed using Cox regression analysis...
December 4, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217122/phase-i-iii-development-of-the-eortc-qlq-anl27-a-health-related-quality-of-life-questionnaire-for-anal-cancer
#19
Samantha C Sodergren, Colin D Johnson, Alexandra Gilbert, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, William Chu, Hans T Chung, Kristopher Dennis, Isacco Desideri, Robert Glynne-Jones, Marianne Grønlie Guren, Dimitrios Kardamakis, Karen Nugent, Heike Schmidt, David Sebag-Montefiore, Vassilios Vassiliou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is currently no health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure specific to anal cancer. Our objective was to develop an anal cancer HRQoL module to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire using EORTC Quality of Life Group Guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In order to generate a list of HRQoL issues facing anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), we systematically reviewed the literature and conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and health care professionals (HCPs)...
December 4, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214640/management-of-head-and-neck-primary-unknown-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-combined-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-transoral-laser-microsurgery
#20
Victoria Kuta, Blair Williams, Matthew Rigby, Robert Hart, Jonathan Trites, Colin MacKay, S Mark Taylor
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The unknown primary of the neck is commonly encountered by the head and neck surgeon. Despite the exhaustive diagnostic tools employed in traditional detection protocols, many unknown primaries are not found, and the patient is subjected to wide-field radiation and chemotherapy during treatment. Localizing the primary tumor has demonstrated therapeutic benefits, improved quality of life, and overall survival. The authors' objective was to determine the efficacy of a new management protocol for unknown primaries of the head and neck...
December 7, 2017: Laryngoscope
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