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alien limb syndrome

David Andrés González, Jason R Soble
OBJECTIVE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease with neuropsychological sequelae. This study highlighted a rare presentation of CJD (e.g. corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), reviewed updated diagnostic criteria and procedures for CJD (e.g. diffusion weighted imaging [DWI], real-time quaking-induced conversion [RT-QuIC]), and discussed differential diagnoses. METHOD: Case report methodology focused on a 68-year-old, Hispanic, right-handed man with 11 years of education...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Xiaoyu Gao, Bing Li, Wenzheng Chu, Xuwen Sun, Chunjuan Sun
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is characterized by involuntary and autonomous activity of the affected limbs, and consists of the frontal, callosal and posterior AHS variants. The callosal subtype, resulting from damage to the corpus callosum, frequently features intermanual conflict. However, infarction of the corpus callosum is rare due to abundant blood supply. The present study reported a case of AHS (callosal subtype, in the right hand) caused by callosal infarction. Infarction of the left corpus callosum was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Laura K Case, David Brang, Rosalynn Landazuri, Pavitra Viswanathan, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
While most people take identification with their body for granted, conditions such as phantom limb pain, alien hand syndrome, and xenomelia suggest that the feeling of bodily congruence is constructed and susceptible to alteration. Individuals with xenomelia typically experience one of their limbs as over-present and aversive, leading to a desire to amputate the limb. Similarly, many transgender individuals describe their untreated sexed body parts as incongruent and aversive, and many experience phantom body parts of the sex they identify with (Ramachandran, 2008)...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Anhar Hassan, Keith A Josephs
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant...
August 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Michael Schaefer, Claudia Denke, Ivayla Apostolova, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Imke Galazky
The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a fascinating movement disorder. Patients with AHS experience one of their limbs as alien, which acts autonomously and performs meaningful movements without being guided by the intention of the patient. Here, we report a case of a 74-years old lady diagnosed with an atypical Parkinson syndrome by possible corticobasal degeneration. The patient stated that she could not control her right hand and that she felt like this hand had her own life. We tested the patient for ownership illusions of the hands and general tactile processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michael O Samuel, Simon S Adamu, Emmanuel E Ogiji, Danlami F Bello, John S Allagh, Iorhemba U Ate, Jude S Rabol
This rare case of amelia in a doe-goat was observed in Tarka local government area, Benue State, middle belt region of Nigeria. The congenital deformity consisted of complete agenesis of the affected fore limb; the defect is commonly unilaterally manifested. The present congenitally impaired goat was approximately one and a half years old, and was a second kiddling of a normal multiparous dam. The left fore limb was grossly vestigial in development, while the homologous right hoof was splayed; the hind limbs were anatomically normal...
2015: Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, Archivio Italiano di Anatomia Ed Embriologia
Florian Brugger, Marian Galovic, Bruno J Weder, Georg Kägi
BACKGROUND: Both the supplementary motor complex (SMC), consisting of the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper, the pre-SMA, and the supplementary eye field, and the rostral cingulate cortex are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and are involved in higher motor control. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) originates from the SMC and reflects cognitive preparation processes before volitional movements. ACA strokes may lead to impaired motor control in the absence of limb weakness and evoke an alien hand syndrome (AHS) in its extreme form...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Rikitha Menezes, Alexander Pantelyat, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, José Wagner Leonel Tavares Júnior, Arlindo A Morais, Paulo Marcelo Gondim Sales, Horta Goes Wagner
BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder associated with parkinsonism and alien limb syndrome. Dressing and ideomotor apraxia were reportedly responsive to amantadine. CASE REPORT: A 79-year-old female was referred for evaluation of right hemiparesis. Neurological examination showed dementia, normal ocular movements, mild facial hypomimia, and bradykinesia with right hemiparesis. Nine years later, she developed alien limb syndrome and was diagnosed with CBS...
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Rachel E Gallant, Phillip A Bonney, Michael E Sughrue, Kersi J Bharucha, James D Battiste
We present a 41-year-old man who experienced alien limb syndrome as a complication of treatment for recurrent Grade III oligodendroglioma of the right parietal lobe. Alien limb syndrome is a rare phenomenon in which a limb performs involuntary actions and the affected individual feels a sense of estrangement towards the limb. It occurs most commonly as a result of corticobasal syndrome, though a variety of other etiologies have been reported. It is rarely associated with focal lesions, such as stroke or tumors...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Rosa Manenti, Marta Bianchi, Maura Cosseddu, Michela Brambilla, Cristina Rizzetti, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni, Maria Cotelli
BACKGROUND: Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and is characterized by apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, cognitive impairment, behavioral changes and aphasia. It has been recently demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves naming in healthy subjects and in subjects with language deficits. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC) could facilitate naming performance in CBS subjects...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kenji Kamogawa, Satoko Ninomiya, Shinya Okuda, Yushi Matsumoto, Hitomi Tomita, Kensho Okamoto, Bungo Okuda
A 74-year-old, right handed man, developed insidiously with levitation and clumsiness of the right upper limb. His right arm tended to levitate spontaneously, when he was examined. He could put the elevated arm down on command, while the arm resumed to antigravity posture when his attention was diverted. His right arm also exhibited unwilled elevation when performing complex finger movements on the right side. He had a feeling of strangeness of the elevated limb, especially with the eyes closed. In addition to asymmetric limb-kinetic apraxia, combined sensations such as stereognosis were disturbed on the right side...
2014: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Lama M Chahine, Tanya Rebeiz, Jean J Rebeiz, Murray Grossman, Rachel G Gross
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterized by asymmetric involuntary movements including rigidity, tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus, and often associated with apraxia, cortical sensory deficits, and alien limb phenomena. Additionally, there are various nonmotor (cognitive and language) deficits. CBS is associated with several distinct histopathologies, including corticobasal degeneration, other forms of tau-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration such as progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer disease...
August 2014: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Natalie S Ryan, Timothy J Shakespeare, Manja Lehmann, Shiva Keihaninejad, Jennifer M Nicholas, Kelvin K Leung, Nick C Fox, Sebastian J Crutch
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup...
December 2014: Neurobiology of Aging
Marco D'Alonzo, Francesco Clemente, Christian Cipriani
Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an alien rubber hand. Hence, it was suggested to exploit this effect by coupling touch sensors in a prosthesis to an array of haptic tactile stimulators in the prosthetic socket. However, this approach is not clinically viable due to physical limits of current haptic devices...
May 2015: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Ana M Grijalvo-Perez, Irene Litvan
Among the atypical parkinsonian syndromes, corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is probably the most challenging disorder to diagnose antemortem. It can present with multiple phenotypes, none of them specific enough to lead to an unequivocal diagnosis. Alternatively, multiple other neurodegenerative disorders with a different underlying pathology, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), can mimic its clinical course. The ultimate etiology of CBD is unknown; however, current neuropathological and genetic evidence support a role for microtubule-associated protein tau...
April 2014: Seminars in Neurology
Giuseppe Riva
Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
A Lunardelli, A Sartori, P Mengotti, R I Rumiati, V Pesavento
We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with 35-year history of multiple sclerosis, who showed alien hand signs, a rare behavioural disorder that involves unilateral goal-directed movements that are contrary to the individual's intention. Alien hand syndrome has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) only occasionally and is generally suggestive of callosal disconnection. The patient presented also with bilateral limb apraxia and left hand agraphia, raising the possibility of cortical dysfunction or disconnection, in addition to corpus callosum and white matter involvement...
2014: Behavioural Neurology
Noham Wolpe, James W Moore, Charlotte L Rae, Timothy Rittman, Ellemarije Altena, Patrick Haggard, James B Rowe
The volitional impairments of alien limb and apraxia are a defining feature of the corticobasal syndrome, but a limited understanding of their neurocognitive aetiology has hampered progress towards effective treatments. Here we combined several key methods to investigate the mechanism of impairments in voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome. We used a quantitative measure of awareness of action that is based on well-defined processes of motor control; structural and functional anatomical information; and evaluation against the clinical volitional disorders of corticobasal syndrome...
January 2014: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jonathan Graff-Radford, Mark N Rubin, David T Jones, Allen J Aksamit, J Eric Ahlskog, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve, Keith A Josephs
Alien limb phenomenon refers to involuntary motor activity of a limb in conjunction with the feeling of estrangement from that limb. Alien limb serves as a diagnostic feature of corticobasal syndrome. Our objective was to determine the differential diagnoses of alien limb and to determine the features in a large group of patients with the alien limb with different underlying etiologies. We searched the Mayo Clinic Medical Records Linkage system to identify patients with the diagnosis of alien limb seen between January 1, 1996, and July 11, 2011...
July 2013: Journal of Neurology
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