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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145908/joint-loading-in-runners-does-not-initiate-knee-osteoarthritis
#1
Ross H Miller
Runners do not have a greater prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) than non-runners. The hypothesis that joint loads in running do not cause OA is forwarded. Two mechanisms are proposed: 1) cumulative load, which is surprisingly low in running, is more important for OA risk than peak load, and 2) running conditions cartilage to withstand the mechanical stresses of running.
January 31, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099172/decrease-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-correlates-with-strength-loss-after-an-endurance-run
#2
Gennaro Boccia, Davide Dardanello, Cantor Tarperi, Valeria Rosso, Luca Festa, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena, Alberto Rainoldi
Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066524/bioenergetic-differences-during-walking-and-running-in-transfemoral-amputee-runners-using-articulating-and-non-articulating-knee-prostheses
#3
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, Larry J Mengelkoch
Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065472/adaptive-changes-in-running-kinematics-as-a-function-of-head-stability-demands-and-their-effect-on-shock-transmission
#4
Jongil Lim, Michael A Busa, Richard E A van Emmerik, Joseph Hamill
This study aimed to identify adaptive changes in running kinematics and impact shock transmission as a function of head stability requirements. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners were collected during preferred speed treadmill running. Head stability demands were manipulated through real-time visual feedback that required head-gaze orientation to maintain within boxes of different sizes, ranging from 21° to 3° of visual angle with 3° decrements. The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations in the time and frequency domains (impact and active phases), shock transmission from tibia to head, stride parameters, and sagittal plane joint kinematics...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027463/quantifying-knee-mechanics-during-balance-training-exercises
#5
Lauren C Benson, Thomas G Almonroeder, Kristian M O'Connor
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common among runners and those recovering from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Training programs designed to prevent or treat injuries often include balance training, although balance interventions have been reported to coincide with more knee injuries. Knowledge of the effect of balance exercises on knee mechanics may be useful when designing training programs. High knee abduction moment has been implicated in the development of PFP, and imbalance between vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) may contribute to patellofemoral stress...
January 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937807/age-and-sex-influences-on-running-mechanics-and-coordination-variability
#6
Katherine A Boyer, Julia Freedman Silvernail, Joseph Hamill
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s(-1). A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935426/joint-stiffness-and-running-economy-during-imposed-forefoot-strike-before-and-after-a-long-run-in-rearfoot-strike-runners
#7
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932678/adjustments-with-running-speed-reveal-neuromuscular-adaptations-during-landing-associated-with-high-mileage-running-training
#8
Jasper Verheul, Adam C Clansey, Mark J Lake
It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations prior to and during the first half of stance, and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n=13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n=13) runners ran at four speeds (2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876459/local-and-widespread-hyperalgesia-in-female-runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-are-influenced-by-running-volume
#9
Marcella Ferraz Pazzinatto, Danilo de Oliveira Silva, Juliana Pradela, Maira Bergamaschi Coura, Christian Barton, Fábio Mícolis de Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: To compare pressure pain threshold (PPT) around the knee (local hyperalgesia) and at a site remote to the knee (widespread hyperalgesia) between female runners with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP); and to evaluate the relationship between running volume, self-reported knee function and PPT measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty female runners with PFP and twenty pain-free female runners participated in the study...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852157/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-aquatic-treadmill-training-on-land-treadmill-running-kinematics-a-cross-over-and-single-subject-design-approach
#10
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, James P Hoover, Luke C Roberts, Dennis G Dolny
The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#11
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT: Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE: To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
October 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803620/a-comparison-of-stride-length-and-lower-extremity-kinematics-during-barefoot-and-shod-running-in-well-trained-distance-runners
#12
Peter Francis, James Ledingham, Sarah Clarke, D J Collins, Philip Jakeman
Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m - 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s(-1) and 4.72 m·s(-1) on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735232/lower-extremity-joint-work-during-acceleration-deceleration-and-steady-state-running
#14
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718393/the-effects-of-fatigue-on-lower-extremity-kinematics-kinetics-and-joint-coupling-in-symptomatic-female-runners-with-iliotibial-band-syndrome
#15
Allison M Brown, Rebecca A Zifchock, Howard J Hillstrom, Jinsup Song, Carole A Tucker
BACKGROUND: Altered hip and knee kinematics and joint coupling have been documented in runners with iliotibial band syndrome. Symptoms often present themselves after several minutes of running, yet the effect of fatigue warrants further exploration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a run to fatigue in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty uninjured and 12 female runners with iliotibial band syndrome performed a treadmill run to fatigue...
November 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699484/running-decreases-knee-intra-articular-cytokine-and-cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-concentrations-a-pilot-study
#16
Robert D Hyldahl, Alyssa Evans, Sunku Kwon, Sarah T Ridge, Eric Robinson, J Ty Hopkins, Matthew K Seeley
INTRODUCTION: Regular exercise protects against degenerative joint disorders, yet the mechanisms that underlie these benefits are poorly understood. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is widely implicated in the onset and progression of degenerative joint disease. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of running on knee intra-articular and circulating markers of inflammation and cartilage turnover in healthy men and women. METHODS: Six recreational runners completed a running (30 min) and control (unloaded for 30 min) session in a counterbalanced order...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616268/continuous-three-dimensional-analysis-of-running-mechanics-during-a-marathon-by-means-of-inertial-magnetic-measurement-units-to-objectify-changes-in-running-mechanics
#17
Jasper Reenalda, Erik Maartens, Lotte Homan, J H Jaap Buurke
Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581179/effect-of-body-weight-support-running-on-lower-limb-biomechanics
#18
Michael Neal, Neil Fleming, Lindsey Eberman, Kenneth Games, Jeremiah Vaughan
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Body-weight-support (BWS) running is increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of its effects on running mechanics. Objectives To determine the effect of increasing BWS on lower-limb biomechanics during lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill running. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners completed 15 randomized trials on an LBPP treadmill at 5 levels of BWS and 3 velocities (1-minute trials with 3-minute recovery). Knee and ankle kinematic data were recorded continuously via electrogoniometry...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574739/neuromuscular-adaptations-to-same-session-combined-endurance-and-strength-training-in-recreational-endurance-runners
#19
M Schumann, P Pelttari, K Doma, L Karavirta, K Häkkinen
This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HRmax). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571390/kinetic-changes-during-a-six-week-minimal-footwear-and-gait-retraining-intervention-in-runners
#20
Joe P Warne, Barry P Smyth, John O'C Fagan, Michelle E Hone, Chris Richter, Alan M Nevill, Kieran A Moran, Giles D Warrington
An evaluation of a six-week Combined minimal footwear transition and gait-retraining combination vs. gait retraining only on impact characteristics and leg stiffness. Twenty-four trained male runners were randomly assigned to either (1) Minimalist footwear transition Combined with gait-retraining over a six-week period ("Combined" group; n = 12) examined in both footwear, or (2) a gait-retraining group only with no minimalist footwear exposure ("Control"; n = 12). Participants were assessed for loading rate, impact peak, vertical, knee and ankle stiffness, and foot-strike using 3D and kinetic analysis...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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