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Knee joint loading in knee osteoarthritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302318/regional-differences-of-tibial-and-femoral-cartilage-in-the-chondrocyte-gene-expression-immunhistochemistry-and-composite-in-different-stages-of-osteoarthritis
#1
A Lahm, D Dabravolski, H Spank, H Merk, J Esser, R Kasch
The function of articular cartilage as an avascular tissue is mainly served by collagen type II and proteoglycan molecules. Within this matrix homeostasis between production and breakdown of the matrix is exceptionally sensitive. The current study was conducted to identify regional differences in specific alterations in cartilage composition during the osteoarthritic process of the human knee joint. Therefor the changes in the expression of the key molecules of the extracellular matrix were measured in dependence of the anatomical side (femoral vs tibial) and associated with immunohistochemistry and quantitative measurement...
February 24, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301825/combined-versus-individual-effects-of-a-valgus-knee-brace-and-lateral-wedge-foot-orthotic-during-stair-use-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#2
Rebecca Moyer, Trevor Birmingham, Colin Dombroski, Robert Walsh, J Robert Giffin
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined and individual biomechanical effects of a valgus knee brace and a lateral wedge foot orthotic during stair ascent and descent in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-five patients with varus alignment and medial knee OA were prescribed a custom valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic. Knee angles and moments in the frontal and sagittal planes were determined from 3D gait analysis completed under four randomized conditions: (1) control (no knee brace or foot orthotic), (2) knee brace, (3) foot orthotic, and (4) combined knee brace and foot orthotic...
March 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274742/a-hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-enabling-cd44-mediated-chondrocyte-binding-and-gapmer-oligonucleotide-release-for-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-osteoarthritis
#3
Yunpeng Cai, Elena López-Ruiz, Jesper Wengel, Laura B Creemers, Kenneth A Howard
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an attractive biomaterial for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment due to inherent functional and compatibility properties as an endogenous knee joint component. In this work, we describe a HA-based hydrogel with the dual functionality of increased CD44-dependent chondrocyte binding and controlled release of gapmer antisense oligonucleotides for unassisted cellular entry and subsequent gene silencing activity. A Schiff base-mediated gelation method was used to produce a panel of hydrogels varying in the aldehyde-modified HA (900kDa) to chitosan ratios (3:7, 5:5 and 7:3) for identifying designs displaying optimal engagement of OA patient-derived CD44-expressing chondrocytes...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269026/a-smart-cane-with-vibrotactile-biofeedback-improves-cane-loading-for-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#4
Rebecca L Routson, Marcus Bailey, Isabelle Pumford, Joseph M Czerniecki, Patrick M Aubin
Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267190/changes-in-joint-contact-mechanics-in-a-large-quadrupedal-animal-model-after-focal-and-whole-joint-soft-tissue-injury
#5
David J Heckelsmiller, M James Rudert, Thomas E Baer, Douglas R Pedersen, Douglas C Fredericks, Jessica E Goetz
Acute mechanical damage and the resulting joint contact abnormalities are central to the initiation and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Study of PTOA is typically performed in vivo with replicate animals using artificially induced injury features. The goal of this work was to measure changes in joint contact stress in the knee of a large quadruped after creation of a clinically realistic overload injury and a focal cartilage defect. Whole-joint overload was achieved by excising a 5-mm wedge of the anterior medial meniscus...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258176/the-patellofemoral-pain-and-osteoarthritis-subscale-of-the-koos-koos-pf-development-and-validation-using-the-cosmin-checklist
#6
Kay M Crossley, Erin M Macri, Sallie M Cowan, Natalie J Collins, Ewa M Roos
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis are prevalent and associated with substantial pain and functional impairments. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are recommended for research and clinical use, but no PROMs are specific for patellofemoral osteoarthritis, and existing PROMs for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237185/relationship-between-t1rho-magnetic-resonance-imaging-synovial-fluid-biomarkers-and-the-biochemical-and-biomechanical-properties-of-cartilage
#7
Courtney C Hatcher, Amber T Collins, Sophia Y Kim, Lindsey C Michel, William C Mostertz, Sophia N Ziemian, Charles E Spritzer, Farshid Guilak, Louis E DeFrate, Amy L McNulty
Non-invasive techniques for quantifying early biochemical and biomechanical changes in articular cartilage may provide a means of more precisely assessing osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The goals of this study were to determine the relationship between T1rho magnetic resonance (MR) imaging relaxation times and changes in cartilage composition, cartilage mechanical properties, and synovial fluid biomarker levels and to demonstrate the application of T1rho imaging to evaluate cartilage composition in human subjects in vivo...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229430/differences-in-biomarkers-of-cartilage-matrix-turnover-and-their-changes-over-2%C3%A2-years-in-adolescent-and-adult-volleyball-athletes
#8
Heide Boeth, Aoife MacMahon, A Robin Poole, Frank Buttgereit, Patrik Önnerfjord, Pilar Lorenzo, Cecilia Klint, Anna Pramhed, Georg N Duda
BACKGROUND: This study aimed the feasibility to assess longitudinal changes in biomarkers of cartilage turnover and to determine their relationship with patient-rated outcomes over 2 years in volleyball athletes. METHODS: Thirty-seven athletes were studied: 18 adolescents (age 15.9 ± 0.64 years) in a 2-year intensive volleyball training program and 19 adult recreational volleyball players (age 46.5 ± 4.9 years). Blood and serum samples were taken at baseline (BL) and 2-year follow-up (FU)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227239/a-smart-cane-with-vibrotactile-biofeedback-improves-cane-loading-for-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Rebecca L Routson, Marcus Bailey, Isabelle Pumford, Joseph M Czerniecki, Patrick M Aubin, Rebecca L Routson, Marcus Bailey, Isabelle Pumford, Joseph M Czerniecki, Patrick M Aubin, Patrick M Aubin, Joseph M Czerniecki, Rebecca L Routson, Marcus Bailey, Isabelle Pumford
Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226296/the-relationship-between-external-knee-moments-and-muscle-co-activation-in-subjects-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis
#10
Luiz Fernando Approbato Selistre, Stela Márcia Mattiello, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Glaucia Helena Gonçalves, Marina Petrella, Richard Keith Jones
PURPOSE: External knee moments are reliable to measure knee load but it does not take into account muscle activity. Considering that muscle co-activation increases compressive forces at the knee joint, identifying relationships between muscle co-activations and knee joint load would complement the investigation of the knee loading in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between muscle co-activation and external knee moments during walking in subjects with medial knee osteoarthritis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222057/effects-of-toe-in-and-wider-step-width-in-stair-ascent-with-different-knee-alignments
#11
Hunter J Bennett, Songning Zhang, Guangping Shen, Joshua T Weinhandl, Max R Paquette, Jeffrey Reinbolt, Dawn P Coe
PURPOSE: Toe-in (TI) and toe-in with wider step width (TIW) gait modifications have successfully reduced the internal peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during level walking and stair ascent tasks, respectively, for healthy and knee osteoarthritis populations. However, the concurrent effects of these modifications have not previously been combined to reduce both the first and the second peak KAM during stair ascent or tested among the different knee alignment groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine effects of TI and TIW gait modifications on knee biomechanics during stair ascent in individuals with varus, neutral, and valgus knee alignments...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214426/reduced-step-length-reduces-knee-joint-contact-forces-during-running-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-but-does-not-alter-inter-limb-asymmetry
#12
Collin D Bowersock, Richard W Willy, Paul DeVita, John D Willson
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with early onset knee osteoarthritis. Running is a typical activity following this surgery, but elevated knee joint contact forces are thought to contribute to osteoarthritis degenerative processes. It is therefore clinically relevant to identify interventions to reduce contact forces during running among individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing step length during running on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint contact forces among people with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213953/the-effects-of-acl-graft-placement-on-in-vivo-knee-function-and-cartilage-thickness-distributions
#13
REVIEW
Louis E DeFrate
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) frequently lead to early-onset osteoarthritis. Despite advancement in surgical techniques, ACL reconstruction has a limited ability to prevent these degenerative changes. While previous studies have investigated knee function after ACL reconstruction, in vivo investigations of the effects of graft placement on in vivo joint function and cartilage health are limited. This review presents a series of studies that used novel imaging and 3D modeling techniques to determine the in vivo placement of the ACL graft on the femur using two different ACL reconstruction techniques...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189095/effects-of-toe-out-and-toe-in-gait-with-varying-walking-speeds-on-knee-joint-mechanics-and-lower-limb-energetics
#14
Soobia Saad Khan, Saad Jawaid Khan, Juliana Usman
Toe-out/-in gait has been prescribed in reducing knee joint load to medial knee osteoarthritis patients. This study focused on the effects of toe-out/-in at different walking speeds on first peak knee adduction moment (fKAM), second peak KAM (sKAM), knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), net mechanical work by lower limb as well as joint-level contribution to the total limb work during level walking. Gait analysis of 20 healthy young adults was done walking at pre-defined normal (1.18m/s), slow (0.85m/s) and fast (1...
March 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168120/medial-knee-joint-contact-force-in-the-intact-limb-during-walking-in-recently-ambulatory-service-members-with-unilateral-limb-loss-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Ross H Miller, Rebecca L Krupenevich, Alison L Pruziner, Erik J Wolf, Barri L Schnall
BACKGROUND: Individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation have a high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) in their intact limb as they age. This risk may be related to joint loading experienced earlier in life. We hypothesized that loading during walking would be greater in the intact limb of young US military service members with limb loss than in controls with no limb loss. METHODS: Cross-sectional instrumented gait analysis at self-selected walking speeds with a limb loss group (N = 10, age 27 ± 5 years, 170 ± 36 days since last surgery) including five service members with transtibial limb loss and five with transfemoral limb loss, all walking independently with their first prosthesis for approximately two months...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155677/finite-element-analysis-of-the-valgus-knee-joint-of-an-obese-child
#16
Jun Sun, Songhua Yan, Yan Jiang, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Ming Zhang, Jizhou Zeng, Kuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Knee valgus and varus morbidity is at the second top place in children lower limb deformity diseases. It may cause abnormal stress distribution. The magnitude and location of contact forces on tibia plateau during gait cycle have been indicated as markers for risk of osteoarthritis. So far, few studies reported the contact stress and force distribution on tibial plateau of valgus knee of children. METHODS: To estimate the contact stresses and forces on tibial plateau of an 8-year old obese boy with valgus knee and a 7-year old healthy boy, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of their left knee joints were developed...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145908/joint-loading-in-runners-does-not-initiate-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Ross H Miller
Runners do not have a greater prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) than nonrunners. The hypothesis that joint loads in running do not cause OA is forwarded. Two mechanisms are proposed: 1) cumulative load, which is surprisingly low in running, is more important for OA risk than peak load, and 2) running conditions cartilage to withstand the mechanical stresses of running.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126693/differences-in-knee-adduction-moment-between-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-osteoarthritis-depend-on-the-knee-axis-definition
#18
S Meireles, F De Groote, S Van Rossom, S Verschueren, I Jonkers
OBJECTIVE: This study, firstly, investigates the effect of using an anatomical versus a functional axis of rotation (FAR) on knee adduction moment (KAM) in healthy subjects and patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Secondly, this study reports KAM for models with FAR calculated using weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing motion. DESIGN: Three musculoskeletal models were created using OpenSim with different knee axis of rotation (AR): transepicondylar axis (TEA); FAR calculated based on SARA algorithm using a weight-bearing motion (wFAR) and a non-weight-bearing motion (nwFAR)...
January 19, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121190/the-biology-of-meniscal-pathology-in-osteoarthritis-and-its-contribution-to-joint-disease-beyond-simple-mechanics
#19
James Melrose, Emily S Fuller, Christopher B Little
The meniscal cartilages in the knee function to improve congruity of the medial and lateral femoro-tibial joints, and play critical roles in load distribution and joint stability. Meniscal tears of various configurations are one of the most common conditions of the knee, and are associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA). While this risk has been largely attributed to loss of the biomechanical functions of the menisci, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that other aspects of meniscal biology may play a role in determining the long-term consequences of meniscal damage for joint health...
January 25, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120496/effects-of-active-feedback-gait-retraining-to-produce-a-medial-weight-transfer-at-the-foot-in-subjects-with-symptomatic-medial-knee-osteoarthritis
#20
Jennifer C Erhart-Hledik, Jessica L Asay, Caitlin Clancy, Constance R Chu, Thomas P Andriacchi
This study aimed to determine if active feedback gait retraining to produce a medial weight transfer at the foot significantly reduces the knee adduction moment in subjects with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Secondarily, changes in peak knee flexion moment, frontal plane knee and ankle kinematics, and center of pressure were investigated. Ten individuals with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (9 males; age: 65.3 ± 9.8 years; BMI: 27.8 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) ) were tested at self-selected normal and fast speeds in two conditions: Intervention, with an active feedback device attached to the shoe of their more affected leg, and control, with the device de-activated...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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