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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601346/multi-locus-phylogenetic-inference-among-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#1
Jeff A Johnson, Joseph W Brown, Jérôme Fuchs, David P Mindell
New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243150/antibody-prevalence-and-isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-from-raptors-in-the-southeastern-usa
#2
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25795925/chronic-lead-exposure-is-epidemic-in-obligate-scavenger-populations-in-eastern-north-america
#3
Shannon Behmke, Jesse Fallon, Adam E Duerr, Andreas Lehner, John Buchweitz, Todd Katzner
Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23...
June 2015: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25682585/contaminants-in-the-southern-tip-of-south-america-analysis-of-organochlorine-compounds-in-feathers-of-avian-scavengers-from-argentinean-patagonia
#4
E Martínez-López, S Espín, F Barbar, S A Lambertucci, P Gómez-Ramírez, A J García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24249399/comparison-of-eye-morphology-and-retinal-topography-in-two-species-of-new-world-vultures-aves-cathartidae
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas J Lisney, Karyn Stecyk, Jeffrey Kolominsky, Gary R Graves, Douglas R Wylie, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures...
December 2013: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23785435/need-and-seek-for-dietary-micronutrients-endogenous-regulation-external-signalling-and-food-sources-of-carotenoids-in-new-world-vultures
#6
Guillermo Blanco, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Sergio A Lambertucci, Luis M Bautista, Guillermo Wiemeyer, José A Sanchez-Zapata, Juan Garrido-Fernández, Fernando Hiraldo, José A Donázar
Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23181511/geographic-variation-in-the-taphonomic-effect-of-vulture-scavenging-the-case-for-southern-illinois
#7
Gretchen R Dabbs, D C Martin
The taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging has been previously documented in central Texas (J Forensic Sci, 2009, 54, 524). This study reports on the behavioral differences between two species of vultures (Coragyps atratus, Cathartes aura) observed over a period of 1 year at the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research in Southern Illinois. The decomposition of six research subjects and two control subjects was observed. Compared with the previous findings of vulture activity, the authors observed a severe delay in the time of first arrival (up to 28 days), decreased feeding time on remains (14-40 min), a less voracious feeding rate (7 days to 2 months to skeletonization), and a completely different feeding pattern of vultures in Southern Illinois...
January 2013: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23031159/the-presence-of-black-vultures-at-the-calving-sites-and-its-effects-on-cows-and-calves-behaviour-immediately-following-parturition
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L M Toledo, M J R Paranhos da Costa, A Schmidek, J Jung, J N S G Ciryllo, V U Cromberg
Black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow-calf behaviours following parturition. Cow-calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 Nellore, 54 Guzerat, 20 Gyr and 26 Caracu cows. The calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow-calf pairs within, close or distant to the herd, the presence of vultures and the behaviour of cows and calves were recorded instantaneously, at 5-min interval...
March 2013: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22903399/mycoplasma-corogypsi-associated-polyarthritis-and-tenosynovitis-in-black-vultures-coragyps-atratus
#9
A J Van Wettere, D H Ley, D E Scott, H D Buckanoff, L A Degernes
Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs...
March 2013: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22651097/use-of-black-vulture-coragyps-atratus-in-complementary-and-alternative-therapies-for-cancer-in-colombia-a-qualitative-study
#10
Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza, Magda R Gamba-Rincón, Andrés L González-Rangel
BACKGROUND: Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. OBJECTIVES: To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. METHODS: This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease...
2012: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22499260/reproductive-success-of-south-american-terns-sterna-hirundinacea-from-cardos-islands-florian%C3%A3-polis-sc-brazil
#11
Hélio A A Fracasso, Joaquim O Branco
Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831) is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile) and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil) to Terra del Fuego (Argentina). This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005...
June 2012: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19683397/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-spp-from-fecal-samples-of-birds-kept-in-captivity-in-brazil
#12
Alex Akira Nakamura, Daniel Castendo Simões, Rômulo Godik Antunes, Deuvânia Carvalho da Silva, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4...
December 3, 2009: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19617493/association-of-mycoplasma-corogypsi-and-polyarthritis-in-a-black-vulture-coragyps-atratus-in-virginia
#13
Mark G Ruder, Sanford H Feldman, Arno Wünschmann, David L McRuer
On 10 October 2007, a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) was presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, because of an inability to fly. Examination revealed multiple swollen, fluctuant joints. The bird suffered from lead toxicosis and had a prominent leukocytosis. Histopathologic evaluation revealed an acute fibrinoheterophilic polyarthritis, and results of routine aerobic and anaerobic culture of joint fluid were negative, although Mycoplasma sp. sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive...
July 2009: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19432736/taphonomic-effects-of-vulture-scavenging
#14
Nicole M Reeves
From July through September 2007, three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), weighing between 27 and 63 kg were placed outside in a grassy area in central Texas. A surrounding fence prevented entrance by terrestrial scavengers, while allowing avian scavengers unrestricted access. A fourth pig carcass served as a control for the rate of decomposition and was placed in a cage that prevented terrestrial and avian animal access. Modification of the carcasses was recorded through the use of two motion-sensing digital cameras and daily on-site observations...
May 2009: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15140592/blood-coagulation-factors-in-the-black-headed-vulture-coragyps-atratus-a-potential-animal-model-for-the-study-of-haemostasis
#15
Jesus Weir-M, Zulay Acurero, Rodolfo Salas-A, M Arteaga-Vizcaino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2004: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14214404/the-nasal-organs-of-the-black-and-turkey-vultures-a-comparative-study-of-the-cathartid-species-coragyps-atratus-atratus-and-cathartes-aura-septentrionalis-with-notes-on-cathartes-aura-falklandica-pseudogyps-bengalensis-and-neophron-percnopterus
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14055960/behavioral-studies-with-a-black-vulture-coragyps-atratus
#17
J J WITOSLAWSKI, R B ANDERSON, H M HANSON
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1963: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12386423/redescriptions-of-two-echinostomes-from-birds-in-paraguay-with-comments-on-drepanocephalus-dietz-1909-and-paryphostomum-dietz-1909-digenea-echinostomatidae
#18
Aneta Kostadinova, Claude Vaucher, David I Gibson
Two species of echinostomatid trematodes from Paraguayan birds are redescribed: these are Drepanocephalus spathans Dietz, 1909 from Phalacrocorax olivaceus and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909 from Coragyps atratus. The genera Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 and Paryphostomum Dietz, 1909 are redefined and the species previously assigned to them reviewed. Paryphostomum mexicanum (Lamothe-Argumedo & Pérez-Ponce de León, 1989) n. comb. and P. parvicephalum (Rietschel & Werding, 1978) n. comb. are transferred from Drepanocephalus to Paryphostomum...
October 2002: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11428396/protein-electrophoresis-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-tool-in-raptor-medicine
#19
L M Tatum, J Zaias, B K Mealey, C Cray, G D Bossart
Plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. Species studied included bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (Tyto alba), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), Harris' hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Stellar's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), barred owl (Strix varia), screech owl (Otus asio), and black vulture (Coragyps atratus)...
December 2000: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9950339/prevalence-of-encysted-apicomplexans-in-muscles-of-raptors
#20
D S Lindsay, B L Blagburn
An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66...
January 28, 1999: Veterinary Parasitology
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