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(coragyps atratus )

Pablo Ignacio Plaza, Sergio Agustin Lambertucci
Background: Organic waste is one of the most important anthropogenic food subsidies used by different species. However, there is little information about the health impact that rubbish dumps produce on species foraging in these sites. Methods: We studied the effect that rubbish dumps produce on the health of a scavenging bird from the Americas, the black vulture ( Coragyps atratus ). We sampled and studied clinical and biochemical parameters in 94 adult black vultures from two different sites in North Western Patagonia, a rubbish dump and the wild steppe...
2018: PeerJ
Alessandro Di Marzio, Pilar Gómez-Ramírez, Facundo Barbar, Sergio Agustín Lambertucci, Antonio Juan García-Fernández, Emma Martínez-López
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food chains and is associated with adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. We used feather samples from bird scavengers to evaluate Hg concentrations in two different areas of Northern Patagonia. Hg concentrations were analyzed in feathers obtained from turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus), and southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus) from the two areas of Northern Patagonia (Argentina): Bariloche and El Valle...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Ellen S Martinsen, Alexandra G Wickson, Amanda E Holland, Sonia M Hernandez, Alec T Thompson, Susan L Perkins, Christopher J West, A Lawrence Bryan, Christopher A Cleveland, Emily Jolly, Justin D Brown, Dave McRuer, Shannon Behmke, James C Beasley
BACKGROUND: New World vultures (Cathartiformes: Cathartidae) are obligate scavengers comprised of seven species in five genera throughout the Americas. Of these, turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) and black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are the most widespread and, although ecologically similar, have evolved differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour. Three species of haemosporidians have been reported in New World vultures to date: Haemoproteus catharti, Leucocytozoon toddi and Plasmodium elongatum, although few studies have investigated haemosporidian parasites in this important group of species...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
Nathan P Grigg, Justin M Krilow, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie, Gary R Graves, Andrew N Iwaniuk
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the Western Hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. Scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. We provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. Comparative analyses show that the turkey vulture has olfactory bulbs that are 4× larger and contain twice as many mitral cells as those of the sympatric black vulture (Coragyps atratus), despite having brains that are 20% smaller...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
John J Schultz, Alexander T Mitchell
Scavengers can significantly alter a forensic scene and consume, modify, disarticulate, and disperse bodies on the ground surface. The research purpose was to examine vulture scavenging in central Florida, USA. Four small-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses were left on the ground surface of two microenvironments (shaded and open) at a secure site with game cameras. Dispersal data were mapped and analyzed using geographical information systems spatial analysis digital mapping tools. The primary avian scavengers recorded included black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), as well as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jean C A Barbara, Vivian L Ferreira, Fernanda J V Guida, Fabíola E S Prioste, Eliana R Matushima, Tânia F Raso
BACKGROUND: The Black vulture (Coragyps atratus) is the most common species of vulture and is widespread in all America. The species feeds on rotting carcasses, and large groups are frequently seen in urban areas, concentrating especially on rubbish dumps. Although C atratus is a very common species in some areas, little is known about its health in the wild. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine hematologic RIs of wild adult Black vultures. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 70 wild Black vultures captured in São Paulo, Brazil...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Amanda E Holland, Michael E Byrne, A Lawrence Bryan, Travis L DeVault, Olin E Rhodes, James C Beasley
Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses...
2017: PloS One
Jeff A Johnson, Joseph W Brown, Jérôme Fuchs, David P Mindell
New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
David Love, Oliver C Kwok, Shiv Kumar Verma, Jitender P Dubey, Jamie Bellah
Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Shannon Behmke, Jesse Fallon, Adam E Duerr, Andreas Lehner, John Buchweitz, Todd Katzner
Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23...
June 2015: Environment International
E Martínez-López, S Espín, F Barbar, S A Lambertucci, P Gómez-Ramírez, A J García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Thomas J Lisney, Karyn Stecyk, Jeffrey Kolominsky, Gary R Graves, Douglas R Wylie, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures...
December 2013: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Guillermo Blanco, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, Sergio A Lambertucci, Luis M Bautista, Guillermo Wiemeyer, José A Sanchez-Zapata, Juan Garrido-Fernández, Fernando Hiraldo, José A Donázar
Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation...
2013: PloS One
Gretchen R Dabbs, D C Martin
The taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging has been previously documented in central Texas (J Forensic Sci, 2009, 54, 524). This study reports on the behavioral differences between two species of vultures (Coragyps atratus, Cathartes aura) observed over a period of 1 year at the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research in Southern Illinois. The decomposition of six research subjects and two control subjects was observed. Compared with the previous findings of vulture activity, the authors observed a severe delay in the time of first arrival (up to 28 days), decreased feeding time on remains (14-40 min), a less voracious feeding rate (7 days to 2 months to skeletonization), and a completely different feeding pattern of vultures in Southern Illinois...
January 2013: Journal of Forensic Sciences
L M Toledo, M J R Paranhos da Costa, A Schmidek, J Jung, J N S G Ciryllo, V U Cromberg
Black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are often present near calving sites, and under this situation they may play a positive role by removing animal carcasses and afterbirth or a negative role by attacking neonate calves or disturbing cow-calf behaviours following parturition. Cow-calf behaviour was recorded over a 4-year study period from a total of 300 births involving 200 Nellore, 54 Guzerat, 20 Gyr and 26 Caracu cows. The calving site in relation to the location of the herd, considering cow-calf pairs within, close or distant to the herd, the presence of vultures and the behaviour of cows and calves were recorded instantaneously, at 5-min interval...
March 2013: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A J Van Wettere, D H Ley, D E Scott, H D Buckanoff, L A Degernes
Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs...
March 2013: Veterinary Pathology
Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza, Magda R Gamba-Rincón, Andrés L González-Rangel
BACKGROUND: Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. OBJECTIVES: To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. METHODS: This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease...
2012: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Hélio A A Fracasso, Joaquim O Branco
Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831) is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile) and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil) to Terra del Fuego (Argentina). This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005...
June 2012: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Alex Akira Nakamura, Daniel Castendo Simões, Rômulo Godik Antunes, Deuvânia Carvalho da Silva, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4...
December 3, 2009: Veterinary Parasitology
Mark G Ruder, Sanford H Feldman, Arno Wünschmann, David L McRuer
On 10 October 2007, a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) was presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, because of an inability to fly. Examination revealed multiple swollen, fluctuant joints. The bird suffered from lead toxicosis and had a prominent leukocytosis. Histopathologic evaluation revealed an acute fibrinoheterophilic polyarthritis, and results of routine aerobic and anaerobic culture of joint fluid were negative, although Mycoplasma sp. sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive...
July 2009: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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