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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053464/co-expression-network-approach-to-studying-the-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#1
Kavitha Mukund, Samuel R Ward, Richard L Lieber, Shankar Subramaniam
Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) is a potent neurotoxin with several clinical applications.The goal of this study was to utilize co-expression network theory to analyze temporal transcriptional data from skeletal muscle after BoNT-A treatment. Expression data for 2000 genes (extracted using a ranking heuristic) served as the basis for this analysis. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 19 co-expressed modules, further hierarchically clustered into 5 groups. Quantifying average expression and co-expression patterns across these groups revealed temporal aspects of muscle's response to BoNT-A...
October 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052230/omecamtiv-mercabil-and-blebbistatin-modulate-cardiac-contractility-by-perturbing-the-regulatory-state-of-the-myosin-filament
#2
Thomas Kampourakis, Xuemeng Zhang, Yin-Biao Sun, Malcolm Irving
Contraction of heart muscle is triggered by a transient rise in intracellular free calcium concentration linked to a change in the structure of the actin-containing thin filaments that allows the head or motor domains of myosin from the thick filaments to bind to them and induce filament sliding. It is becoming increasingly clear that cardiac contractility is also regulated through structural changes in the thick filaments, although the molecular mechanisms underlying thick filament regulation are still relatively poorly understood...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023089/gelatin-polyaniline-composite-nanofibers-enhanced-excitation-contraction-coupling-system-maturation-in-myotubes
#3
Serge Ostrovidov, Majid Ebrahimi, Hojae Bae, Hung Kim Nguyen, Sahar Salehi, Sang Bok Kim, Akichika Kumatani, Tomokazu Matsue, Xuetao Shi, Ken Nakajima, Shizu Hidema, Makoto Osanai, Ali Khademhosseini
In this study, composite gelatin-polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) was fabricated by electrospinning and used as substrates to culture C2C12 myoblast cells. We observed enhanced myotube formation on composite gelatin-PANI nanofibers compared to gelatin nanofibers, concomitantly with enhanced myotube maturation. Thus, in myotubes, intracellular organization, co-localization of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and ryanodine receptor (RyR), expression of genes correlated to the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling apparatus, calcium transients, and myotube contractibility were increased...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018954/the-importance-of-cutaneous-feedback-on-neural-activation-during-maximal-voluntary-contraction
#4
Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Huub Maas, Carla Pellegrin-Friedmann, Claudio Tapia
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle plantar flexors. METHODS: The effects of cutaneous plantar anaesthesia were assessed in 15 subjects and compared to 15 controls, using a one-day pre/post-repeated measures design. Cutaneous plantar anaesthesia was induced by lidocaine injection at the centre of forefoot, lateral midfoot, and heel...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990076/global-transcriptome%C3%A2-wide-analysis-of-the-function-of-gddr-in-acute-gastric-lesions
#5
Ziqiang Zhang, Jie Zhu, Yuanqiang Dong, Hongyuan Xu, Tao Jiang, Wenshuai Li, Diannan Xu, Liubin Shi, Jianghong Yu, Jun Zhang, Jianjun Du
Acute gastric lesions induced by stress are frequent occurrences in medical establishments. The gastric dramatic downrelated gene (GDDR) is a secreted protein, which is abundantly expressed in normal gastric epithelia and is significantly decreased in gastric cancer. In our previous study, it was found that GDDR aggravated stress‑induced acute gastric lesions. However, the role of GDDR in acute gastric lesions remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, RNA sequencing was performed in order to examine the gene expression profile regulated by GDDR in acute gastric lesions...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971327/importance-of-consistent-datasets-in-musculoskeletal-modelling-a-study-of-the-hand-and-wrist
#6
Benjamin Goislard De Monsabert, Dafydd Edwards, Darshan Shah, Angela Kedgley
Hand musculoskeletal models provide a valuable insight into the loads withstood by the upper limb; however, their development remains challenging because there are few datasets describing both the musculoskeletal geometry and muscle morphology from the elbow to the finger tips. Clinical imaging, optical motion capture and microscopy were used to create a dataset from a single specimen. Subsequently, a musculoskeletal model of the wrist was developed based on these data to estimate muscle tensions and to demonstrate the potential of the provided parameters...
October 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969013/low-dose-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-in-cesarean-surgery-provides-better-intraoperative-somato-visceral-sensory-block-characteristics-and-postoperative-analgesia
#7
Yong-Hong Bi, Xiao-Guang Cui, Rui-Qin Zhang, Chun-Yu Song, Yan-Zhuo Zhang
OBJECT: In this study, we aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on somato-visceral sensory block characteristcs, postoperative analgesia and stress response of intrathecal bupivacaine administration in women undergoing cesarean section, and to find out which dose is better. METHODS: Sixty parturients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II were anesthetized with intrathecal bupivacaine(10mg) alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine (3 μg and 5 μg) to undergo cesarean section...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946584/walking-on-uneven-terrain-in-healthy-adults-and-the-implications-for-people-after-stroke
#8
Kelly A Hawkins, David J Clark, Chitralakshmi K Balasubramanian, Emily J Fox
BACKGROUND: One third of individuals after stroke report an inability to walk in the community. Community mobility requires walking adaptability - the ability to adjust one's stepping pattern to meet environmental demands and task goals. Walking on uneven terrain (e.g. grass, gravel) has unique requirements and is a critical component of walking adaptability that has not been investigated in the post-stroke population. OBJECTIVE: To summarize current knowledge of biomechanical and neuromuscular modifications during uneven terrain negotiation in healthy individuals and discuss implications of post-stroke impairments...
September 16, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939815/trigger-factor-chaperone-acts-as-a-mechanical-foldase
#9
Shubhasis Haldar, Rafael Tapia-Rojo, Edward C Eckels, Jessica Valle-Orero, Julio M Fernandez
Proteins fold under mechanical forces in a number of biological processes, ranging from muscle contraction to co-translational folding. As force hinders the folding transition, chaperones must play a role in this scenario, although their influence on protein folding under force has not been directly monitored yet. Here, we introduce single-molecule magnetic tweezers to study the folding dynamics of protein L in presence of the prototypical molecular chaperone trigger factor over the range of physiological forces (4-10 pN)...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932987/effects-of-hand-configuration-on-muscle-force-coordination-co-contraction-and-concomitant-intermuscular-coupling-during-maximal-isometric-flexion-of-the-fingers
#10
Camille Charissou, David Amarantini, Robin Baurès, Eric Berton, Laurent Vigouroux
PURPOSE: The mechanisms governing the control of musculoskeletal redundancy remain to be fully understood. The hand is highly redundant, and shows different functional role of extensors according to its configuration for a same functional task of finger flexion. Through intermuscular coherence analysis combined with hand musculoskeletal modelling during maximal isometric hand contractions, our aim was to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying the control of muscle force coordination and agonist-antagonist co-contraction...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928706/early-stroke-rehabilitation-of-the-upper-limb-assisted-with-an-electromyography-driven-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-robotic-arm
#11
Qiuyang Qian, Xiaoling Hu, Qian Lai, Stephanie C Ng, Yongping Zheng, Waisang Poon
BACKGROUND: Effective poststroke motor rehabilitation depends on repeated limb practice with voluntary efforts. An electromyography (EMG)-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-robot arm was designed for the multi-joint physical training on the elbow, the wrist, and the fingers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the training effects of the device-assisted approach on subacute stroke patients and to compare the effects with those achieved by the traditional physical treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921721/effects-of-the-availability-of-accurate-proprioceptive-information-on-older-adults-postural-sway-and-muscle-co-contraction
#12
Chesney E Craig, Glenn H M Calvert, Michail Doumas
During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower-limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to i006Ecrease proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921504/g%C3%AE-12-facilitates-carbachol-induced-shortening-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-by-modulating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated-activation-in-a-rhoa-dependent-manner
#13
Edwin J Yoo, Gaoyuan Cao, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Joseph A Jude, James V Michael, Hong Lam, Ivan Pushkarsky, Robert Damoiseaux, Dino Di Carlo, Kwangmi Ahn, Steven S An, Raymond B Penn, Reynold A Panettieri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of Rho kinase (ROCK) is necessary for agonist-induced human airway smooth muscle cell (HASMC) contraction, and inhibition of PI3K promotes bronchodilation of human small airways. The upstream mechanisms driving agonist-mediated PI3K/ROCK axis activation, however, remain unclear. Given the capacity of G12 family proteins to activate ROCK pathways in other cell types (Riobo and Manning, 2005), the role of G12 proteins in modulating M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R)-stimulated PI3K/ROCK activation and HASMC contraction was examined...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914463/burrowing-with-a-kinetic-snout-in-a-snake-elapidae-aspidelaps-scutatus
#14
Alexandra Deufel
Of the few elongate, fossorial vertebrates that have been examined for their burrowing mechanics, all were found to use an akinetic, reinforced skull to push into the soil, powered mostly by trunk muscles. Reinforced skulls were considered essential for head-first burrowing. In contrast, I found that the skull of the fossorial shield-nosed cobra (Aspidelaps scutatus) is not reinforced and retains the kinetic potential typical of many non-fossorial snakes. Aspidelaps scutatus burrows using a greatly enlarged rostral scale that is attached to a kinetic snout that is independently mobile with respect to the rest of the skull...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912726/cardiovascular-and-muscular-consequences-of-work-matched-interval-type-of-concentric-and-eccentric-pedaling-exercise-on-a-soft-robot
#15
Martin Flück, Rebekka Bosshard, Max Lungarella
Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892884/effect-of-metaboreflex-on-cardiovascular-system-in-subjects-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Pramita Dubey, Sunita Tiwari, Manish Bajpai, Kalpana Singh, Praveen Jha
INTRODUCTION: Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. AIM: To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855320/performance-morphology-and-control-of-power-amplified-mandibles-in-the-trap-jaw-ant-myrmoteras-hymenoptera-formicidae
#17
Fredrick J Larabee, Wulfila Gronenberg, Andrew V Suarez
Trap-jaw ants are characterized by high-speed mandibles used for prey capture and defense. Power-amplified mandibles have independently evolved at least four times among ants, with each lineage using different structures as a latch, spring and trigger. We examined two species from the genus Myrmoteras (subfamily Formicinae), whose morphology is unique among trap-jaw ant lineages, and describe the performance characteristics, spring-loading mechanism and neuronal control of Myrmoteras strikes. Like other trap-jaw ants, Myrmoteras latch their jaws open while the large closer muscle loads potential energy in a spring...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851391/surface-emg-signals-in-very-late-stage-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-case-study
#18
Joan Lobo-Prat, Mariska M H P Janssen, Bart F J M Koopman, Arno H A Stienen, Imelda J M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Robotic arm supports aim at improving the quality of life for adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by augmenting their residual functional abilities. A critical component of robotic arm supports is the control interface, as is it responsible for the human-machine interaction. Our previous studies showed the feasibility of using surface electromyography (sEMG) as a control interface to operate robotic arm supports in adults with DMD (22-24 years-old). However, in the biomedical engineering community there is an often raised skepticism on whether adults with DMD at the last stage of their disease have sEMG signals that can be measured and used for control...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846617/in-vitro-innervation-as-an-experimental-model-to-study-the-expression-and-functions-of-acetylcholinesterase-and-agrin-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#19
REVIEW
Katarina Mis, Zoran Grubic, Paola Lorenzon, Marina Sciancalepore, Tomaz Mars, Sergej Pirkmajer
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and agrin, a heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, reside in the basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and play key roles in cholinergic transmission and synaptogenesis. Unlike most NMJ components, AChE and agrin are expressed in skeletal muscle and α-motor neurons. AChE and agrin are also expressed in various other types of cells, where they have important alternative functions that are not related to their classical roles in NMJ. In this review, we first focus on co-cultures of embryonic rat spinal cord explants with human skeletal muscle cells as an experimental model to study functional innervation in vitro...
August 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840283/role-of-point-of-application-of-perturbation-in-control-of-vertical-posture
#20
Bing Chen, Yun-Ju Lee, Alexander S Aruin
The role of point of application of perturbation in the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural control was studied. Twelve healthy participants stood on a sliding board (that was either locked and as such motionless or unlocked and as such free to move in the anterior-posterior direction). The body perturbations were applied either to the shoulders (by a pendulum impact) or the feet (by the movement of the sliding board). Electromyographic activity (EMG) of the trunk and lower extremity muscles was recorded...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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