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Muscle co contraction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650545/regulation-of-blood-pressure-by-targeting-ca-v-1-2-galectin-1-protein-interaction
#1
Zhenyu Hu, Guang Li, Jiong-Wei Wang, Suet Yen Chong, Dejie Yu, Xiaoyuan Wang, Jia Lin Soon, Mui Cheng Liang, Yuk Peng Wong, Na Huang, Henry M Colecraft, Ping Liao, Tuck Wah Soong
Background -L-type CaV 1.2 channels play crucial roles in regulation of blood pressure. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), has been reported to bind to the I-II loop of CaV 1.2 channels to reduce their current density. However, the mechanistic understanding for the down-regulation of CaV 1.2 channels by Gal-1, and whether Gal-1 plays a direct role in blood pressure regulation remain unclear. Methods - In vitro experiments involving co-IP, western blot, patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry and pressure myography were used to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which Gal-1 down-regulates CaV 1...
April 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625438/changes-in-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-along-the-length-of-orbital-fibers-in-rabbit-extraocular-muscle
#2
Christine A Lucas, Hannah S M Rhee, Joseph F Y Hoh
Purpose: Extraocular muscles express 10 myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms that cater for a wide range of contractile speeds. We aim to characterize the variations in MyHC expression along the length of singly (SIFs) and multiply innervated fibers (MIFs) in the orbital layer of rabbit superior rectus muscle. Methods: Monospecific antibodies to nine MyHCs, including an anti-slow-tonic antibody characterized here were used to immunohistochemically map variations in MyHC distribution in serial sections along the muscle's full length...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613884/hamstring-co-contraction-in-the-early-stage-of-rehabilitation-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Hongyun Song, Xuesong Dai, Jianhua Li, Sunan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Hamstring co-contraction may affect recovery from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We aimed to evaluate the changes in hamstring co-contraction during the early postoperative stages. DESIGN: Twenty-five patients with ACLR were followed up for 1-3 months postoperatively, during which the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) questionnaires were completed and surface electromyograms (sEMG) were assessed during terminal knee extension maximum voluntary contraction (TKE-MVC) and step-up tests...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603461/metaboreceptor-activation-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-linking-cardiac-and-peripheral-vascular-hemodynamics
#4
Zachary Barrett-O'Keefe, Joshua F Lee, Amanda Berbert, Melissa A H Witman, Jose Nativi-Nicolau, Josef Stehlik, Russell S Richardson, D Walter Wray
This study sought to evaluate the muscle metaboreflex in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with an emphasis on the interaction between cardiac and peripheral vascular hemodynamics across multiple levels of metaboreceptor activation. In 23 HFrEF patients (63 ± 2 yrs) and 15 healthy controls (64 ± 3 yrs), we examined changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular conductance (SVC), effective arterial elastance (Ea), stroke work (SW), and forearm deoxyhemoglobin concentration during metaboreceptor activation elicited by post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) following three levels of static-intermittent handgrip exercise (15, 30, and 45% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC))...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596928/cardiac-safety-evaluation-in-zebrafish-and-in-silico-adme-prediction-of-cephalosporins-with-an-aminothiazoyl-ring-at-the-c-7-position
#5
Ying Han, Bo Chen, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Systems toxicology approaches have been used as important tools in the drug discovery and medicine quality control processes. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of cephalosporins with an aminothiazoyl ring at the C-7 position (CATRs). Cardiac toxicity of the compounds was assessed in zebrafish embryos, and it was determined that CATRs disturbed the formation and development of the heart in a dose-dependent manner. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the heart were also identified by transcriptome analysis, and co-DEGs were obtained in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network...
March 26, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565464/comprehensive-analysis-of-differential-expression-profiles-of-mrnas-and-lncrnas-and-identification-of-a-14-lncrna-prognostic-signature-for-patients-with-colon-adenocarcinoma
#6
Yanwei Xing, Zhiwei Zhao, Yuekun Zhu, Liangliang Zhao, Anlong Zhu, Daxun Piao
The objective of this study was to identify potentially significant genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colon cancer for a panel of lncRNA signatures that could be used as prognostic markers for colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) based on the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RNA-seq V2 exon data of COAD were downloaded from the TCGA data portal for 285 tumor samples and 41 normal tissue samples adjacent to tumors. Differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs were identified. A functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs was performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and significant module selection...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561862/lower-limb-muscle-co-contraction-and-joint-loading-of-flip-flops-walking-in-male-wearers
#7
Tony Lin-Wei Chen, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Zhi Xu, Qitao Tan, Yan Wang, Ameersing Luximon, Ming Zhang
Flip-flops may change walking gait pattern, increase muscle activity and joint loading, and predispose wearers to foot problems, despite that quantitative evidence is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower limb muscle co-contraction and joint contact force in flip-flops gait, and compare with those of barefoot and sports shoes walking. Ten healthy males were instructed to perform over-ground walking at self-selected speed under three footwear conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) sports shoes, and 3) thong-type flip-flops...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558161/clinical-efficacy-of-jump-training-augmented-with-body-weight-support-after-acl-reconstruction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Audrey R C Elias, Kari J Harris, Paul C LaStayo, Ryan L Mizner
BACKGROUND: Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. HYPOTHESIS: Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547792/intersegmental-kinematics-coordination-in-unilateral-peripheral-and-central-origin-effect-on-gait-mechanism
#9
Laura Wallard, Sophie Boulet, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Emile Dubuc, Philippe Mahaudens, Didier Postlethwaite, Maïté Van Cauter, Christine Detrembleur
BACKGROUND: The gait mechanism requires an efficient intersegmental coordination in order to ensure the displacement of the body while simultaneously maintaining the postural stability. However, intersegmental coordination may be disrupted by neurological or orthopaedic involvement, this increasing the metabolic cost associated with excessive or prolonged muscle co-contraction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our aim was to evaluate and to understand how hip OA affects lower limbs coordination during gait by using the kinematic segmental covariation law method and predict the energy expenditure...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545696/changes-in-rectus-abdominis-and-multifidus-muscle-activity-during-various-leg-raising-exercises-in-the-supine-position
#10
Won-Gyu Yoo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to compare the rectus abdominis and multifidus muscle activity and rectus abdominis/multifidus ratio ratios during various leg-raising exercises. [Subject and Methods] This study was conducted on 10 healthy males. Leg-raising exercises were performed in four different positions. [Results] The activity of the rectus abdominis was greatest for raising the legs while flexing the trunk. The rectus abdominis/multifidus ratio value of co-contraction of the rectus abdominis and multifidus was lowest for raising the legs while flexing the knees...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537913/contribution-from-motor-unit-firing-adaptations-and-muscle-co-activation-during-fatigue
#11
Paola Contessa, John Letizi, Gianluca De Luca, Joshua C Kline
The control of motor unit firing behavior during fatigue is still debated in the literature. Most studies agree that the central nervous system increases the excitation to the motoneuron pool to compensate for decreased force contributions of individual motor units and sustain muscle force output during fatigue. However, some studies claim that motor units may decrease their firing rates despite increased excitation, contradicting the direct relationship between firing rates and excitation that governs the voluntary control of motor units...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529875/the-use-of-botulinum-toxin-injection-for-brachial-plexus-birth-injuries-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Patrick J Buchanan, John A I Grossman, Andrew E Price, Chandan Reddy, Mustafa Chopan, Harvey Chim
BACKGROUND: Most brachial plexus birth injuries (BPBI) are caused by traction on the brachial plexus during a difficult delivery. Fortunately, the possibility of complete recovery from such an incident is relatively high, with only 10% to 30% of patients having prolonged and persistent disability. These patients have muscle imbalances and co-contractions typically localized around the shoulder and elbow. These imbalances and co-contractures cause abnormal motor performances and bone/joint deformities...
March 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529070/effects-of-14-days-of-bed-rest-and-following-physical-training-on-metabolic-cost-mechanical-work-and-efficiency-during-walking-in-older-and-young-healthy-males
#13
Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Paolo Taboga, Alessandro Ganzini, Rado Pišot, Bostjan Šimunič, Gianni Biolo, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Marco Narici, Joern Rittweger, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, Stefano Lazzer
In this study, we investigated: i) the effects of bed rest and a subsequent physical training program on metabolic cost (Cw), mechanical work and efficiency during walking in older and young men; ii) the mechanisms underlying the higher Cw observed in older than young men.Twenty-three healthy male subjects (N = 16 older adults, age 59.6±3.4 years; N = 7 young, age: 23.1±2.9 years) participated in this study. The subjects underwent 14 days of bed rest followed by two weeks of physical training (6 sessions)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522406/impact-of-targeted-assistance-of-multiarticular-finger-musculotendons-on-the-coordination-of-finger-muscles-during-isometric-force-production
#14
Sang Wook Lee, Billy C Vermillion, Shashwati Geed, Alexander W Dromerick, Derek G Kamper
Neurological injuries often cause degraded motor control. While rehabilitation efforts typically focus on movement kinematics, abnormal muscle activation patterns are often the primary source of impairment. Muscle-based therapies are likely more effective than joint-based therapy. In this paper, we examined the feasibility of biomimetic input mimicking the action of human musculotendons in altering hand muscle coordination. Twelve healthy subjects produced a submaximal isometric dorsal fingertip force, while a custom actuator provided assistance mirroring the actions of either the extrinsic extensor or the intrinsic muscles of the index finger...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497374/are-hypometric-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-contributing-to-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Christian Schlenstedt, Martina Mancini, Jay Nutt, Amie P Hiller, Walter Maetzler, Günther Deuschl, Fay Horak
Introduction: This study aims at investigating whether impaired anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during gait initiation contribute to the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG) or whether altered APAs compensate for FOG in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Gait initiation after 30 s quiet stance was analyzed without and with a cognitive dual task (DT) in 33 PD subjects with FOG (PD+FOG), 30 PD subjects without FOG (PD-FOG), and 32 healthy controls (HC). APAs were characterized with inertial sensors and muscle activity of the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was captured with electromyography recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496627/jumping-mechanisms-and-performance-in-beetles-ii-weevils-coleoptera-curculionidae-rhamphini
#16
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles...
February 26, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428395/progesterone-induces-relaxation-of-human-umbilical-cord-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-mpr%C3%AE-paqr7
#17
Yefei Pang, Peter Thomas
Progesterone effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation and the mechanism were investigated in cultured human umbilical vein VSMCs. Membrane progesterone receptors mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ were highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) had low expression. Progesterone (20 nM) and 02-0 (mPR-selective agonist), but not R5020 (nPR agonist), induced muscle relaxation in both a VSMC collagen gel disk contraction assay and an endothelium-denuded human umbilical artery ring tension assay...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417172/axial-reflexes-are-present-in-older-subjects-and-may-contribute-to-balance-responses
#18
James G Colebatch, Sendhil Govender
We studied the response to axial taps (mini-perturbations) of a group of 13 healthy older subjects (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 7 females, 6 males), 12 of whom were also studied using larger applied (macro-) perturbations requiring active postural responses. The mini-perturbation consisted of a brief impulsive force produced by a mini-shaker applied to the trunk at the level of the shoulders and anteriorly at the upper sternum which was perceived as a tap. Acceleration, force platform, and EMG measurements were made...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413452/the-effects-of-short-term-and-long-term-experiences-on-co-contraction-of-lower-extremity-postural-control-muscles-during-continuous-multi-directional-support-surface-perturbations
#19
Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Carolyn A Duncan
While reactive balance control in response to single perturbations in quiet standing is relatively well understood, some occupational environments (e.g. maritime environments) expose workers to continuous, multi-directional challenges to balance and postural control, which require workers to respond to the current perturbation, as well as anticipate coming perturbations. Investigation of muscle activation patterns during continuous, multi-directional perturbations, and the role of previous experience, is warranted to better understand postural control strategies in these types of environments...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382907/role-of-p2x-4-receptor-in-mouse-voiding-function
#20
Weiqun Yu, Warren G Hill, Simon C Robson, Mark L Zeidel
Purinergic signalling plays an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) contractility, and P2X4 receptor is expressed in the bladder wall, where it may act by forming heteromeric receptors with P2X1 , the major purinergic force-generating muscle receptor. To test this hypothesis, we examined mouse BSM contractile properties in the absence and presence of selective P2X1 (NF449 & NF279) and P2X4 antagonists (5-BDBD). These drugs inhibited BSM purinergic contraction only partially, suggesting the possibility of a heteromeric receptor...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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