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Muscle co contraction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228930/gene-expression-analysis-in-asthma-using-a-targeted-multiplex-array
#1
Christopher D Pascoe, Ma'en Obeidat, Bryna A Arsenault, Yunlong Nie, Stephanie Warner, Dorota Stefanowicz, Samuel J Wadsworth, Jeremy A Hirota, S Jasemine Yang, Delbert R Dorscheid, Chris Carlsten, Tillie L Hackett, Chun Y Seow, Peter D Paré
BACKGROUND: Gene expression changes in the structural cells of the airways are thought to play a role in the development of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. This includes changes to smooth muscle contractile machinery and epithelial barrier integrity genes. We used a targeted gene expression arrays to identify changes in the expression and co-expression of genes important in asthma pathology. METHODS: RNA was isolated from the airways of donor lungs from 12 patients with asthma (8 fatal) and 12 non-asthmatics controls and analyzed using a multiplexed, hypothesis-directed platform to detect differences in gene expression...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#2
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220323/grasp-performance-of-a-soft-synergy-based-prosthetic-hand-a-pilot-study
#3
Alycia S Gailey, Sasha Blue Godfrey, Ryan E Breighner, Karen L Andrews, Kristin D Zhao, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Current prosthetic hands are frequently rejected in part due to limited functionality and versatility. We assessed the feasibility of a novel prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro (SHP), whose design combines soft robotics and hand postural synergies. Able-bodied subjects ( ) tracked cursor motion by opening and closing the SHP and performed a grasp-lift-hold-release (GLHR) task with a sensorized cylindrical object of variable weight. The SHP control was driven by electromyographic (EMG) signals from two antagonistic muscles...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218526/glut4-translocation-in-single-muscle-cells-in-culture-epitope-detection-by-immunofluorescence
#4
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
GLUT4 is the major glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. GLUT4 cycles to and from the plasma membrane and its exocytic rate is accelerated by insulin and muscle contraction to achieve a new steady state with more GLUT4 proteins at the muscle cell surface. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern GLUT4 protein recycling, we developed an in vitro model in which myc-epitope-tagged GLUT4 or GLUT4-GFP is expressed in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The myc-epitope is inserted into an exofacial domain that is accessible to anti-myc antibodies from the outside of non-permeabilized cells, allowing one to count the number of transporters at the cell surface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216288/adaptations-in-antagonist-co-activation-role-in-the-repeated-bout-effect
#5
Robert E Hight, Travis W Beck, Debra A Bemben, Christopher D Black
Eccentric exercise results in an adaptation which attenuates muscle damage from subsequent exercise-termed the "repeated-bout effect (RBE)." PURPOSE: Study examined antagonist co-activation and motor-unit recruitment strategy, assessed via dEMG, concomitant to the RBE. METHODS: Nine participants performed 5 sub-maximal isometric trapezoid (ramp-up, hold, ramp-down) contractions at force levels corresponding to 50% and 80% of maximal isometric strength (MVC). Surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii were decomposed into individual motor-unit action potential trains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213129/deep-tissue-analysis-of-distal-aqueous-drainage-structures-and-contractile-features
#6
Jose M Gonzalez, Minhee K Ko, Young-Kwon Hong, Robert Weigert, James C H Tan
Outflow resistance in the aqueous drainage tract distal to trabecular meshwork is potentially an important determinant of intraocular pressure and success of trabecular bypass glaucoma surgeries. It is unclear how distal resistance is modulated. We sought to establish: (a) multimodal 2-photon deep tissue imaging and 3-dimensional analysis of the distal aqueous drainage tract (DT) in transgenic mice in vivo and ex vivo; (b) criteria for distinguishing the DT from blood and lymphatic vessels; and (c) presence of a DT wall organization capable of contractility...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209279/promoting-glucose-transporter-4-vesicle-trafficking-along-cytoskeletal-tracks-pak-ing-them-out
#7
REVIEW
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
Glucose is the principal cellular energy source in humans and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is critical for survival. Glucose uptake into peripheral skeletal muscle and adipose tissues requires the trafficking of vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. Trafficking of GLUT4 storage vesicles is initiated via the canonical insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and fat cells, as well as via exercise-induced contraction in muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202311/quantitative-sensory-response-of-the-scm-muscle-on-sustained-low-level-activation-simulating-co-contractions-during-bruxing
#8
Lydia Eberhard, Sophia Terebesi, Nikolaos Nikitas Giannakopoulos, Daniel Hellmann, Hans-Jürgen Schindler, Marc Schmitter, Doreen Pfau
OBJECTIVE: Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. DESIGN: In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201230/inhibition-of-penile-tunica-albuginea-myofibroblasts-activity-by-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#9
Hesong Jiang, Qingqiang Gao, Xiaoyan Che, Leilei Zhu, Zheng Zhang, Yun Chen, Yutian Dai
The activation of tunica albuginea myofibroblasts (MFs) serves an essential role in Peyronie's disease (PD). Increasing evidence has reported that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been demonstrated to attenuate the symptoms of PD in animal models. However, the mechanisms of the antifibrotic effects of ADSCs in PD remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and possible mechanism of ADSCs on the activation of MFs derived from rat penile tunica albuginea were investigated...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197461/ineffective-and-prolonged-apical-contraction-is-associated-with-chest-pain-and-ischaemia-in-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Edward Stephenson, Pierre Monney, Francesca Pugliese, James Malcolmson, Steffen E Petersen, Charles Knight, Peter Mills, Andrew Wragg, Constantinos O'Mahony, Neha Sekhri, Saidi A Mohiddin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that persistence of apical contraction into diastole is linked to reduced myocardial perfusion and chest pain. BACKGROUND: Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy predominantly of the apex. Hyperdynamic contractility resulting in obliteration of the apical cavity is often present. Apical HCM can lead to drug-refractory chest pain. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 126 subjects; 76 with apical HCM and 50 controls (31 with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) and 19 with non-cardiac chest pain and culprit free angiograms and structurally normal hearts)...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182079/undulatory-swimming-performance-and-body-stiffness-modulation-in-a-soft-robotic-fish-inspired-physical-model
#11
Ardian Jusufi, Daniel M Vogt, Robert J Wood, George V Lauder
Undulatory motion of the body is the dominant mode of locomotion in fishes, and numerous studies of body kinematics and muscle activity patterns have provided insights into the mechanics of swimming. However, it has not been possible to investigate how key parameters such as the extent of bilateral muscle activation affect propulsive performance due to the inability to manipulate muscle activation in live, freely swimming fishes. In this article we extend previous work on passive flexible mechanical models of undulatory propulsion by using actively controlled pneumatic actuators attached to a flexible foil to gain insight into undulatory locomotion and mechanisms for body stiffness control...
September 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175719/does-chronic-ankle-instability-influence-lower-extremity-muscle-activation-of-females-during-landing
#12
Yumeng Li, Jupil Ko, Marika A Walker, Cathleen N Brown, Julianne D Schmidt, Seock-Ho Kim, Kathy J Simpson
Much remains unclear about how chronic ankle instability (CAI) could affect knee muscle activations and interact with knee biomechanics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the influence of CAI on the lower extremity muscle activation at the ankle and knee joints during landings on a tilted surface. A surface electromyography system and two force plates were used to collect lower extremity muscle activation of 21 young female individuals with CAI and 21 pair-matched controls during a double-leg landing with test limb landing on the tilted surface...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174534/subject-specific-toe-in-or-toe-out-gait-modifications-reduce-the-larger-knee-adduction-moment-peak-more-than-a-non-personalized-approach
#13
Scott D Uhlrich, Amy Silder, Gary S Beaupre, Peter B Shull, Scott L Delp
The knee adduction moment (KAM) is a surrogate measure for medial compartment knee loading and is related to the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Toe-in and toe-out gait modifications typically reduce the first and second KAM peaks, respectively. We investigated whether assigning a subject-specific foot progression angle (FPA) modification reduces the peak KAM by more than assigning the same modification to everyone. To explore the effects of motor learning on muscle coordination and kinetics, we also evaluated the peak knee flexion moment and quadriceps-hamstring co-contraction during normal walking, when subjects first learned their subject-specific FPA, and following 20 min of training...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169096/neuromuscular-compensatory-strategies-at-the-trunk-and-lower-limb-are-not-resolved-following-an-acl-reconstruction
#14
Grant Boggess, Kristin Morgan, Darren Johnson, Mary Lloyd Ireland, Jeffrey A Reinbolt, Brian Noehren
BACKGROUND: Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), patients present with greater trunk ipsilateral lean, which may affect knee kinetics and increase re-injury risk. However, there has been little research into neuromuscular factors controlling the trunk and their relation to the knee between healthy and ACLR subjects. This is critical to establish in order to develop more directed and effective interventions. HYPOTHESIS: As compared to healthy control subjects, ACLR subjects will demonstrate increased erector spinae and rectus abdominis co-contraction, greater rectus abdominis force and greater hamstring force that is correlated to increased forward trunk lean...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161622/on-denny-brown-s-spastic-dystonia-what-is-it-and-what-causes-it
#15
REVIEW
Jakob Lorentzen, Maud Pradines, Jean-Michel Gracies, Jens Bo Nielsen
In this review, we will work around two simple definitions of two different entities, which most often co-exist in patients with lesions to central motor pathways: Spasticity is "Enhanced excitability of velocity-dependent responses to phasic stretch at rest", which will not be the subject of this review, while Spastic dystonia is tonic, chronic, involuntary muscle contraction in the absence of any stretch or any voluntary command (Gracies, 2005). Spastic dystonia is a much less well understood entity that will be the subject this review...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156133/harnessing-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-and-nanotopographical-cues-to-regulate-skeletal-muscle-maturation-and-vascularization
#16
Jonathan Hung Tsui, Kajohnkiart Janebodin, Nicholas Ieronimakis, David Michael Patrick Yama, Hee Seok Yang, Rakchanok Chavanachat, Aislinn L Hays, Haeshin Lee, Morayma Reyes, Deok-Ho Kim
Despite possessing substantial regenerative capacity, skeletal muscle can suffer from loss of function due to catastrophic traumatic injury or degenerative disease. In such cases, engineered tissue grafts hold the potential to restore function and improve patient quality of life. Requirements for successful integration of engineered tissue grafts with the host musculature include cell alignment that mimics host tissue architecture and directional functionality, as well as vascularization to ensure tissue survival...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151281/skeletal-muscle-performance-and-ageing
#17
REVIEW
Michael Tieland, Inez Trouwborst, Brian C Clark
The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141682/correction-to-differences-of-muscle-co-contraction-of-the-ankle-joint-between-young-and-elderly-adults-during-dynamic-postural-control-at-different-speeds
#18
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
After the publication of this work [1] an error was noticed in Table 3. In the column 'Elderly', in the last row it states 98 ± 11.87** however the correct value should be: 34.98 ± 11.87**. The original article has been corrected.
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137225/circular-rna-expression-profile-and-potential-function-of-hsa_circrna_101238-in-human-thoracic-aortic-dissection
#19
Meisheng Zou, Chixiong Huang, Xinzhong Li, Xiang He, Yanmei Chen, Wangjun Liao, Yulin Liao, Jie Sun, Ze Liu, Lintao Zhong, Jianping Bin
Objective: To assess the circular RNAs (circRNAs) expression profile and explore the potential functions in human thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Methods: The differentially expressed circRNAs profiles of the aortic segments between human type A TAD patients (n=3) and age-matched normal donors (NA; n=3) were analyzed using the Arraystar human circRNAs microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of circRNAs, parental genes, and hsa-miR-320a; Western blotting confirmed MMP9 expression with additional samples...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#20
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
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