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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428395/progesterone-induces-relaxation-of-human-umbilical-cord-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-mpr%C3%AE-paqr7
#1
Yefei Pang, Peter Thomas
Progesterone effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation and the mechanism were investigated in cultured human umbilical vein VSMCs. Membrane progesterone receptors mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ were highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) had low expression. Progesterone (20 nM) and 02-0 (mPR-selective agonist), but not R5020 (nPR agonist), induced muscle relaxation in both a VSMC collagen gel disk contraction assay and an endothelium-denuded human umbilical artery ring tension assay...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417172/axial-reflexes-are-present-in-older-subjects-and-may-contribute-to-balance-responses
#2
James G Colebatch, Sendhil Govender
We studied the response to axial taps (mini-perturbations) of a group of 13 healthy older subjects (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 7 females, 6 males), 12 of whom were also studied using larger applied (macro-) perturbations requiring active postural responses. The mini-perturbation consisted of a brief impulsive force produced by a mini-shaker applied to the trunk at the level of the shoulders and anteriorly at the upper sternum which was perceived as a tap. Acceleration, force platform, and EMG measurements were made...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413452/the-effects-of-short-term-and-long-term-experiences-on-co-contraction-of-lower-extremity-postural-control-muscles-during-continuous-multi-directional-support-surface-perturbations
#3
Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Carolyn A Duncan
While reactive balance control in response to single perturbations in quiet standing is relatively well understood, some occupational environments (e.g. maritime environments) expose workers to continuous, multi-directional challenges to balance and postural control, which require workers to respond to the current perturbation, as well as anticipate coming perturbations. Investigation of muscle activation patterns during continuous, multi-directional perturbations, and the role of previous experience, is warranted to better understand postural control strategies in these types of environments...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382907/role-of-p2x4-receptor-in-mouse-voiding-function
#4
Weiqun Yu, Warren G Hill, Simon C Robson, Mark L Zeidel
Purinergic signalling plays an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) contractility, and P2X4 receptor is expressed in the bladder wall, where it may act by forming heteromeric receptors with P2X1, the major purinergic force-generating muscle receptor. To test this hypothesis, we examined mouse BSM contractile properties in the absence and presence of selective P2X1 (NF449 & NF279) and P2X4 antagonists (5-BDBD). These drugs inhibited BSM purinergic contraction only partially, suggesting the possibility of a heteromeric receptor...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361944/co-contraction-characteristics-of-lumbar-muscles-in-patients-with-lumbar-disc-herniation-during-different-types-of-movement
#5
Wenjing Du, Huihui Li, Olatunji Mumini Omisore, Lei Wang, Wenmin Chen, Xiangjun Sun
BACKGROUND: Muscular performance is an important factor for the mechanical stability of lumbar spine in humans, in which, the co-contraction of lumbar muscles plays a key role. We hypothesized that when executing different daily living motions, the performance of the lumbar muscle co-contraction stabilization mechanism varies between patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and healthy controls. Hence, in this study, co-contraction performance of lumbar muscles between patients with LDH and healthy subjects was explored to check if there are significant differences between the two groups when performing four representative movements...
January 24, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351473/sympathetically-mediated-cardiac-responses-to-isolated-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-following-exercise-are-modulated-by-body-position-in-humans
#6
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350417/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-induces-dysfunction-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-by-down-regulation-of-silent-information-regulator-1
#7
Li-Jie Sun, Jian-Wu Yu, Yu-Guang Shi, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Meng-Ni Shu, Mo-Yang Chen
Objective Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. Methods LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325902/which-data-should-be-tracked-in-forward-dynamic-optimisation-to-best-predict-muscle-forces-in-a-pathological-co-contraction-case
#8
Colombe Bélaise, Benjamin Michaud, Fabien Dal Maso, Katja Mombaur, Mickaël Begon
The choice of the cost-function for predicting muscle forces during a movement remains a challenge, especially in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Forward dynamics-based optimisations mainly track joint kinematics or torques, combined with a least-excitation criterion. Tracking marker trajectories and/or electromyography (EMG) has rarely been proposed. Our objective was to determine the best tracking objective-function to accurately predict the upper-limb muscle forces. A musculoskeletal model was created and EMG was simulated to obtain a reference movement - a shoulder abduction...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304860/role-and-regulation-of-abelson-tyrosine-kinase-in-crk-associated-substrate-profilin-1-interaction-and-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction
#9
Yinna Wang, Alyssa C Rezey, Ruping Wang, Dale D Tang
BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle contraction is critical for maintenance of appropriate airway tone, and has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Smooth muscle contraction requires an "engine" (myosin activation) and a "transmission system" (actin cytoskeletal remodeling). However, the mechanisms that control actin remodeling in smooth muscle are not fully elucidated. The adapter protein Crk-associated substrate (CAS) regulates actin dynamics and the contraction in smooth muscle. In addition, profilin-1 (Pfn-1) and Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) are also involved in smooth muscle contraction...
January 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281799/age-influences-biomechanical-changes-after-participation-in-an-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-prevention-program
#10
Julie A Thompson-Kolesar, Corey T Gatewood, Andrew A Tran, Amy Silder, Rebecca Shultz, Scott L Delp, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries increases during maturation and peaks during late adolescence. Previous studies suggested an age-related association between participation in injury prevention programs and reduction of ACL injury. However, few studies have investigated differences in biomechanical changes after injury prevention programs between preadolescent and adolescent athletes. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to investigate the influence of age on the effects of the FIFA Medical and Research Centre (F-MARC) 11+ injury prevention warm-up program on differences in biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury between preadolescent and adolescent female soccer players...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246187/muscle-co-contraction-in-elderly-people-change-due-to-postural-stability-during-single-leg-standing
#11
Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda
BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245113/the-temporal-relationship-between-activity-of-the-pelvic-floor-muscles-and-motion-of-selected-urogenital-landmarks-in-healthy-nulliparous-women
#12
Stéphanie Thibault-Gagnon, Cindy Auchincloss, Ryan Graham, Linda McLean
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) electromyographic (EMG) activation and urogenital landmark motion measured using 2D transperineal ultrasound (US) imaging. METHODS: Eight healthy, nulliparous women performed maximum voluntary PFM contractions while EMG and transperineal US images were acquired simultaneously. Changes in the levator plate length (LPL), bladder neck (BN) position and urethral position were determined by visual inspection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228930/gene-expression-analysis-in-asthma-using-a-targeted-multiplex-array
#13
Christopher D Pascoe, Ma'en Obeidat, Bryna A Arsenault, Yunlong Nie, Stephanie Warner, Dorota Stefanowicz, Samuel J Wadsworth, Jeremy A Hirota, S Jasemine Yang, Delbert R Dorscheid, Chris Carlsten, Tillie L Hackett, Chun Y Seow, Peter D Paré
BACKGROUND: Gene expression changes in the structural cells of the airways are thought to play a role in the development of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. This includes changes to smooth muscle contractile machinery and epithelial barrier integrity genes. We used a targeted gene expression arrays to identify changes in the expression and co-expression of genes important in asthma pathology. METHODS: RNA was isolated from the airways of donor lungs from 12 patients with asthma (8 fatal) and 12 non-asthmatics controls and analyzed using a multiplexed, hypothesis-directed platform to detect differences in gene expression...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#14
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220323/grasp-performance-of-a-soft-synergy-based-prosthetic-hand-a-pilot-study
#15
Alycia S Gailey, Sasha Blue Godfrey, Ryan E Breighner, Karen L Andrews, Kristin D Zhao, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Current prosthetic hands are frequently rejected in part due to limited functionality and versatility. We assessed the feasibility of a novel prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro (SHP), whose design combines soft robotics and hand postural synergies. Able-bodied subjects ( ) tracked cursor motion by opening and closing the SHP and performed a grasp-lift-hold-release (GLHR) task with a sensorized cylindrical object of variable weight. The SHP control was driven by electromyographic (EMG) signals from two antagonistic muscles...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218526/glut4-translocation-in-single-muscle-cells-in-culture-epitope-detection-by-immunofluorescence
#16
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
GLUT4 is the major glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. GLUT4 cycles to and from the plasma membrane and its exocytic rate is accelerated by insulin and muscle contraction to achieve a new steady state with more GLUT4 proteins at the muscle cell surface. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern GLUT4 protein recycling, we developed an in vitro model in which myc-epitope-tagged GLUT4 or GLUT4-GFP is expressed in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The myc-epitope is inserted into an exofacial domain that is accessible to anti-myc antibodies from the outside of non-permeabilized cells, allowing one to count the number of transporters at the cell surface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216288/adaptations-in-antagonist-co-activation-role-in-the-repeated-bout-effect
#17
Robert E Hight, Travis W Beck, Debra A Bemben, Christopher D Black
Eccentric exercise results in an adaptation which attenuates muscle damage from subsequent exercise-termed the "repeated-bout effect (RBE)." PURPOSE: Study examined antagonist co-activation and motor-unit recruitment strategy, assessed via dEMG, concomitant to the RBE. METHODS: Nine participants performed 5 sub-maximal isometric trapezoid (ramp-up, hold, ramp-down) contractions at force levels corresponding to 50% and 80% of maximal isometric strength (MVC). Surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii were decomposed into individual motor-unit action potential trains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213129/deep-tissue-analysis-of-distal-aqueous-drainage-structures-and-contractile-features
#18
Jose M Gonzalez, Minhee K Ko, Young-Kwon Hong, Robert Weigert, James C H Tan
Outflow resistance in the aqueous drainage tract distal to trabecular meshwork is potentially an important determinant of intraocular pressure and success of trabecular bypass glaucoma surgeries. It is unclear how distal resistance is modulated. We sought to establish: (a) multimodal 2-photon deep tissue imaging and 3-dimensional analysis of the distal aqueous drainage tract (DT) in transgenic mice in vivo and ex vivo; (b) criteria for distinguishing the DT from blood and lymphatic vessels; and (c) presence of a DT wall organization capable of contractility...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209279/promoting-glucose-transporter-4-vesicle-trafficking-along-cytoskeletal-tracks-pak-ing-them-out
#19
REVIEW
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
Glucose is the principal cellular energy source in humans and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is critical for survival. Glucose uptake into peripheral skeletal muscle and adipose tissues requires the trafficking of vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. Trafficking of GLUT4 storage vesicles is initiated via the canonical insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and fat cells, as well as via exercise-induced contraction in muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202311/quantitative-sensory-response-of-the-scm-muscle-on-sustained-low-level-activation-simulating-co-contractions-during-bruxing
#20
Lydia Eberhard, Sophia Terebesi, Nikolaos Nikitas Giannakopoulos, Daniel Hellmann, Hans-Jürgen Schindler, Marc Schmitter, Doreen Pfau
OBJECTIVE: Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. DESIGN: In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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