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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100502/rack1-regulates-angiotensin-ii-induced-contractions-of-shr-preglomerular-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Xiao Zhu, Edwin K Jackson
The preglomerular microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is hypersensitive to angiotensin II, and studies show that this is likely due to enhanced convergent signaling between G-protein subunits αq (Gαq; released by angiotensin II) and G-protein subunits βγ (Gβγ; released by Gi-coupled receptors) to active phospholipase C (PLC). Here we investigated the molecular basis for the enhanced convergent signaling between Gβγ and Gαq in SHR preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#2
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078471/effects-of-estrogen-on-esophageal-function-through-regulation-of-ca-2-related-proteins
#3
Kipung Kim, Dongoh Lee, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Beum-Soo An, Yeon Hee Seong, Eui-Bae Jeung
BACKGROUND: The calcium ion is important for physiological functions in all tissues and organs and essential to many vital functions, including hormone secretion and muscle contraction. The intracellular concentration of calcium is regulated by calcium related proteins such as CaBP-9k, PMCA1, and NCX1. In this study, we investigated the relationship between calcium regulation and esophageal functions such as mucin secretion and smooth muscle contraction. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated for 3 days with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and their antagonists (ICI 182,780, and RU486)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062404/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-dermal-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Mirko Manetti, Eloisa Romano, Irene Rosa, Serena Guiducci, Silvia Bellando-Randone, Amato De Paulis, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) features multiorgan fibrosis orchestrated predominantly by activated myofibroblasts. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a transdifferentiation by which endothelial cells (ECs) lose their specific morphology/markers and acquire myofibroblast-like features. Here, we determined the possible contribution of EndoMT to the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis in SSc and two mouse models. METHODS: Skin sections were immunostained for endothelial CD31 or vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin in combination with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) myofibroblast marker...
January 6, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058586/key-genes-in-stomach-adenocarcinoma-identified-via-network-analysis-of-rna-seq-data
#5
Li Shen, Lizhi Zhao, Jiquan Tang, Zhiwei Wang, Weisong Bai, Feng Zhang, Shouli Wang, Weihua Li
RNA-seq data of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) were analyzed to identify critical genes in STAD. Meanwhile, relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated. Gene expression data of STAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. Relationships with correlation coefficient > 0.6 were retained in the gene co-expression network. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the genes in the network with DAVID and KOBASS 2...
January 5, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049099/the-effect-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-roundup-and-its-co-formulant-poea-on-the-motoric-activity-of-rat-intestine-in-vitro-study
#6
Magdalena Chłopecka, Marta Mendel, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Roundup, polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) and mixture of glyphosate and POEA in different levels on the motoric activity of jejunum strips. The incubation in the Roundup solutions caused a significant, mostly miorelaxant, reversible reaction of smooth muscle; only in the highest tested dose which is equivalent to the agricultural concentration (1% corresponding to 1.7g glyphosate/L) there was an irreversible disturbance of the spontaneous contractility and reactivity...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006942/propofol-induced-mitochondrial-and-contractile-dysfunction-of-the-rat-ventricular-myocardium
#7
M Grundmanová, D Jarkovská, A Süß, Z Tůma, M Marková, Z Grundman, A El-Kadi, M Čedíková, M Štengl, J Kuncová
Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent used in human medicine for sedation and general anesthesia. Its administration can be associated with serious cardiovascular side-effects that include decrease in arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. The aim of the present study was to evaluate propofol effects on mitochondrial respiration, myocardial contractility and electrophysiology in the same samples isolated from the heart ventricles of adult rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in permeabilized samples dissected from free walls of both ventricles using high-resolution respirometry...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004203/aging-effect-on-muscle-synergies-in-stepping-forth-during-a-forward-perturbation
#8
Yun Wang, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Tadayoshi Asaka
PURPOSE: We explored changes in muscle interactions during healthy aging as a window into neural control strategies of postural preparation to action/perturbation. In particular, we quantified the strength of multi-muscle synergies stabilizing the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the preparation for making a step associated with support surface translations. METHODS: Young and elderly subjects were required to make a step in response to support surface perturbations...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002640/activation-of-galanin-and-cholecystokinin-receptors-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-is-required-for-ejaculation-in-male-rats
#9
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
The spinal ejaculation generator is comprised of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their axonal projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. LSt cells regulate ejaculatory reflexes by release of neuropeptides that are co-expressed in their axons, as previously demonstrated for gastrin releasing peptide and enkephalin. Here, the role of two other neuropeptides co-expressed in LSt cells for ejaculatory reflexes are demonstrated: galanin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Adult male rats were anesthetized, spinalized, and received intrathecal infusions of galanin receptor antagonist Galantide (1 or 10 nmol) or CCK receptor antagonist proglumide (71 or 714 nmol)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999851/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-d-in-immobilisation-part-b-modulation-of-muscle-functional-vascular-and-activation-profiles
#10
E L Bostock, C I Morse, K Winwood, I M McEwan, G L Onambélé
OBJECTIVES: This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would modulate the anticipated muscle functional and related blood vessels function deleterious effects of immobilisation. DESIGN: The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. SETTING: The study took part in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993640/protective-effects-of-agmatine-on-doxorubicin-induced-chronic-cardiotoxicity-in-rat
#11
Fatemeh Yarmohmmadi, Nastaran Rahimi, Hedyeh Faghir-Ghanesefat, Nina Javadian, Alireza Abdollahi, Parvin Pasalar, Farahnaz Jazayeri, Shahram Ejtemaeemehr, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
The detrimental cardio-toxic effect of doxorubicin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent, limited its clinical use. It has been claimed that doxorubicin cardio-toxicity occurs through calcium ions (Ca(2+)) overload and reactive oxygen species production. Agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline receptor agonist, induce uptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) and cause an increase in activity of calcium pumps, including Ca(2+)-ATPase. Also it shows self-scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effects of agmatine against chronic cardio-toxicity of doxorubicin in rats...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965470/aberrant-expression-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-in-patients-with-intracranial-aneurysm
#12
Wen Wang, Hao Li, Lanbing Yu, Zheng Zhao, Haoyuan Wang, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Qing Lan, Jiangfei Wang, Jizong Zhao
Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is pathological dilatations of the cerebral artery and rupture of IAs can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage, which has a high ratio of fatality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis of IAs remains unknown. We performed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in IA tissues and superficial temporal arteries (STAs). A total of 4129 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2926 differentially expressed mRNAs were obtained from the microarrays (P < 0.05)...
December 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941275/increased-postural-sway-and-changes-in-the-neuromuscular-activities-of-the-ankle-stabilizing-muscles-at-ovulation-in-healthy-young-women
#13
Haneul Lee, JongEun Yim
Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among the physically active subjects. Ankle inversion-eversion laxity is greater and dynamic postural control is less in women compared with men. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in postural sway and its effects on the neuromuscular activities of the ankle stabilizing muscles during the menstrual cycle in young women. Fourteen young women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this experiment. Postural sway and electromyographic signals of the lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded while the participants performed eight different balance tasks at ovulation and early follicular phase during one full menstrual cycle...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922972/idiopathic-synkinesis-of-the-facial-musculature-oculo-nasal-oculo-zygomatic-and-fronto-nasal-synkinesis
#14
Sujin Bahk, SeungHwan Hwang, SuRak Eo
Facial synkinesis is the simultaneous contraction of the certain facial musculature accompanying a motion of designated muscle in the face. With the exception of rare afflictions that are congenital in origin, most patients develop as a sequel to facial nerve paralysis due to trauma, tumor, and surgical injury. As an idiopathic congenital form, oculo-nasal synkinesis which reveals co-contraction of orbicularis oculi and the compressor narium minor muscles which are innervated by separate branches of the facial nerve have been already reported...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918960/effects-of-knee-action-phase-and-fatigue-on-rectus-femoris-and-biceps-femoris-co-activation-during-the-eggbeater-kick
#15
Nuno Oliveira, Ross H Sanders
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of knee extension/flexion and fatigue on muscle co-activation of the Rectus Femoris (RF) and Biceps Femoris (BF) during the eggbeater kick. Ten national level male water polo players executed eggbeater kicks at maximum effort for the duration of the test. The eggbeater kick cycle was divided into four phases (FLX1, FLX2, EXT1, EXT2). Surface electromyographs were recorded from RF and BF. EMG activity normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction, muscle co-activation (CCI) and angular velocity (AV) of the right and left knee were calculated...
December 2, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914205/mitochondrial-genotype-and-phenotypic-plasticity-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-cold-acclimation-in-killifish
#16
Timothy M Healy, Heather J Bryant, Patricia M Schulte
Adjustments of aerobic metabolic processes are critical components of organismal responses to environmental change that require tight co-ordination between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Intraspecific differences in mitochondrial genotype can affect gene transcription in both genomes. Thus, variation in mitochondrial genotype may be associated with differences in the plasticity of gene expression when organisms are faced with changes in environmental conditions. Cold acclimation is known to result in metabolic responses involving increases in mitochondrial amount and capacity, suggesting that low temperatures may pose a particular challenge when co-ordinating the functions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911944/specific-stimuli-induce-specific-adaptations-sensorimotor-training-vs-reactive-balance-training
#17
Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer, Ramona Ritzmann
Typically, balance training has been used as an intervention paradigm either as static or as reactive balance training. Possible differences in functional outcomes between the two modalities have not been profoundly studied. The objective of the study was to investigate the specificity of neuromuscular adaptations in response to two balance intervention modalities within test and intervention paradigms containing characteristics of both profiles: classical sensorimotor training (SMT) referring to a static ledger pivoting around the ankle joint vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909885/kinematics-and-muscle-activation-patterns-during-a-maximal-voluntary-rate-activity-in-healthy-elderly-and-young-adults
#18
Eva Chadnova, Nancy St-Onge, Richard Courtemanche, Robert D Kilgour
BACKGROUND: Maximal voluntary rate (MVR) performance tasks can provide important age-related information to the limiting factors associated with movement and the development of fatigue. AIM: To determine whether kinematic and muscle activation patterns during an MVR task differ between young and older adults. METHODS: We continuously measured frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, index of co-contraction and median frequencies of the index finger flexors and extensors during a 20-s MVR task in 10 young and 10 older subjects...
December 1, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906129/the-evolutionary-origin-of-bilaterian-smooth-and-striated-myocytes
#19
Thibaut Brunet, Antje Hl Fischer, Patrick Rh Steinmetz, Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed and nervous control...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859527/gait-mechanics-and-second-acl-rupture-implications-for-delaying-return-to-sport
#20
Jacob J Capin, Ashutosh Khandha, Ryan Zarzycki, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Second anterior cruciate ligament rupture is a common and devastating injury among young women who return to sport after ACL reconstruction, but it is inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to compare gait biomechanics and return-to-sport time frames in a matched cohort of young female athletes who, after primary ACLR, returned to sport without re-injury or sustained a second ACL injury. Approximately 6 months after primary reconstruction, 14 young women (age 16 ± 2 years) involved in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent motion analysis testing after physical therapy and impairment resolution...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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