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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#1
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182797/can-real-time-visual-feedback-during-gait-retraining-reduce-metabolic-demand-for-individuals-with-transtibial-amputation
#2
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Harmony S Choi, Benjamin J Darter, Jason M Wilken
The metabolic demand of walking generally increases following lower extremity amputation. This study used real-time visual feedback to modify biomechanical factors linked to an elevated metabolic demand of walking in individuals with transtibial amputation. Eight persons with unilateral, traumatic transtibial amputation and 8 uninjured controls participated. Two separate bouts of real-time visual feedback were provided during a single session of gait retraining to reduce 1) center of mass sway and 2) thigh muscle activation magnitudes and duration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174466/the-effect-of-bilateral-trainings-on-upper-extremities-muscle-activation-on-level-of-motor-function-in-stroke-patients
#3
Kyung Min Lim, Jinhwa Jung, Sunhwa Shim
[Purpose] This study was conducted in order to compare muscle activation level on the affected and unaffected limb according to the recovery level of upper limb between bilateral activity with hands clasped and bilateral activity with pilates ring. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty inpatient who have had a stroke were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function score of moderately recovered group and well recovered group. The muscles activation of upper extremity and Co-Contraction Ratio (CCR) were analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159911/nerve-specific-input-modulation-to-spinal-neurons-during-a-motor-task-in-the-monkey
#4
Joachim Confais, Geehee Kim, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Kazuhiko Seki
: If not properly regulated, the large amount of reafferent sensory signals generated by our own movement could destabilize the central nervous system. We investigated how input from peripheral nerves to spinal cord is modulated during behavior. We chronically stimulated the deep radial nerve (DR; proprioceptive, wrist extensors), the median nerve (M; mixed, wrist flexors and palmar skin) and the superficial radial nerve (SR; cutaneous, hand dorsum) while four monkeys performed a delayed wrist flexion-extension task...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129590/functional-implications-of-muscle-co-contraction-during-gait-in-advanced-age
#5
Justine Lo, On-Yee Lo, Erin A Olson, Daniel Habtemariam, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, Margaret M Gagnon, Brad Manor, Lewis A Lipsitz
Older adults often exhibit high levels of lower extremity muscle co-contraction, which may be the cause or effect of age-related impairments in gait and associated falls. Normal gait requires intact executive function and thus can be slowed by challenging executive resources available to the neuromuscular system through the performance of a dual task. We therefore investigated associations between lower limb co-contraction and gait characteristics under normal and dual task conditions in healthy older adults (85...
January 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129279/myoeletric-activity-of-the-quadriceps-during-leg-press-exercise-performed-with-differing-techniques
#6
Wallace Machado, Gabriel Paz, Leonardo Mendes, Marianna Maia, Jason B Winchester, Vicente Lima, Jeffrey M Willardson, Humberto Miranda
Machado, W, Paz, G, Mendes, L, Maia, M, Winchester, JB, Lima, V, Willardson, JM, and Miranda, H. Myoeletric activity of the quadriceps during leg press exercise performed with differing techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 422-429, 2017-The quadriceps muscle supplies the motive force for dynamic knee extension. During this action, the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) co-contract to stabilize the patella as it tracks within the patellofemoral groove. The purpose of this study was to analyze surface electromyographic (SEMG) responses for the VL, VMO, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF), as well as the VMO:VL ratio during an open-kinetic chain 45° angled leg press (LP45)...
February 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100502/rack1-regulates-angiotensin-ii-induced-contractions-of-shr-preglomerular-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Xiao Zhu, Edwin K Jackson
The preglomerular microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is hypersensitive to angiotensin II, and studies show that this is likely due to enhanced convergent signaling between G-protein subunits αq (Gαq; released by angiotensin II) and G-protein subunits βγ (Gβγ; released by Gi-coupled receptors) to active phospholipase C (PLC). Here we investigated the molecular basis for the enhanced convergent signaling between Gβγ and Gαq in SHR preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#8
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078471/effects-of-estrogen-on-esophageal-function-through-regulation-of-ca-2-related-proteins
#9
Kipung Kim, Dongoh Lee, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Beum-Soo An, Yeon Hee Seong, Eui-Bae Jeung
BACKGROUND: The calcium ion is important for physiological functions in all tissues and organs and essential to many vital functions, including hormone secretion and muscle contraction. The intracellular concentration of calcium is regulated by calcium related proteins such as CaBP-9k, PMCA1, and NCX1. In this study, we investigated the relationship between calcium regulation and esophageal functions such as mucin secretion and smooth muscle contraction. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated for 3 days with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and their antagonists (ICI 182,780, and RU486)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062404/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-dermal-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#10
Mirko Manetti, Eloisa Romano, Irene Rosa, Serena Guiducci, Silvia Bellando-Randone, Amato De Paulis, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) features multiorgan fibrosis orchestrated predominantly by activated myofibroblasts. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a transdifferentiation by which endothelial cells (ECs) lose their specific morphology/markers and acquire myofibroblast-like features. Here, we determined the possible contribution of EndoMT to the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis in SSc and two mouse models. METHODS: Skin sections were immunostained for endothelial CD31 or vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin in combination with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) myofibroblast marker...
January 6, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058586/key-genes-in-stomach-adenocarcinoma-identified-via-network-analysis-of-rna-seq-data
#11
Li Shen, Lizhi Zhao, Jiquan Tang, Zhiwei Wang, Weisong Bai, Feng Zhang, Shouli Wang, Weihua Li
RNA-seq data of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) were analyzed to identify critical genes in STAD. Meanwhile, relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated. Gene expression data of STAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. Relationships with correlation coefficient > 0.6 were retained in the gene co-expression network. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the genes in the network with DAVID and KOBASS 2...
January 5, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049099/the-effect-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-roundup-and-its-co-formulant-poea-on-the-motoric-activity-of-rat-intestine-in-vitro-study
#12
Magdalena Chłopecka, Marta Mendel, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Roundup, polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) and mixture of glyphosate and POEA in different levels on the motoric activity of jejunum strips. The incubation in the Roundup solutions caused a significant, mostly miorelaxant, reversible reaction of smooth muscle; only in the highest tested dose which is equivalent to the agricultural concentration (1% corresponding to 1.7g glyphosate/L) there was an irreversible disturbance of the spontaneous contractility and reactivity...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006942/propofol-induced-mitochondrial-and-contractile-dysfunction-of-the-rat-ventricular-myocardium
#13
M Grundmanová, D Jarkovská, A Süß, Z Tůma, M Marková, Z Grundman, A El-Kadi, M Čedíková, M Štengl, J Kuncová
Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent used in human medicine for sedation and general anesthesia. Its administration can be associated with serious cardiovascular side-effects that include decrease in arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. The aim of the present study was to evaluate propofol effects on mitochondrial respiration, myocardial contractility and electrophysiology in the same samples isolated from the heart ventricles of adult rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in permeabilized samples dissected from free walls of both ventricles using high-resolution respirometry...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004203/aging-effect-on-muscle-synergies-in-stepping-forth-during-a-forward-perturbation
#14
Yun Wang, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Tadayoshi Asaka
PURPOSE: We explored changes in muscle interactions during healthy aging as a window into neural control strategies of postural preparation to action/perturbation. In particular, we quantified the strength of multi-muscle synergies stabilizing the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the preparation for making a step associated with support surface translations. METHODS: Young and elderly subjects were required to make a step in response to support surface perturbations...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002640/activation-of-galanin-and-cholecystokinin-receptors-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-is-required-for-ejaculation-in-male-rats
#15
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
The spinal ejaculation generator is comprised of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their axonal projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. LSt cells regulate ejaculatory reflexes by release of neuropeptides that are co-expressed in their axons, as previously demonstrated for gastrin releasing peptide and enkephalin. Here, the role of two other neuropeptides co-expressed in LSt cells for ejaculatory reflexes are demonstrated: galanin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Adult male rats were anesthetized, spinalized, and received intrathecal infusions of galanin receptor antagonist Galantide (1 or 10 nmol) or CCK receptor antagonist proglumide (71 or 714 nmol)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999851/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-d-in-immobilisation-part-b-modulation-of-muscle-functional-vascular-and-activation-profiles
#16
E L Bostock, C I Morse, K Winwood, I M McEwan, G L Onambélé
OBJECTIVES: This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would modulate the anticipated muscle functional and related blood vessels function deleterious effects of immobilisation. DESIGN: The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. SETTING: The study took part in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993640/protective-effects-of-agmatine-on-doxorubicin-induced-chronic-cardiotoxicity-in-rat
#17
Fatemeh Yarmohmmadi, Nastaran Rahimi, Hedyeh Faghir-Ghanesefat, Nina Javadian, Alireza Abdollahi, Parvin Pasalar, Farahnaz Jazayeri, Shahram Ejtemaeemehr, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
The detrimental cardio-toxic effect of doxorubicin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent, limited its clinical use. It has been claimed that doxorubicin cardio-toxicity occurs through calcium ions (Ca(2+)) overload and reactive oxygen species production. Agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline receptor agonist, induce uptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) and cause an increase in activity of calcium pumps, including Ca(2+)-ATPase. Also it shows self-scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effects of agmatine against chronic cardio-toxicity of doxorubicin in rats...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965470/aberrant-expression-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-in-patients-with-intracranial-aneurysm
#18
Wen Wang, Hao Li, Lanbing Yu, Zheng Zhao, Haoyuan Wang, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Qing Lan, Jiangfei Wang, Jizong Zhao
Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is pathological dilatations of the cerebral artery and rupture of IAs can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage, which has a high ratio of fatality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis of IAs remains unknown. We performed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in IA tissues and superficial temporal arteries (STAs). A total of 4129 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2926 differentially expressed mRNAs were obtained from the microarrays (P < 0.05)...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941275/increased-postural-sway-and-changes-in-the-neuromuscular-activities-of-the-ankle-stabilizing-muscles-at-ovulation-in-healthy-young-women
#19
Haneul Lee, JongEun Yim
Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among the physically active subjects. Ankle inversion-eversion laxity is greater and dynamic postural control is less in women compared with men. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in postural sway and its effects on the neuromuscular activities of the ankle stabilizing muscles during the menstrual cycle in young women. Fourteen young women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this experiment. Postural sway and electromyographic signals of the lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded while the participants performed eight different balance tasks at ovulation and early follicular phase during one full menstrual cycle...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922972/idiopathic-synkinesis-of-the-facial-musculature-oculo-nasal-oculo-zygomatic-and-fronto-nasal-synkinesis
#20
Sujin Bahk, SeungHwan Hwang, SuRak Eo
Facial synkinesis is the simultaneous contraction of the certain facial musculature accompanying a motion of designated muscle in the face. With the exception of rare afflictions that are congenital in origin, most patients develop as a sequel to facial nerve paralysis due to trauma, tumor, and surgical injury. As an idiopathic congenital form, oculo-nasal synkinesis which reveals co-contraction of orbicularis oculi and the compressor narium minor muscles which are innervated by separate branches of the facial nerve have been already reported...
January 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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