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Joint loading

Miloš Vittori, Vesna Srot, Birgit Bussmann, Felicitas Predel, Peter A van Aken, Jasna Štrus
Terrestrial isopods possess large sensory setae on their walking legs. Increased fracture resistance of these elongated structures is of crucial importance, making the exoskeleton forming the setae an interesting durable material that may inspire biomimetic designs. We studied the cuticle of the sensory setae with analytical electron microscopy in order to gain detailed insights into its structure and composition at the nanometer scale and identify features that increase the fracture resistance of these minute skeletal elements...
June 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jessica E Carter, Srinivas Pyati, Frances A Kanach, Ann Miller W Maxwell, Charles M Belden, Christopher M Shea, Thomas Van de Ven, Jillian Thompson, Helen Hoenig, Karthik Raghunathan
BACKGROUND: Complementary integrative health therapies have a perioperative role in the reduction of pain, analgesic use, and anxiety, and increasing patient satisfaction. However, long implementation lags have been quantified. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) can help mitigate this translational problem. METHODS: We reviewed evidence for several nonpharmacological treatments (CFIR domain: characteristics of interventions) and studied external context and organizational readiness for change by surveying providers at 11 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals (domains: outer and inner settings)...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Antonia Krefeld-Schwalb
It is well established in the working memory literature, that performance can be improved by cueing attention toward the position of a to-be-tested item, even after that item's presentation. This retro-cue benefit is often characterized as the joint outcome of two different effects: facilitation of recall and memory strengthening at the cued position. While the latter has been mainly explained by increased context-content binding, competing hypotheses exist to explain the facilitation of recall. The present study focuses on two of these hypotheses: the removal of non-cued information and the protection of cued information against interference...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Jeyaraj Pradeep Kumar
The temperature distribution occurring at the interface while joining a simple electrical contact comprising of a copper wire and a copper sheet using ultrasonic metal welding was analyzed using finite element method. Heat flux due to plastic deformation and friction was calculated and provided as input load for simulation of temperature distribution. The results of temperature obtained from simulation are found to be in good agreement with the results of temperature from experiments measured using thermocouple...
June 14, 2018: Materials
Robin Hager, Sylvain Dorel, Antoine Nordez, Giuseppe Rabita, Antoine Couturier, Hugo Hauraix, Jacques Duchateau, Gaël Guilhem
The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (VF ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrea Calvo-Echenique, José Cegoñino, Raúl Chueca, Amaya Pérez-Del Palomar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Diren Arsoy, Christopher G Salib, William H Trousdale, Meagan E Tibbo, Afton K Limberg, Anthony Viste, Eric A Lewallen, Nicolas Reina, Michael J Yaszemski, Daniel J Berry, Andre J van Wijnen, Mark E Morrey, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, Matthew P Abdel
Trauma, surgery, and other inflammatory conditions can lead to debilitating joint contractures. Adjunct pharmacologic modalities may permit clinical prevention and treatment of recalcitrant joint contractures. We investigated the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone by intra-articular delivery via oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF) hydrogels in an established rabbit model of arthrofibrosis. OPF hydrogels loaded with rosiglitazone were characterized for drug elution properties upon soaking in minimum essential media (MEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum and measurements of drug concentrations via High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Peter M van der Kraan
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine that plays an important role in both normal joints and joints affected by osteoarthritis (OA), the most common joint disease. However, the role of this pleiotropic cytokine in a normal healthy joint is very different from its role in an OA joint. In a normal synovial joint, active TGF-β is only present after joint loading and only for a short period. In contrast, permanent and high levels of active TGF-β are detected in OA joints. Due to this difference in levels and exposure period of joint cells to active TGF-β, the function of TGF-β is strikingly different in normal and OA joints...
May 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Kazuki Fujita, Hiroichi Miaki, Hideaki Hori, Yasutaka Kobayashi, Takao Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) to the ankle plantar flexors in patients with hemiplegia reduces the strength of knee extension, which may decrease their walking ability. Studies have reported improvements in walking ability with physical therapy following BoNT-A administration. However, no previous studies have evaluated from an exercise physiology perspective the efficacy of physical therapy after BoNT-A administration for adult patients with hemiplegia...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
M Vinoth Kumar, V Balasubramanian
Hot tensile test data of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) autogenous joints of Super 304HCu tubes tested at their operating temperature are presented along with the microstructure of the weld joint. The GTAW joints exhibited lower tensile strength than the parent metal and the failure occurred in the weld metal region for all test temperatures. Constant load Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) test data of the GTAW weld joints tested in boiling MgCl2 environment at different applied stress level are presented. SCC curves obtained from the test were analyzed to derive SCC parameters such as rate of steady state elongation, the time required for set-in of tertiary region, and time to complete fracture...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Birte Goldner, Stefanie Fischer, Ingo Nolte, Nadja Schilling
BACKGROUND: Lameness due to paw injuries is common in the clinical practice. Although many studies investigated gait adaptations to diseases or injuries, mainly of the hip and knee, our understanding of the biomechanical coping mechanisms that lame dogs utilize is limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the kinematic changes associated with an induced, load-bearing pelvic limb lameness in healthy dogs trotting on a treadmill. Kinematic analysis included spatio-temporal comparisons of limb, joint and segment angles of all limbs...
June 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Tobias B Grun, James H Nebelsick
The clypeasteroid echinoid skeleton is a multi-plated, light-weight shell construction produced by biomineralization processes. In shell constructions, joints between individual elements are considered as weak points, yet these echinoid skeletons show an extensive preservation potential in both Recent and fossil environments. The remarkable strength of the test is achieved by skeletal reinforcement structures and their constructional layouts. Micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy are used for microstructural and volumetric analyses of the echinoid's skeleton...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jason R Kang, Anthony W Behn, Joseph Messana, Amy L Ladd
PURPOSE: This study examined a palmar beak fracture model to determine which thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint ligament is the primary ligament relevant to the pattern of injury. METHODS: Six fresh-frozen cadaveric wrists were used. The radius, ulna, and first metacarpal were secured and tested with a materials testing system, holding the wrist in 20° extension, 20° ulnar deviation, and 30° palmar abduction of the first metacarpal. Testing consisted of preconditioning cycles followed by compressive loading at 100 mm/s...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
A R Tellegen, I Rudnik-Jansen, B Pouran, H M de Visser, H H Weinans, R E Thomas, M J L Kik, G C M Grinwis, J C Thies, N Woike, G Mihov, P J Emans, B P Meij, L B Creemers, M A Tryfonidou
Major hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA) are cartilage degeneration, inflammation and osteophyte formation. COX-2 inhibitors counteract inflammation-related pain, but their prolonged oral use entails the risk for side effects. Local and prolonged administration in biocompatible and degradable drug delivery biomaterials could offer an efficient and safe treatment for the long-term management of OA symptoms. Therefore, we evaluated the disease-modifying effects and the optimal dose of polyesteramide microspheres delivering the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in a rat OA model...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Yi-Long Dong, Yue-Nan Qian, Liang-le Liu, Xiang-Xiang Huang, Lin-Zhi Lin, Chun-Yuan Cai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanical stability of the acetabular fracture with three different internal fixation methods. METHODS: Sixteen both-column acetabular fracture models were randomly divided into three groups:The specimens of 16 hip joints were randomly divided into 4 groups. Among them, 1 group of complete acetabulum were used as normal control group, and the other 3 groups simulated two column fracture models and were fixed in the following methods, respectively: anterior wall with screw and posterior with plate(SP), anterior wall with plate and posterior wall with screw(PS) and both wall with plate (PP)...
May 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Ibrahim M Altubasi
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function...
June 7, 2018: Knee
Andrea Hemmerich, Emily Geens, Tara Diesbourg, Geneviève A Dumas
BACKGROUND: The biomechanics of mothers' birthing positions and their impact on maternal and newborn health outcomes are poorly understood. Our objectives were to determine the loads applied to the female pelvis during dynamic movement that may occur during childbirth; findings are intended to inform clinical understanding and further research on birth positioning mechanics. METHODS: An optical motion capture system and force platforms were used to collect upright and supine movement data from two pregnant and three non-pregnant participants...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Kyung-A Hwang, Jeong Eun Kwon, YooHun Noh, BongKyun Park, Yong Joon Jeong, Sun-Mee Lee, Se-Young Kim, InHye Kim, Se Chan Kang
Degenerative arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis (OA), is the most common type of arthritis, which is caused by degenerative damage of the cartilage, which primarily protects the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of treatment with ZPE-LR (90% EtOH extract of Zanthoxylum piperitum) on pain severity and inflammation. When using an in vivo OA model MIA (monosodiumidoacetate-induced arthritis) rats, ZPE-LR (100 mg/kg) oral-administratio significantly inhibited MIA-induced change in loaded weight ratio on the left foot, and articular cartilage thickness...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hong Liu, Shipeng Cui, Yiwei Liu, Yi Ren, Yongjun Sun
In this paper, a novel mechatronic design philosophy is introduced to develop a compact modular rotary elastic joint for a humanoid manipulator. The designed elastic joint is mainly composed of a brushless direct current (DC) motor, harmonic reducer, customized torsional spring, and fail-safe brake. The customized spring considerably reduces the volume of the elastic joint and facilitates the construction of a humanoid manipulator which employs this joint. The large central hole along the joint axis brings convenience for cabling and the fail-safe brake can guarantee safety when the power is off...
June 7, 2018: Sensors
Akira Hashiguchi, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Toshihiko Taguchi
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. PURPOSE: We examined the dynamic characteristics of different operative procedures using three-dimensional finite-element models. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Cervical laminoplasty is often selected for patients requiring multilevel spinal decompression. Many laminoplasty techniques have been developed and are continually being improved. METHODS: Images were extracted for the two intervertebral joints between C3 and C5 in domestic rabbits...
June 2018: Asian Spine Journal
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