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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050162/-two-stage-total-hip-arthroplasty-using-an-antibiotic-loaded-cement-spacer-for-infected-internal-fixation-of-hip-fractures
#1
X Li, M Ni, H Li, J L Song, X G Song, J Fu, K Liu, B Z Yu, J Y Chen
Objective: To evaluate the application and clinical results of two-stage total hip arthroplasty in the treatment of the deep hip infection following the internal fixation of hip fractures. Methods: From May 2007 to November 2014, 21 patients with active hip infection secondary to internal fixation of hip fractures were treated with two-stage total hip arthroplasty using a temporary antibiotic-loaded cement spacers. Of 21 cases, 15 were males and 6 were females, aged from 27 to 64 years (mean, 45); there are 18 cases of femoral neck fractures and 3 cases of intertrochanteric fractures...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049224/primary-stability-in-total-hip-replacement-a-biomechanical-investigation
#2
Paul Schmitz, Boyko Gueorguiev, Ivan Zderic, Christian Pfeifer, Michael Nerlich, Stephan Grechenig
BACKGROUND: In total hip replacement (THR), it is essential to achieve a primary stability to guarantee good long-term results. A novel locking screw hip (LSH)-stem, anchored to the medial cortex of the proximal femur by 5 monocortical locking screws, was developed to overcome the shortcomings of uncemented press-fit and cemented straight stems while simultaneously achieving primary stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical competence of the LSH-stem in comparison to an uncemented press-fit stem...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048929/the-effect-of-hamstring-tendon-autograft-harvest-on-the-restoration-of-knee-stability-in-the-setting-of-concurrent-anterior-cruciate-ligament-and-medial-collateral-ligament-injuries
#3
Thomas J Kremen, Landon S Polakof, Sean S Rajaee, Trevor J Nelson, Melodie F Metzger
BACKGROUND: A hamstring autograft is commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR); however, there is evidence to suggest that the tendons harvested may contribute to medial knee instability. HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the gracilis (G) and semitendinosus (ST) tendons significantly contribute to sagittal, coronal, and/or rotational knee stability in the setting of ACLR with a concurrent partial medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047735/quasi-single-crystal-fiber-acousto-optic-q-switched-tandem-dual-nd-yvo4-thin-rods-laser
#4
Wenqi Zhang, Yijie Shen, Yuan Meng, Mali Gong
An 888 nm pumped quasi-single-crystal-fiber (quasi-SCF) acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is experimentally demonstrated for the first time, where two closely jointed crystals with different side surface styles serve as a long thin medium to improve the pump absorption and alleviate thermal load. In continuous-wave operation, the highest output power can reach 38.7 W with corresponding optical-optical efficiency of 0.492. In Q-switched operation, the optical-optical efficiency increases from 0.347 to 0...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046440/innate-sensing-of-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-glycoproteins-by-the-host-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathway-triggers-a-potent-antiviral-response-via-er-associated-protein-degradation
#5
Dylan A Frabutt, Bin Wang, Sana Riaz, Richard C Schwartz, Yong-Hui Zheng
Innate immunity provides an immediate defense against infection after host cells sense "danger" signals from microbes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress arises from accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins when protein load overwhelms the ER folding capacity, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore the ER homeostasis. Here, we show that a mechanism for antiviral innate immunity is triggered after the ER stress pathway senses viral glycoproteins. When hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins from influenza A virus (IAV) are expressed in cells, ER stress is induced, resulting in rapid HA degradation via proteasomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046175/risk-factors-for-cervical-pain-in-f-15c-pilots
#6
Eric M Chumbley, Adrienne Stolfi, James C McEachen
INTRODUCTION: Many fighter pilots report cervical pain during their careers. Etiology likely relates to +Gz exposure, physical positioning with maneuvers, and varying load associated with headgear. We evaluated whether selected risk factors predicted cervical pain in this population. METHODS: An Institutional Review Board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, controlled crossover study of the use of home cervical traction was undertaken with 20 male F-15C pilots...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043566/clinical-evaluation-and-physical-exam-findings-in-patients-with-anterior-shoulder-instability
#7
REVIEW
Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Mohsin Fidai, Eric C Makhni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to provide an overview in evaluating the patient with suspected or known anteroinferior glenohumeral instability. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high rate of recurrent subluxations or dislocations in young patients with history of anterior shoulder dislocation, and recurrent instability will increase likelihood of further damage to the glenohumeral joint. Proper identification and treatment of anterior shoulder instability can dramatically reduce the rate of recurrent dislocation and prevent subsequent complications...
October 17, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037463/in-vivo-bone-strain-and-finite-element-modeling-of-a-rhesus-macaque-mandible-during-mastication
#8
Olga Panagiotopoulou, José Iriarte-Diaz, Simon Wilshin, Paul C Dechow, Andrea B Taylor, Hyab Mehari Abraha, Sharifah F Aljunid, Callum F Ross
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results...
September 1, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037443/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-the-cams-knee-data-set
#9
William R Taylor, Pascal Schütz, Georg Bergmann, Renate List, Barbara Postolka, Marco Hitz, Jörn Dymke, Philipp Damm, Georg Duda, Hans Gerber, Verena Schwachmeyer, Seyyed Hamed Hosseini Nasab, Adam Trepczynski, Ines Kutzner
Combined knowledge of the functional kinematics and kinetics of the human body is critical for understanding a wide range of biomechanical processes including musculoskeletal adaptation, injury mechanics, and orthopaedic treatment outcome, but also for validation of musculoskeletal models. Until now, however, no datasets that include internal loading conditions (kinetics), synchronized with advanced kinematic analyses in multiple subjects have been available. Our goal was to provide such datasets and thereby foster a new understanding of how in vivo knee joint movement and contact forces are interlinked - and thereby impact biomechanical interpretation of any new knee replacement design...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036861/task-intensity-influences-upper-limb-and-torso-kinematics-during-two-common-overhead-functional-capacity-evaluation-tasks
#10
Angelica E Lang, Clark R Dickerson
BACKGROUND: The Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) is a tool used in the return-to-work process to guide treatment and decision making. Individual abilities and maximum capacity can be determined through visual observations of changes in mechanics as intensity increases. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic differences between sexes and intensity levels of two common FCE tasks to establish normative behaviours. METHODS: Upper limb and torso kinematics were collected from 30 participants as they performed the overhead lift and overhead work FCE tasks...
October 8, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033502/biomechanical-model-based-evaluation-of-total-hip-arthroplasty-therapy-outcome
#11
Jörg Eschweiler, Julia Hawlitzky, Valentin Quack, Markus Tingart, Björn Rath
OBJECTIVE: Total-hip-arthroplasties are performed to treat patients with osteoarthritis. Surgical planning is usually based on specific radiographs. These information could also be used as data for biomechanical modelling. METHODS: Models are rarely used during clinical practice. Our aim was to analyze model-based the pre- and postoperatively hip-biomechanic. Pre- and postoperative X-rays of 30 patients were examined by using 4 biomechanical-models. RESULTS: The received results showed variations e...
December 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032864/dietary-variation-and-mechanical-properties-of-articular-cartilage-in-the-temporomandibular-joint-implications-for-the-role-of-plasticity-in-mechanobiology-and-pathobiology
#12
Matthew J Ravosa, Robert J Kane
Due to their nature as tissue composites, skeletal joints pose an additional challenge in terms of evaluating the functional significance of morphological variation in their bony and cartilaginous components in response to altered loading conditions. Arguably, this complexity requires more direct means of investigating joint plasticity and performance than typically employed to analyze macro- and micro-anatomical phenomena. To address a significant gap in our understanding of the plasticity of the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we investigated the histology and mechanical properties of condylar articular cartilage in rabbits subjected to long-term variation in diet-induced masticatory stresses, specifically cyclical loading...
August 25, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032549/detection-of-bioluminescent-borrelia-burgdorferi-from-in-vitro-cultivation-and-during-murine-infection
#13
Jenny A Hyde, Jon T Skare
Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is the leading tick-borne disease in the United States with approximately 300,000 cases diagnosed annually. Disease occurs in stages beginning localized infection at the site of a tick bite and progresses to disseminated infection when antibiotic treatment is not administered in a timely manner. A multi-systemic infection develops following dissemination to numerous immunoprotective tissues, such as the heart, bladder, and joints, resulting in late Lyme disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029863/changes-in-local-bone-density-in-early-thumb-carpometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis
#14
Joseph J Schreiber, Thomas J McQuillan, Eni Halilaj, Joseph J Crisco, Arnold-Peter Weiss, Tarpit Patel, Deborah Kenney, Amy L Ladd
PURPOSE: Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028621/combining-valgus-knee-brace-and-lateral-foot-wedges-reduces-external-forces-and-moments-in-osteoarthritis-patients
#15
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Anderson S Oliveira, Seyed Hamed Mousavi, Morteza Madadi-Shad
Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024567/subchondral-bone-plate-sclerosis-during-late-osteoarthritis-is-caused-by-loading-induced-reduction-in-sclerostin
#16
Haoruo Jia, Xiaoyuan Ma, Yulong Wei, Wei Tong, Robert J Tower, Abhishek Chandra, Luqiang Wang, Zeyang Sun, Zhaochun Yang, Farid Badar, Kairui Zhang, Wei-Ju Tseng, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Yang Xia, X Sherry Liu, James H-C Wang, Lin Han, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Ling Qin
OBJECTIVE: To establish an unbiased 3D approach that quantifies subchondral bone plate (SBP) changes in mouse joints and to investigate the mechanism that mediates SBP sclerosis at a late stage of osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: A new microCT protocol was developed to characterize the entire SBP thickness in the distal femur of a mouse knee. Four mouse models with severe joint OA were generated: cartilage-specific Egfr knockout (CKO) mice at 2 months after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), aged Egfr CKO mice, wild-type (WT) mice at 10 months after DMM, and WT mice after DMM plus hemisectomy of the meniscus (DMMH) surgery...
October 12, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017801/influence-of-increased-posterior-tibial-slope-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-knee-joint-biomechanics-a-computational-simulation-study
#17
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Yong-Gon Koh, Juhyun Son, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Jun-Sang Lee, Sae-Kwang Kwon
BACKGROUND: The reconstructed posterior tibial slope (PTS) plays a significant role in restoring knee kinematics in cruciate-retaining-total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A few studies have reported the effect of the PTS on biomechanics. METHODS: This study investigates the effect of the PTS on tibiofemoral (TF) kinematics, patellofemoral (PF) contact stress, and forces at the quadriceps, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and collateral ligament after cruciate-retaining-TKA using computer simulations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994758/using-gold-standard-gait-analysis-methods-to-assess-experience-effects-on-lower-limb-mechanics-during-moderate-high-heeled-jogging-and-running
#18
Yan Zhang, Meizi Wang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Gusztáv Fekete, Feng Ren, Yaodong Gu
A limited number of studies have explored lower-limb biomechanics during high-heeled jogging and running, and most studies have failed to clarify the wearing experience of subjects. This protocol describes the differences in lower-limb kinematics and ground reaction force (GRF) between experienced wearers (EW) and inexperienced wearers (IEW) during moderate high-heeled jogging and running. A three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system with a configured force platform was used to synchronously capture lower-limb joint movements and GRF...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994450/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-joint-diseases
#19
O Krupkova, J Zvick, K Wuertz-Kozak
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis...
October 10, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993704/interfacial-contact-stiffness-of-fractal-rough-surfaces
#20
Dayi Zhang, Ying Xia, Fabrizio Scarpa, Jie Hong, Yanhong Ma
In this work we describe a theoretical model that predicts the interfacial contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces by considering the effects of elastic and plastic deformations of the fractal asperities. We also develop an original test rig that simulates dovetail joints for turbo machinery blades, which can fine tune the normal contact load existing between the contacting surfaces of the blade root. The interfacial contact stiffness is obtained through an inverse identification method in which finite element simulations are fitted to the experimental results...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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