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Social Biological Psychiatry

Rebecca J Weber, Kenneth D Gadow
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Hane Htut Maung
In clinical medicine, a diagnosis can offer an explanation of a patient's symptoms by specifying the pathology that is causing them. Diagnoses in psychiatry are also sometimes presented in clinical texts as if they pick out pathological processes that cause sets of symptoms. However, current evidence suggests the possibility that many diagnostic categories in psychiatry are highly causally heterogeneous. For example, major depressive disorder may not be associated with a single type of underlying pathological process, but with a range of different causal pathways, each involving complex interactions of various biological, psychological, and social factors...
September 20, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Moritz E Wigand, Hauke F Wiegand, Nicolas Rüsch, Thomas Becker
BACKGROUND: T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land and A. Ginsberg's Howl are two landmark poems of the 20th century which have a unique way of dealing with emotional suffering. AIMS: (a) To explore the interplay between emotional suffering, conflicting relationships and societal perceptions; (b) to show the therapeutic effect of the writing process; (c) to analyse the portrayal of 'madness'; and (d) to discuss, in contemporary psychiatric terms, the 'solutions' offered by the poets...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Luna Rodrigues Freitas-Silva, Francisco Ortega
Understanding the processes involved in the development of mental disorders has proven challenging ever since psychiatry was founded as a field. Neuroscience has provided new expectations that an explanation will be found for the development of mental disorders based on biological functioning alone. However, such a goal has not been that easy to achieve, and new hypotheses have begun to appear in neuroscience research. In this article we identify epigenetics, neurodevelopment, and plasticity as the principal avenues for a new understanding of the biology of mental phenomena...
2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Magda Kaczor, Michał Skalski
Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
W Kawohl, C Wyss, P Roser, M Brüne, W Rössler, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration...
August 4, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Stephen Pow, Frank W Stahnisch
Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs...
July 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Frank W Stahnisch, Gül Russell
This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc...
July 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Antonio Ventriglio, Susham Gupta, Dinesh Bhugra
Human beings are social animals, and familial or social relationships can cause a variety of difficulties as well as providing support in our social functioning. The traditional way of looking at mental illness has focused on abnormal thoughts, actions and behaviours in response to internal causes (such as biological factors) as well as external ones such as social determinants and social stressors. We contend that psychiatry is social. Mental illness and interventions in psychiatry should be considered in the framework of social context where patients live and factors they face on a daily basis...
July 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
E Pompili, C Carlone, C Silvestrini, G Nicolò
This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk...
March 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Cheolmin Shin, Changsu Han, Chi-Un Pae, Ashwin A Patkar
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine is an emerging medical model that can provide accurate diagnoses and tailored therapeutic strategies for patients based on data pertaining to genes, microbiomes, environment, family history and lifestyle. AREAS COVERED: Here, we provide basic information about precision medicine and newly introduced concepts, such as the precision medicine ecosystem and big data processing, and omics technologies including pharmacogenomics, pharamacometabolomics, pharmacoproteomics, pharmacoepigenomics, connectomics and exposomics...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Alejandra Niño Amieva
The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social...
April 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
H Steinberg
This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s...
April 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Dinesh Bhugra, Antonio Ventriglio
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry as a discipline and as a profession stands at the cusp of major challenges in many areas including social, biological and psychological spheres. The practice of psychiatry is affected by ideologically driven policies by politicians, and the continuing long-lasting impact of the global economic downturn along with new developments in health care delivery. Changing biological factors include better understanding of brain structures and functioning and potential developments in psychopharmacogenomics...
June 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Amresh Shrivastava, Avinash Desousa
Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Mjajm Hoes
BACKGROUND: Here we propose a stress model with disease-specific aspects and aspecific factors. The latter are subdivided into load (perception, psychic defence mechanisms), strain (psychophysiological responses) and stress sensu strictu (biological and behavioural compensation). Insufficiently compensated strain will result in being sick and precipitation of a specific disease according to one's predisposition. In the clinical practice, multiconditionality requires a multidimensional analysis, the the five-axial DSM-system being designed especially for this purpose...
August 2002: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
D Souery, I Massat, J Mendlewicz
Advances towards the understanding of the etiological mechanisms involved in mood disorders provide interesting yet diverse hypotheses and promising models. In this context, molecular genetics has now been widely incorporated into genetic epidemiological research in psychiatry. Affective disorders and, in particular, bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) have been examined in many molecular genetic studies which have covered a large part of the genome, specific hypotheses such as mutations have also been studied...
September 2000: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
J A den Boer
A theoretical introduction is given in which several theoretical viewpoints concerning the mind-brain problem are discussed. During the last decade philosophers like Searle, Dennett and the Churchlands have taken a more or less pure materialistic position in explaining mental phenomena. Investigators in biological psychiatry have hardly ever taken a clear position in this discussion, whereas we believe it is important that the conclusions drawn from biological research are embedded in a theoretical framework related to the mind-brain problem...
September 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
M W Devries, C D Kaplan, P A Delespaul
Research in psychiatry could speeden its progress by taking the manifest heterogenity and variability of symptom expression within diagnostic groups more fully into account. Since Kraepelin symptom variation has been recognized to have both biological and environmental roots. If investigated systematically, such variations in illness experience will yield new subtypes that will provide greater insight into the onset, course and vulnerability of mental disorders. Studies ranging from population surveys to the laboratory have demonstrated that psychopathology is not randomly distributed in a population, nor is it constantly present in the lives of individuals...
June 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Des Fitzgerald, Nikolas Rose, Ilina Singh
This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such...
March 2016: British Journal of Sociology
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