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Social Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368227/intertwining-personal-and-reward-relevance-evidence-from-the-drift-diffusion-model
#1
A Yankouskaya, R Bührle, E Lugt, M Stolte, J Sui
In their seminal paper 'Is our self nothing but reward', Northoff and Hayes (Biol Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, Northoff, Hayes, Biological Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, 2011) proposed three models of the relationship between self and reward and opened a continuing debate about how these different fields can be linked. To date, none of the proposed models received strong empirical support. The present study tested common and distinct effects of personal relevance and reward values by de-componenting different stages of perceptual decision making using a drift-diffusion approach...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289963/treatment-guidelines-for-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders-of-the-polish-sleep-research-society-and-the-section-of-biological-psychiatry-of-the-polish-psychiatric-association-part-ii-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Adam Wichniak, Konrad S Jankowski, Michał Skalski, Krystyna Skwarło-Sońta, Jolanta B Zawilska, Marcin Żarowski, Ewa Poradowska, Wojciech Jernajczyk
AIM: Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. METHOD: Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246661/a-quantitative-approach-to-neuropsychiatry-the-why-and-the-how
#3
REVIEW
Martien J Kas, Brenda Penninx, Bernd Sommer, Alessandro Serretti, Celso Arango, Hugh Marston
The current nosology of neuropsychiatric disorders allows for a pragmatic approach to treatment choice, regulation and clinical research. However, without a biological rationale for these disorders, drug development has stagnated. The recently EU-funded PRISM project aims to develop a quantitative biological approach to the understanding and classification of neuropsychiatric diseases to accelerate the discovery and development of better treatments. By combining clinical data sets from major worldwide disease cohorts and by applying innovative technologies to deeply phenotype stratified patient groups, we will define a set of quantifiable biological parameters for social withdrawal and cognitive deficits common to Schizophrenia (SZ), Major Depression (MD), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD)...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236813/psychoanalysis-and-neurosciences-fuzzy-outlines-notes-on-the-notion-of-cerebral-plasticity
#4
Maria Jimena Mantilla
"Psychoanalysis versus psychiatry" and "unconscious versus brain" are classic oppositions between different perspectives on the human being and mental suffering. This article draws on certain elements of this discussion and reflects on how new ideas about the brain and biology favor closer interaction between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences. These questions are redefined through the notion of cerebral plasticity, by which the brain is open to interaction with the social environment and the influence of psychoanalytical therapy...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#5
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#6
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770885/a-survey-to-determine-motivating-factors-to-quit-opioids-in-treatment-seekers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
Muhammad Iqbal Afridi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of different motivating factors to quit opioid use. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2012 to February 2013, and comprised opioid users. Demographic data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire whereas motivational factor was assessed through a self-designed proforma. A motivational factor questionnaire was developed after a pilot study...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690149/creating-a-social-zeitgeber-to-synchronize-family-emotional-rhythms-a-new-therapeutic-approach-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#8
Matthias Wiss, Sylvie Tordjman
A family can be viewed as a system respecting the principle of homeostasis and therefore considered as a system in equilibrium or out of equilibrium, or even both simultaneously or consecutively. Within a family system, there are oscillatory phenomena and synchronization of the emotional, behavioral and relational rhythms of each member of the family system as well as synchronization of this system with others. A disruption of family synchronies, consisting of successive desynchronizations and resynchronizations, can take place in order for a change to occur...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#9
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660744/reconceptualizing-mental-disorders-from-symptoms-to-organs
#10
Mario Bunge
Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural...
June 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559368/a-crisis-of-meaning-can-schizophrenia-survive-in-the-21st-century
#11
Jerry Tew
Both within clinical and wider societal discourses, the term 'schizophrenia' has achieved considerable potency as a signifier, privileging particular conceptual frames for understanding and responding to mental distress. However, its status has been subject to instability, as it has lacked indisputable biological correlates that would anchor its place within the canon of medical diagnosis. Informed by a semiotic perspective, this paper focuses on its recent history: how 'schizophrenia' has been claimed, appropriated and contested-and how this connects with its earlier history of signification...
June 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492213/psychiatry-outside-the-framework-of-empiricism
#12
Celestine Okorome Mume
Science is interested in whatever that is empirical and objective. Any claim that cannot be objectively demonstrated has no place in science, because the subject does not deviate from the role, which it has set out to play in the life of mankind. Psychiatry, as a scientific discipline, plays along these basic principles. In the etiology, symptomatology, and management of psychiatric disorders, the biopsychosocial model recognizes the role of biological, psychological, and social factors. This essay views psychiatry from the biopsychosocial perspective and asserts that certain elements, which may not be readily and empirically verifiable, are important in the practice of psychiatry...
January 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347522/keep-calm-and-carry-on-mental-disorder-is-not-more-organic-than-any-other-medical-condition
#13
J A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Quiles, M Masson
Psychiatry as a discipline should no longer be grounded in the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders. This non-dualistic position refusing the partition along functional versus organic lines is in line with Jean Delay, and with Robert Spitzer who wanted to include in the definition of mental disorder discussed by the DSM-III task force the statement that "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders". However, it is interesting to note that Spitzer and colleagues ingeniously introduced the definition of "mental disorder" in the DSM-III in the following statement: "there is no satisfactory definition that specifies precise boundaries for the concept "mental disorder" (also true for such concepts as physical disorder and mental and physical health)"...
October 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#14
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
May 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#15
REVIEW
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
June 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131433/the-effect-of-mindfulness-meditation-training-on-biological-acute-stress-responses-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#16
Elizabeth A Hoge, Eric Bui, Sophie A Palitz, Noah R Schwarz, Maryann E Owens, Jennifer M Johnston, Mark H Pollack, Naomi M Simon
Mindfulness-Based interventions have increased in popularity in psychiatry, but the impact of these treatments on disorder-relevant biomarkers would greatly enhance efficacy and mechanistic evidence. If Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is successfully treated, relevant biomarkers should change, supporting the impact of treatment and suggesting improved resilience to stress. Seventy adults with GAD were randomized to receive either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class; before and after, they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
January 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856950/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-social-psychiatry
#17
REVIEW
Jacob Peedicayil
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence and is presently an active area of research in biology and medicine. There is increasing evidence that epigenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. AIMS AND METHODS: Several studies conducted to date have suggested that psychosocial factors act by modifying epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in the brain in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders...
February 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726054/relation-of-psychiatric-symptoms-with-epilepsy-asthma-and-allergy-in-youth-with-asd-vs-psychiatry-referrals
#18
Rebecca J Weber, Kenneth D Gadow
The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70...
August 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661409/diagnosis-and-causal-explanation-in-psychiatry
#19
Hane Htut Maung
In clinical medicine, a diagnosis can offer an explanation of a patient's symptoms by specifying the pathology that is causing them. Diagnoses in psychiatry are also sometimes presented in clinical texts as if they pick out pathological processes that cause sets of symptoms. However, current evidence suggests the possibility that many diagnostic categories in psychiatry are highly causally heterogeneous. For example, major depressive disorder may not be associated with a single type of underlying pathological process, but with a range of different causal pathways, each involving complex interactions of various biological, psychological, and social factors...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647604/personal-suffering-and-social-criticism-in-t-s-eliot-s-the-waste-land-and-a-ginsberg-s-howl-implications-for-social-psychiatry
#20
Moritz E Wigand, Hauke F Wiegand, Nicolas Rüsch, Thomas Becker
BACKGROUND: T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land and A. Ginsberg's Howl are two landmark poems of the 20th century which have a unique way of dealing with emotional suffering. AIMS: (a) To explore the interplay between emotional suffering, conflicting relationships and societal perceptions; (b) to show the therapeutic effect of the writing process; (c) to analyse the portrayal of 'madness'; and (d) to discuss, in contemporary psychiatric terms, the 'solutions' offered by the poets...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
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