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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471713/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-the-letter-project-advance-directive-to-traditional-advance-directive
#1
Vyjeyanthi S Periyakoil, Eric Neri, Helena Kraemer
BACKGROUND: Simpler alternatives to traditional advance directives that are easy to understand and available in multiple formats and can be initiated by patients and families will help facilitate advance care planning. The goal of this study was to compare the acceptability of the letter advance directive (LAD) to the traditional advance directive (TAD) of the state of California. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: A web-based, randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which the participants were randomized to one of two types of advance directives (ADs): the LAD (intervention) or the TAD (control)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418117/articulating-the-ideal-50-years-of-interprofessional-collaboration-in-medical-education
#2
Elise Paradis, Mandy Pipher, Carrie Cartmill, J Cristian Rangel, Cynthia R Whitehead
CONTEXT: Health care delivery and the education of clinicians have changed immensely since the creation of the journal Medical Education. In this project, we seek to answer the following three questions: How has the concept of collaboration changed over the past 50 years in Medical Education? Have the participants involved in collaboration shifted over time? Has the idea of collaboration itself been transformed over the past 50 years? METHODS: Starting from a constructionist view of scientific discourse, we used directed content analysis to sample, code and analyse 144 collaboration-related articles over the 50-year life span of Medical Education...
April 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379816/improving-family-medicine-with-thoughtful-research
#3
EDITORIAL
Anne Victoria Neale, Marjorie A Bowman, Dean A Seehusen
This issue is about improving primary health care outcomes, from behavioral health to opioid issues to diagnosing hypertension to providing hope for childhood obesity. It includes hints for integrating behavioral health and care managers into family medicine practices. Opiate prescribing practices vary considerably between Japan and the United States, with helpful insights for our opiate abuse epidemic. Suicidality is high among patients taking opiates. Diagnosing hypertension the recommended way is not easily accomplished...
March 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356489/how-shared-is-shared-decision-making-a-care-ethical-view-on-the-role-of-partner-and-family
#4
Inge van Nistelrooij, Merel Visse, Ankana Spekkink, Jasmijn de Lange
The aim of shared decision-making (SDM) is to provide information to patients in order to enable them to decide autonomously and freely about treatment together with the doctor, without interference, force or coercion by others. Relatives may be considered as hindering or impeding a patient's own decision. Qualitative-empirical research into lived experience of SDM of patients with cancer, however, problematises the patient's autonomy when facing terminal illness and the need to make decisions regarding treatment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353499/emotional-learning-and-identity-development-in-medicine-a-cross-cultural-qualitative-study-comparing-taiwanese-and-dutch-medical-undergraduates
#5
Esther Helmich, Huei-Ming Yeh, Chi-Chuan Yeh, Joy de Vries, Daniel Fu-Chang Tsai, Tim Dornan
PURPOSE: Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. METHOD: In fall 2014, the authors purposively sampled 22 clinical students from Taiwan and the Netherlands and asked them to keep audio diaries, narrating emotional experiences during clerkships using three prompts: What happened? What did you feel/think/do? How does this interplay with your development as a doctor? Dutch audio diaries were supplemented with follow-up interviews...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074588/care-under-the-influence
#6
Joseph J Fins, Samantha F Knowlton
A forty-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his wife at five in the morning, two hours after he fell down the stairs at home, hitting his head and injuring his arm. He tells the ER physician that he got up to get a drink of water and tripped in the dark. His speech is slurred, and he smells strongly of alcohol. Lab results reveal elevated liver enzymes, and his blood alcohol level is 0.1. His medical history is unremarkable. When asked about his alcohol consumption, he says he usually has one or two drinks a night with dinner but that he drinks more on holidays and special occasions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990834/-the-challenges-of-diagnostic-reasoning-or-how-doctors-think
#7
Marek Štefan, Aleš Chrdle
Basic overview of diagnostic errors with particular focus on cognitive biases and strategies to minimize or avoid them.
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981654/knowing-how-we-know-an-epistemological-rationale-for-the-medical-humanities
#8
Neville Chiavaroli
CONTEXT: Although their inclusion in medical curricula internationally is increasing, the medical humanities still face challenges to their role and place in the curriculum. Justifications supporting the inclusion of humanities content, methods and perspectives in medical curricula have generally been proposed along instrumental, intrinsic and critical lines. However, recent literature in the field has turned to 'ways of knowing' as representing an alternative, essentially epistemological, perspective on the matter...
January 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906527/behavioral-epigenetics
#9
REVIEW
David S Moore
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894438/how-doctors-think-common-diagnostic-errors-in-clinical-judgment-lessons-from-an-undiagnosed-and-rare-disease-program
#10
REVIEW
Robert M Kliegman, Brett J Bordini, Donald Basel, James J Nocton
The scientific process of analysis and deduction is frequently, often subconsciously, used by physicians to develop a differential diagnosis based on patients' symptoms. Common disorders are most frequently diagnosed in general practice. Rare diseases are uncommon and frequently remain undiagnosed for many years. Cognitive errors in clinical judgment delay definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing has helped identify the cause of undiagnosed or rare diseases in up to 40% of children. This article provides experiences with an undiagnosed or rare disease program, where detailed data accumulation and a multifaceted analytical approach assisted in diagnosing atypical presentations of common disorders...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843964/exploring-clinical-pharmacists-perception-of-their-impact-on-healthcare-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#11
Anas Mustafa Ahmed Salim, Arwa Hassan Ahmed Elhada, Bashir Elgizoli
OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of this study was to explore the self-perception of clinical pharmacists of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, Sudan, how they think doctors perceive their impact, exploring the obstacles that clinical pharmacists are facing, and identifying what clinical pharmacists recommend for a better clinical pharmacy practice in Sudan. METHODS: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study that employed a qualitative method. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of 26 clinical pharmacists working in 14 governmental hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan, in March 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713719/lay-explanatory-models-of-depression-and-preferred-coping-strategies-among-somali-refugees-in-norway-a-mixed-method-study
#12
Valeria Markova, Gro M Sandal
Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672123/calibrating-how-doctors-think-and-seek-information-to-minimise-errors-in-diagnosis
#13
EDITORIAL
Ashley N D Meyer, Hardeep Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658411/schwartz-centre-rounds-a-new-initiative-in-the-undergraduate-curriculum-what-do-medical-students-think
#14
Faye Gishen, Sophia Whitman, Deborah Gill, Rhiannon Barker, Steven Walker
BACKGROUND: Training to be a doctor and caring for patients are recognized as being stressful and demanding. The wellbeing of healthcare professionals impacts upon the wellbeing and care of patients. Schwartz Centre Rounds (SCRs), multidisciplinary meetings led by a trained facilitator and designed for hospital staff, were introduced to enhance communication and compassion, and have since been widely adopted as a way of fostering compassion. The continuum of education suggests that medical students need to develop these attributes in conjunction with resilience and maintaining empathy...
2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586217/perception-awareness-and-practice-of-research-oriented-medical-education-among-undergraduate-students-of-a-medical-college-in-kolkata-west-bengal
#15
Subhankar Chatterjee, Anjan Adhikari, Dibakar Haldar, Payel Biswas
BACKGROUND: The addition of research-oriented medical education (ROME) to the existing curriculum could promote logical thinking, rapid literature search and a better understanding of research methodology. Creation of research temperament could lead to innovations in healthcare. We assessed the perception, awareness and practice of ROME among undergraduate students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 234 students of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata selected by the simple random sampling technique...
March 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558271/how-do-medical-specialists-value-their-own-intercultural-communication-behaviour-a-reflective-practice-study
#16
E Paternotte, F Scheele, T R van Rossum, M C Seeleman, A J J A Scherpbier, A M van Dulmen
BACKGROUND: Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how purposefully medical specialists think they practise intercultural communication and how they reflect on their own communication behaviour. METHODS: Using reflective practice, 17 medical specialists independently watched two fragments of videotapes of their own outpatient consultations: one with a native patient and one with a non-native patient...
August 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557996/virtue-in-medical-practice-an-exploratory-study
#17
Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz, Hywel Thomas
Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor-like kindness, fairness and good judgement-have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education and throughout the medical career...
March 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515880/a-qualitative-exploration-of-how-patients-conceptualise-their-acupuncturists-technicians-caring-professionals-and-wise-healers
#18
Felicity L Bishop, George T Lewith
OBJECTIVES: To explore how patients conceptualise acupuncturists, the meanings ascribed to the therapeutic relationship and valued therapeutic behaviours. DESIGN: Qualitative study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews explored patients' experiences of acupuncture. A diverse sample of 35 participants took part; they had used acupuncture for a variety of predominantly chronic conditions. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify themes. SETTING: Southern England...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438158/doctors-as-makers
#19
COMMENT
Jay M Baruch
Traditional skills and expertise are not enough to prepare future physicians for the complexity, instability, and uncertainty of clinical practice. Responding and making meaning from ill-defined or unusual problems calls for, even demands, creativity. In this article, the author suggests expanding the traditional role of doctor as science-using, evidence-based practitioner to include that of doctor as a "maker" (creator) and artist. Such a reimagining requires a shift in how we view medical knowledge and patients' stories, as well as a new appreciation for "not-knowing" as a generative, creative space in medicine...
2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342973/professional-identity-formation-in-the-transition-from-medical-school-to-working-life-a-qualitative-study-of-group-coaching-courses-for-junior-doctors
#20
Lydia de Lasson, Eva Just, Nikolaj Stegeager, Bente Malling
BACKGROUND: The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period...
June 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
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