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Child develop questions

Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Tetsuya Ishii
Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Joan Garvan
BACKGROUND: Changes to gendered norms have been the single most significant development in the second part of the twentieth century; practices within families have mirrored these changes. Many, however, are falling by the wayside after the birth of an infant, with high rates of marital breakdown, high rates of anxiety and depression, and significant issues related to identity. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: The aim of this research was to gauge how a sample of Australian women were travelling through the Transition to Parenthood, particularly in terms of their relationships; sharing the care and housework; their life course; and their sense of self...
October 14, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Stephanie T Lanza, Sara A Vasilenko, Michael A Russell
Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), a statistical approach that enables researchers to estimate dynamic associations between variables across time, holds enormous potential to advance behavioral research. TVEM can address innovative questions about processes that unfold across different levels of time. We present a conceptual introduction to the approach and demonstrate 4 innovative ways to approach time in TVEM to advance research on the etiology of marijuana use. First, we examine changes in associations across historical time to understand how the link between marijuana use attitudes and marijuana use behavior has shifted from 1976 to present; gender differences in the relevance of attitudes diminished over time and were no longer significant after 2004...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Tigest Shifraw, Yemane Berhane, Hanna Gulema, Tamil Kendall, Anne Austin
BACKGROUND: Facility based delivery for mothers is one of the proven interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study identified women's reasons for seeking to give birth in a health facility and captured their perceptions of the quality of care they received during their most recent birth, in a population with high utilization of facility based deliveries. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in eight health centers in Addis Ababa...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
L Ezpeleta, R Pérez-Robles, K A Fanti, V Karveli, E Katsimicha, G Nikolaidis, M Z Hadjicharalambous, K Hatzinikolaou
BACKGROUND: Child abuse is a health and social problem, and few screening instruments are available for the detection of risk in primary health care. The aim was to develop a screening instrument to be used by professionals in the public health care sector, thus enabling the detection of infants and toddlers at risk of emotional and physical abuse and neglect, and to provide evidence for the feasibility of the instrument in Cyprus, Greece and Spain. METHOD: A total of 50 health professionals from paediatric public health-care centres in the three countries were involved in a three-step process for guiding the development of the screening tool and its application...
October 11, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Pierre Pratley
Research on the association between women's empowerment and maternal and child health has rapidly expanded. However, questions concerning the measurement and aggregation of quantitative indicators of women's empowerment and their associations with measures of maternal and child health status and healthcare utilization remain unanswered. Major challenges include complexity in measuring progress in several dimensions and the situational, context dependent nature of the empowerment process as it relates to improvements in maternal and child health status and maternal care seeking behaviors...
August 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Elisabeth Nilsson, Gunnar Svensson, Gunilla Hollman Frisman
Aim To develop and evaluate the use of a specific picture book aiming to prepare children for anaesthesia and surgery. Methods An intervention comparing two different information methods before ear, nose and throat day surgery was performed. The intervention involved using a specific information sheet and a specific picture book. Parents (n=104) of children aged 2-12 years completed open-ended questions that were analysed with qualitative content analysis. They were divided into two groups: one group received routine information and one received routine information and the intervention...
October 7, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
Leena Merdad, Kenneth Hill, Michael Levin
In many less developed countries, household surveys collect full and summary birth histories to provide estimates of child mortality. However, full birth histories are expensive to collect and cannot provide precise estimates for small areas, and summary birth histories only provide past child mortality trends. A simple method that provides estimates for the most recent past uses questions about the survival of recent births in censuses or large household surveys. This study examines such data collected by 45 censuses and shows that on average they tend to underestimate under-5 mortality in comparison with alternative estimates, albeit with wide variations...
October 6, 2016: Population Studies
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Rosario Moreno
Elopement exhibited by school-aged children with special health care needs is a relatively low frequency problem behavior with the potential for severe negative consequences for the child and family. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, our results represent one of the first empirical studies of variables that may be associated with children with special health care needs engaging in elopement. Using data from a nationally representative sample of children with special health care needs, our results revealed two variables that were statistically significant predictors of parent-reported elopement in the past year: (1) the child's chronological age, and (2) the presence of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Tommy Nyberg, Ida Hed Myrberg, Pernilla Omerov, Gunnar Steineck, Ullakarin Nyberg
BACKGROUND: Parents who lose a child by suicide have elevated risks of depression. No clinical prediction tools exist to identify which suicide-bereaved parents will be particularly vulnerable; we aimed to create a prediction model for long-term depression for this purpose. METHOD: During 2009 and 2010 we collected data using a nationwide study-specific questionnaire among parents in Sweden who had lost a child aged 15-30 by suicide in years 2004-2007. Current depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a single question on antidepressant use...
2016: PloS One
Margaret Benjamin Lyatuu, Temina Mkumbwa, Raz Stevenson, Marissa Isidro, Francis Modaha, Heather Katcher, Christina Nyhus Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Nicole Coles, Catherine Birken, Jill Hamilton
Severe obesity in childhood is increasing in prevalence and is associated with considerable morbidity. Studies into pediatric obesity have focused largely on interventions that do not necessarily target the unique biologic or psychological underpinnings for the weight gain in the individual child or adolescent. Outcomes show modest improvement and are of questionable benefit for patients with severe obesity. Although weight is a commonly used outcome, other psychological and metabolic parameters including normalization of physical activity and eating behaviors should be primary outcome goals...
September 29, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Alison Heck, Alyson Hock, Hannah White, Rachel Jubran, Ramesh S Bhatt
Adults exhibit enhanced attention to negative emotions like fear, which is thought to be an adaptive reaction to emotional information. Previous research, mostly conducted with static faces, suggests that infants exhibit an attentional bias toward fearful faces only at around 7months of age. In a recent study (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2016, Vol. 147, pp. 100-110), we found that 5-month-olds also exhibit heightened attention to fear when tested with dynamic face videos. This indication of an earlier development of an attention bias to fear raises questions about developmental mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this function...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Carole Vuillerot, Mickael Dinomais, Stephane Marret, Stephane Chabrier, Thierry Debillon
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) affects one child in 6-17 100,000-birth term neonates, most of these children will keep long-term motor and cognitive impairment. In 2014, initiated by the French Center for Pediatric Stroke in association with the French Society of Neonatology, a steering committee was created to propose clinical guidelines after NAIS. From all the relevant questions, the importance is given to long-term outcomes after a NAIS with a need for a better description of motor and cognitive outcomes after a NAIS in order to propose a more consensual monitoring for these children to improve their management...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Bryce B Reeve, Molly McFatrich, Laura C Pinheiro, Meaghann S Weaver, Lillian Sung, Janice S Withycombe, Justin N Baker, Jennifer W Mack, Mia K Waldron, Deborah Gibson, Deborah Tomlinson, David R Freyer, Catriona Mowbray, Shana Jacobs, Diana Palma, Christa E Martens, Stuart H Gold, Kathryn D Jackson, Pamela S Hinds
BACKGROUND: Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology trials is required, but current practice does not directly integrate the child's voice. The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) is being developed to assess symptomatic AEs via child/adolescent self-report or proxy-report. This qualitative study evaluates the child's/adolescent's understanding and ability to provide valid responses to the PRO-CTCAE to inform questionnaire refinements and confirm content validity...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Fleur A Le Marne, Hannah McGinness, Rob Slade, Michael Cardamone, Shirleen Balbir Singh, Anne M Connolly, Ann Me Bye
AIM: To develop and evaluate an online educational package instructing paediatricians and trainees in the diagnosis and management of a first unprovoked seizure in children. METHODS: The E-learning content was created following a comprehensive literature review that referenced current international guidelines. Rigorous consultation with local paediatric neurologists, paediatricians and epilepsy nurses was undertaken. A series of learning modules was created and sequenced to reflect steps needed to achieve optimal diagnosis and management in a real-life situation of a child presenting with a paroxysmal event...
September 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kristen Johannes, Colin Wilson, Barbara Landau
The prepositions in and on appear early in children's descriptions of simple containment and support relations, such as "apple in the bowl" and "cup on the table". However, mature use of these basic terms extends across a very broad range of object configurations, raising the question of whether children and adults share the same underlying semantic space, and if so, how children's use of in and on comes to match that of adults. With a new battery containing diverse object configurations, we asked how 4 and 6 year-olds and adults distribute basic spatial expressions (isin, is on) and lexical verbs (hang, attach, etc...
September 16, 2016: Cognition
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