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Ketamine And intensive care AND sedation

Tony Chung Tung Lo, Stephen Tung Yeung, Sujin Lee, Kira Skavinski, Solomon Liao
OBJECTIVE: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Hiroki Tateiwa, Hideki Iwata, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a recently identified but increasingly recognized autoimmune paraneoplastic disease. Because these patients present complex neuropsychiatric symptoms due to NMDA-R dysfunction, the optimal methods of sedation/anesthesia remain controversial. Here, we present animal experiment data, along with a related case report, implying the safe and effective use of dexmedetomidine in patients with anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. FINDINGS: (1) Animal experiment: in order to investigate whether dexmedetomidine may interfere with NMDA-R activity, an NMDA antagonist (MK-801) model in rats was used to simulate anti-NMDA-R encephalitis...
2016: SpringerPlus
Thomas R Scaggs, David M Glass, Megan Gleason Hutchcraft, William B Weir
Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is defined by marked agitation and confusion with sympathomimetic surge and incessant physical struggle, despite futility, which may lead to profound pathophysiologic changes and sudden death. Severe metabolic derangements, including lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, and hyperthermia, occur. The pathophysiology of excited delirium is a subject of ongoing basic science and clinical research. Positive associations with ExDS include male gender, mental health disorders, and substance abuse (especially sympathomimetics)...
October 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Jigar Patel, Rajesh Thosani, Jignesh Kothari, Pankaj Garg, Himani Pandya
BACKGROUND: The current era of fast-track extubation and faster recovery after cardiac surgery requires agents that provide perioperative sedation, suppress sympathetic response, reduce opioid requirement, and maintain hemodynamic stability. METHODS: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 75 off-pump coronary artery bypass patients were divided into 3 groups of 25 each: group A had clonidine 1 µg·kg(-1), group B had clonidine 1 µg·kg(-1) and ketamine 1 mg·kg(-1), and group C had a saline placebo...
September 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Scott T Benken, Alexandra Goncharenko
This report describes a patient case utilizing a nontraditional sedative, continuous infusion ketamine, as an alternative agent for intensive care unit (ICU) sedation. A 27-year-old female presented for neurosurgical management of a coup contrecoup injury, left temporal fracture, epidural hemorrhage (EDH), and temporal contusion leading to sustained mechanical ventilation. The patient experienced profound agitation during mechanical ventilation and developed adverse effects with all traditional sedatives: benzodiazepines, dexmedetomidine, opioids, and propofol...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Olfat Zekry, Stephen B Gibson, Arun Aggarwal
This study was designed to describe the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine infusions and sublingual ketamine lozenges for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Data were collected prospectively on 70 subjects managed in an academic, tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2012 who received between 3 and 7 days of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion. Data were analyzed for efficacy, adverse effects, and reduction in use of opioid medication. We also analyzed whether subsequent treatment with sublingual ketamine lozenges resulted in longer-term efficacy of the beneficial effects of the initial ketamine infusion...
June 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Maxim Roy, Nathalie Morissette, Martin Girard, Nicholas Robillard, Pierre Beaulieu
PURPOSE: We report a case of awake paralysis due to residual neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in the intensive care unit (ICU) in a patient following fast-track cardiac surgery. As a result of this case, we performed a prospective quality assurance audit to investigate the incidence of residual paralysis in the ICU in a similar population of cardiac surgery patients. CLINICAL FEATURES AND AUDIT METHODS: A 73-yr-old woman (69 kg) underwent coronary artery bypass surgery under anesthesia induced with intravenous sufentanil 25 µg, midazolam 5 mg, ketamine 25 mg, and rocuronium 100 mg (followed by two additional 50-mg doses during surgery) and maintained with sevoflurane...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Nichole K Ingalls, Bracken Armstrong, Marisa Hester, Jennifer J Hatzfeld, Bryce R H Robinson, Gerald R Fortuna
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a fluctuating disturbance in consciousness associated with increased mortality. Injured warriors represent a unique unstudied population. We hypothesized delirium is common because of high injury severity scores and multidrug sedation regimens. METHODS: Mandatory delirium screening using the confusion assessment method (CAM) was initiated at Craig Joint Theater Hospital in Bagram, Afghanistan. Data were collected in July to August 2012 from the first 50 English-speaking trauma patients with CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scores...
March 2016: Military Medicine
Douglas L Miller, Chunyan Dou, Zhihong Dong, Krishnan Raghavendran
The use of xylazine, a veterinary sedative, with ketamine for rat anesthesia has been shown to enhance the pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) effect of diagnostic ultrasound. This study was undertaken to assess whether the sedative/analgesic dexmedetomidine, commonly used in the intensive care unit, can also enhance ultrasound-induced PCH. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with various combinations of ketamine plus xylazine or dexmedetomidine. The dosage of dexmedetomidine was reduced for some groups to doses relevant to human clinical usage...
April 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Marc L Martel, Lauren R Klein, Robert L Rivard, Jon B Cole
BACKGROUND: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic with similar pharmacologic properties to droperidol. Due to the current droperidol shortage, the authors' clinical practice has been to substitute olanzapine for droperidol in many situations. At this time, olanzapine is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for oral and intramuscular (IM) use only, but due to its increased utility, intravenous (IV) olanzapine was recently approved for use in the study emergency department (ED)...
January 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Christine Jungk
Analgesia and sedation of patients in the neuro intensive care unit, in particular in case of intracranial hypertension, remains a challenge even today. A goal for analgesia and sedation should be set for each individual patient (RASS -5 in case of intracranial hypertension) and should be re-evaluated repeatedly based on standardized scores (RASS plus EEG monitoring where appropriate, NCS). There are no sufficient evidence-based sedation algorithms in this patient cohort. Remifentanil, sufentanil and fentanyl have been proven safe and effective for continuous application; however, bolus application should be avoided...
November 2015: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Nathan J Smischney, Rahul Kashyap, Ognjen Gajic
Endotracheal intubation is frequently performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). It can be life-saving for many patients who present with acute respiratory distress. However, it is equally associated with complications that may lead to unwanted effects in this patient population. According to the literature, the rate of complications associated with endotracheal intubation is much higher in an environment such as the ICU as compared to other, more controlled environments (i.e., operating room). Thus, the conduct of performing such a procedure needs to be accomplished with the utmost care...
September 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kathy A Sheehy, Julia C Finkel, Deepika S Darbari, Michael F Guerrera, Zenaide M N Quezado
Patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) can experience recurrent vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs), which are associated with severe pain. While opioids are the mainstay of analgesic therapy, in some patients with SCD, increasing opioid use is associated with continued and increasing pain. Dexmedetomidine, an α2 -adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative and analgesic properties, has been increasingly used in the perioperative and intensive care settings and has been shown to reduce opioid requirement and to facilitate opioid weaning...
November 2015: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
M S Raban, Y Joolay, A R Horn, M C Harrison
BACKGROUND: Intubation is a common neonatal procedure. Premedication is accepted as a standard of care, but its use is not universal and wide variations exist in practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current practices for premedication use prior to elective neonatal intubation in South Africa (SA). METHOD: We invited 481 clinicians to participate in a cross-sectional web-based survey. RESULTS: We received responses from 28...
December 2014: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Kanecia O Zimmerman, Christoph P Hornik, Lawrence Ku, Kevin Watt, Matthew M Laughon, Margarita Bidegain, Reese H Clark, P Brian Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe the administration of sedatives and analgesics at the end of life in a large cohort of infants in North American neonatal intensive care units. STUDY DESIGN: Data on mortality and sedative and analgesic administration were from infants who died from 1997-2012 in 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group. Sedatives and analgesics of interest included opioids (fentanyl, methadone, morphine), benzodiazepines (clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam), central alpha-2 agonists (clonidine, dexmedetomidine), ketamine, and pentobarbital...
August 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
M A Hieger, S R Rose, K L Cumpston, P E Stromberg, S Miller, B K Wills
Significant toxicity from amphetamine and cathinone derivatives is being increasingly reported. We describe a series of self-reported exposures to 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25-I-NBOME or 25-I), a novel amphetamine derivative. Ten patients with an average age of 17 years presented to local emergency departments (EDs) in our community after ingestion and/or insufflation of a drug referred to as "25-I." Of 10 patients, 6 reported taking 25-I alone; other substances included ethanol; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine; marijuana; and ketamine...
December 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Barbara Sinner, Oliver Friedrich, Regina Lindner, Anika Bundscherer, Bernhard M Graf
Ketamine and its stereoisomer S(+)-ketamine are widely used for sedation in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental studies indicate that ketamine is potentially toxic to the developing brain. Here, we examined the long-term effects of NMDA receptor blockade on NMDA receptor subunit expression, alterations in neuronal Ca(2+)-oscillations and apoptosis. Hippocampal neurons, 15 days in culture, were exposed to either S(+)-ketamine or the NMDA receptor blocker MK801 for 24h. Cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration was determined by fluorescence microscopy and the expression of the NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and 2B was assessed by qRT-PCR, whereas Western blots and activated Caspase-3 served to measure the extent of apoptosis...
July 3, 2015: Toxicology
Andrew Singleton, Robert J Preston, Amalia Cochran
The objective of this study was to assess current practice patterns and attitudes toward pediatric sedation and analgesia in United States (US) burn centers for critically ill patients. Survey-based questionnaire was sent to 119 Directors at US burn centers that care for pediatric patients. Forty-one surveys (34%) were analyzed. 48.8% of responding centers mandate pediatric consultation for pediatric burn patients based on factors such as age and burn size. The most common sedation and analgesic agents used were midazolam, fentanyl, morphine, ketamine, and diphenhydramine...
May 2015: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Nathan J Smischney, Sumedh S Hoskote, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Carlos J Racedo Africano, Perliveh M Carrera, Rudy Tedja, Jasleen K Pannu, Elizabeth C Hassebroek, Dereddi Raja S Reddy, Richard F Hinds, Lokendra Thakur
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is commonly performed as a life-saving procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is often associated with significant hemodynamic perturbations and can severely impact the outcome of ICU patients. Etomidate is often chosen by many critical care providers for the patients who are hypotensive because of its superior hemodynamic profile compared to other induction medications. However, recent evidence has raised concerns about the increased incidence of adrenal insufficiency and mortality associated with etomidate use...
2015: Trials
Riku Aantaa, Peter Tonner, Giorgio Conti, Dan Longrois, Jean Mantz, Jan P Mulier
BACKGROUND: We offer some perspectives and commentary on the sedation of obese patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). DISCUSSION: Sedation in morbidly obese patients should conform to the same broad principles now current in ICU practice. These include a general presumption against benzodiazepines as first-line agents. Opioids should be avoided in any situation where spontaneous breathing is required. Remifentanil is the preferred agent where continuous stable opioid levels using an infusion are required, because of its lack of context-sensitive accumulation...
2015: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
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