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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749057/how-long-a-life-is-enough-life
#1
Daniel Callahan, Willard Gaylin
Humans have long been troubled by the prospect of old age and its culmination in death. Whether to rebel against or accept this fate have been wrestled with down through the centuries. But new medical technologies and the growing science of aging have sided with rebellion. We know that aging can be pushed back and improved in its quality. That progress is well under way, but now intensified by many scientists and Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. In 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged three billion dollars toward eventually "preventing, curing or managing all diseases...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748774/exposure-to-parental-psychopathology-and-offspring-s-risk-of-suicide-related-thoughts-and-behaviours-a-systematic-review
#2
S M Goodday, J Shuldiner, S Bondy, A E Rhodes
AIMS: The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning...
July 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748176/global-epidemiology-of-dengue-outbreaks-in-1990-2015-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Congcong Guo, Zixing Zhou, Zihao Wen, Yumei Liu, Chengli Zeng, Di Xiao, Meiling Ou, Yajing Han, Shiqi Huang, Dandan Liu, Xiaohong Ye, Xiaoqian Zou, Jing Wu, Huanyu Wang, Eddy Y Zeng, Chunxia Jing, Guang Yang
Dengue is an arthropod-borne infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Approximately 50-100 million people are infected with DENV each year, resulting in a high economic burden on both governments and individuals. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information regarding the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and serotype distribution and risk factors for global dengue outbreaks occurring from 1990 to 2015. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases through December 2016 using the term "dengue outbreak...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747892/how-useful-is-electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-the-delineation-of-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Oana Gurau, William J Bosl, Charles R Newton
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormal neural connectivity. Presently, neural connectivity is a theoretical construct that cannot be easily measured. Research in network science and time series analysis suggests that neural network structure, a marker of neural activity, can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG). EEG can be quantified by different methods of analysis to potentially detect brain abnormalities. The aim of this review is to examine evidence for the utility of three methods of EEG signal analysis in the ASD diagnosis and subtype delineation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747293/improving-employee-well-being-and-effectiveness-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-web-based-psychological-interventions-delivered-in-the-workplace
#5
Stephany Carolan, Peter R Harris, Kate Cavanagh
BACKGROUND: Stress, depression, and anxiety among working populations can result in reduced work performance and increased absenteeism. Although there is evidence that these common mental health problems are preventable and treatable in the workplace, uptake of psychological treatments among the working population is low. One way to address this may be the delivery of occupational digital mental health interventions. While there is convincing evidence for delivering digital psychological interventions within a health and community context, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis of these interventions in an occupational setting...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747274/efficacy-safety-and-effect-on-sexual-behaviour-of-on-demand-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-observational-cohort-study
#6
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Catherine Capitant, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Eric Cua, Armelle Pasquet, Camille Bernaud, Claire Pintado, Constance Delaugerre, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Soizic Le Mestre, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Diane Ponscarme, Julien Fonsart, David Thompson, Mark A Wainberg, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Data for on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are scarce. We implemented a cohort study to assess its efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour. METHODS: We invited men and transgender women who have sex with men, previously enrolled in the randomised placebo-controlled ANRS IPERGAY trial at seven sites (six in France and one in Canada), to participate in an open-label extension with on-demand tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) to be taken before and after sexual intercourse...
July 21, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747202/knowledge-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-practices-related-to-healthy-lifestyles-among-adolescents-in-state-schools-of-a-selected-educational-division-in-sri-lanka
#7
A U Gamage, P L Jayawardana
BACKGROUND: Behaviors established during the adolescence have life-long consequences to the onset of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later life. Therefore, it is essential to understand adolescents' knowledge and practices with the intention of developing preventive programs focusing on this age group. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge about selected NCDs, and lifestyle choices among school students aged 17-19 years in state schools of the Maharagama Educational Division, Sri Lanka...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747160/adverse-events-in-women-and-children-who-have-received-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-treatment-a-systematic-review
#8
Farah Seedat, Chris Stinton, Jacoby Patterson, Julia Geppert, Bee Tan, Esther R Robinson, Noel Denis McCarthy, Olalekan A Uthman, Karoline Freeman, Samantha Ann Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Colin Stewart Brown, Aileen Clarke, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: Adverse events from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) are poorly documented yet essential to inform clinical practice for neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease prevention. In this systematic review, we appraised and synthesised the evidence on the adverse events of IAP in the mother and/or her child. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Science Citation Index from date of inception until October 16th 2016...
July 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747027/colchicine-for-prevention-of-post-cardiac-procedure-atrial-fibrillation-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Mohsin Salih, Aiman Smer, Richard Charnigo, Mohamed Ayan, Yousef H Darrat, Mahmoud Traina, Gustavo X Morales, Luigi DiBiase, Andrea Natale, Claude S Elayi
BACKGROUND: Development of atrial fibrillation after certain cardiac procedures is a common medical problem. The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of post-cardiac procedure atrial fibrillation (PCP-AF). Colchicine, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, has been used in several studies to reduce the risk of PCP-AF. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to assess the efficacy of colchicine in prevention of PC-PAF. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library database and Google Scholar for RCTs, using terms "Atrial fibrillation, atrial, or fibrillation and colchicine"...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744213/risk-factors-for-post-stroke-depression-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Yu Shi, Dongdong Yang, Yanyan Zeng, Wen Wu
Background: Stroke not only impacts patients physically but also economically. Post-stroke depression (PSD), as a common complication of stroke, always obstructs the process of stroke rehabilitation. Accordingly, defining the risk factors associated with PSD has extraordinary importance. Although there have been many studies investigating the risk factors for PSD, the results are inconsistent. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for PSD by evidence-based medicine. Data sources: A systematic and comprehensive database search was performed of PubMed, Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743333/-comprehensive-effect-of-subglottic-secretion-drainage-on-patients-with-mechanical-ventilation-in-icu-a-meta-analysis
#11
Xiaowen Sun, Jiale Zhang, Ting Jiang, Rui Tang, Xia Chen, Fen Liu, Kejian Qian, Rong Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the comprehensive effect of subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) on patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) in intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing SSD (intervention group) versus non-SSD (control group) in adult patients with MV in ICU was collected through the databases such as the PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, CNKI, Wanfang database and the Chinese journal of science and technology database (VIP)...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742839/flavonols-reduce-aortic-atherosclerosis-lesion-area-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
James Phie, Smriti M Krishna, Joseph V Moxon, Safraz M Omer, Robert Kinobe, Jonathan Golledge
Diets rich in flavonoids have been reported to have beneficial effects in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. There are limited data, however, on the cardiovascular benefits of purified flavonoids. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the reported effects of isolated flavonoids on aortic atherosclerosis in a mouse model. Medline, Pubmed, Science direct and Web of Science were searched to identify studies which examined the effect of isolated flavonoids on aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741519/cancer-prevention-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Barbara K Dunn, Barnett S Kramer
In this review, we address selected areas that are central to the state-of-the-art of cancer prevention science. The emphasis on prevention as a viable and critical approach to decreasing cancer mortality has gained traction in recent years, evidenced by its inclusion in the US Vice President's Cancer Initiative (also termed 'Moonshot'). Cancer prevention occurs by arresting, slowing down, or reversing the carcinogenic process before invasion into surrounding tissue or by avoiding or blocking causative exposure...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741410/how-can-precision-medicine-be-applied-to-temporomandibular-disorders-and-its-comorbidities
#14
Joan B Wilentz, Allen W Cowley
The Eighth Scientific Meeting of The TMJ Association, Ltd. was held in Bethesda, Maryland, September 11-13, 2016. As in the past, the meeting was cosponsored by components of the National Institutes of Health with speakers invited to review the state of temporomandibular disorder science and propose recommendations to further progress. The theme of precision medicine, which aims to tailor disease treatment and prevention to match the characteristics of an individual patient (genetic, epigenetic, environmental, lifestyle) underscored the current consensus that temporomandibular disorders are no longer viewed as local conditions of jaw pain and dysfunction...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739655/critical-issues-in-food-allergy-a-national-academies-consensus-report
#15
Scott H Sicherer, Katrina Allen, Gideon Lack, Steve L Taylor, Sharon M Donovan, Maria Oria
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened an expert, ad hoc committee to examine critical issues related to food allergy. The authors of the resulting report, "Finding a Path to Safety in Food Allergy: Assessment of the Global Burden, Causes, Prevention, Management, and Public Policy," evaluated the scientific evidence on the prevalence, diagnosis, prevention, and management of food allergy and made recommendations to bring about a safe environment for those affected. The committee recommended approaches to monitor prevalence, explore risk factors, improve diagnosis, and provide evidence-based health care...
July 24, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739196/developing-optimized-treatment-plans-for-patients-with-dyslipidemia-in-the-era-of-pcsk9-inhibitor-therapeutics
#16
James A Underberg, Michael J Blaha, Elizabeth J Jackson Msn, Peter H Jones
This educational content was derived from live, satellite symposium at the American College of Physicians (ACP) Internal Medicine Meeting 2017 in San Diego, California (online at http://courses.elseviercme.com/acp/702e). This activity will focus on optimized treatment plans for patients with dyslipidemia in the era of PCSK9 inhibitor therapeutics. LDL-C has been identified as an important therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerotic disease, however only 1 out of every 3 adults with high LDL-C has the condition under control...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738799/prevalence-of-head-lice-infestation-and-pediculicidal-effect-of-permethrine-shampoo-in-primary-school-girls-in-a-low-income-area-in-southeast-of-iran
#17
Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi, Mehdi Zare, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi
BACKGROUND: Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. METHODS: In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas...
July 24, 2017: BMC Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738541/research-progress-on-osteoarthritis-treatment-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Yun-Yao Gu, Jian Chen, Zhu-Long Meng, Wan-Yu Ge, Yang-Yang Bian, Shao-Wen Cheng, Chen-Kun Xing, Jiang-Ling Yao, Jian Fu, Lei Peng
Osteoarthritis is a common disease and is frequently encountered in the older population; the incidence rises sharply with age. It is estimated that more than 360 million people suffer from OA. However, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear, and we cannot effectively prevent the progression of OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signaling pathways that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. We searched, using the key words osteoarthritis, chondrocyte apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, molecular targets, and biomarkers, in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1994 to 2017...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738236/early-predictors-of-study-success-in-a-dutch-advanced-nurse-practitioner-education-program-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Ercolie R Bossema, Tineke H J M Meijs, Jeroen W B Peters
BACKGROUND: Study delay and attrition are major concerns in higher education. They cost time and effort, and threaten the availability of higher qualified professionals. Knowing early what factors contribute to delay and attrition may help prevent this. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether student characteristics, including a literature study report grade as a proxy of cognitive abilities, predicted study success in a dual advanced nurse practitioner education program...
July 15, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738015/observational-study-to-estimate-the-changes-in-the-effectiveness-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-with-time-since-vaccination-for-preventing-tuberculosis-in-the-uk
#20
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Lucy Trinder, Peter G Smith, Paul Em Fine, Jonathan Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Emilia Vynnycky, John Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Until recently, evidence that protection from the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination lasted beyond 10 years was limited. In the past few years, studies in Brazil and the USA (in Native Americans) have suggested that protection from BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) in childhood can last for several decades. The UK's universal school-age BCG vaccination programme was stopped in 2005 and the programme of selective vaccination of high-risk (usually ethnic minority) infants was enhanced...
July 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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