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Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Javier Pineda-Pampliega, Robert L Thomson, José I Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola, Simon Verhulst
Urbanization, one of the most extreme human-induced environmental changes, represents a major challenge for many organisms. Anthropogenic habitats can have opposing effects on different fitness components, for example, by decreasing starvation risk but also health status. Assessment of the net fitness effect of anthropogenic habitats is therefore difficult. Telomere length is associated with phenotypic quality and mortality rate in many species, and the rate of telomere shortening is considered an integrative measure of the 'life stress' experienced by an individual...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Francisco Javier Aznar, Jesús Servando Hernández-Orts, Gabriela Vélez-Rubio, Luis M Fernández, Nadia T Muriel, Juan Antonio Raga
BACKGROUND: At present, much research effort has been devoted to investigate overall ("average") responses of parasite populations to specific factors, e.g. density-dependence in fecundity or mortality. However, studies on parasite populations usually pay little attention to individual variation ("inequality") in reproductive success. A previous study on the acanthocephalan Corynosoma cetaceum in franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei, revealed no overall intensity-dependent, or microhabitat effects, on mass and fecundity of worms...
March 21, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
John T Doyle, Larry Kindness, James Realbird, Margaret J Eggers, Anne K Camper
Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Najib A Mozahem
Recently, researchers have started to pay more attention to a usually ignored topic: audience perceptions. Legitimacy, for example, is no longer modeled as the number of organizations in a population. It is now thought to be dependent on how audience members perceive these organizations. This paper will study how the newspaper industry in Lebanon emerged. The paper studies the period 1851-1879, building on the theoretic formulation of Hannan et al. (2007). The concept of cluster formation will also be introduced in order to help answer the question of whether unified identity projection is a necessary condition for successful legitimation and emergence...
March 2018: Heliyon
Muhammad Shoaib Siddique, Alvia Saad, Sana Shoaib
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in rapid virological response for chronic hepatitis C by qualitative PCR testing after treatment with sofosbuvir. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Memon Medical Institute Hospital, Karachi, from January to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of patients above 18 years, till 80 years of age, of both genders, having chronic infection with HCV...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Winnie Wing Yan Yuen, Albert Lee, Paul K S Chan, Lynn Tran, Erica Sayko
The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
Leslie Citrome
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) has long been thought to be a generally irreversible consequence of the use of dopamine receptor blocking agents. There is now an opportunity to successfully manage this condition with agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This is important because TD has not been eliminated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics, and the expansion of antipsychotics to treat conditions other than schizophrenia has resulted in millions of additional individuals at risk for developing TD...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
G V Papatheodoridis, A Hatzakis, E Cholongitas, R Baptista-Leite, I Baskozos, J Chhatwal, M Colombo, H Cortez-Pinto, A Craxi, D Goldberg, C Gore, A Kautz, J V Lazarus, L Mendão, M Peck-Radosavljevic, H Razavi, E Schatz, N Tözün, P van Damme, H Wedemeyer, Y Yazdanpanah, F Zuure, M P Manns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the European Union (EU). An estimated 5.6 million Europeans are chronically infected with a wide range of variation in prevalence across European Union countries. Although HCV continues to spread as a largely "silent pandemic," its elimination is made possible through the availability of the new antiviral drugs and the implementation of prevention practices. On 17 February 2016, the Hepatitis B & C Public Policy Association held the first EU HCV Policy Summit in Brussels...
March 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Jennifer Felicia Scheel, Katharina Schieber, Sandra Reber, Lisa Stoessel, Elisabeth Waldmann, Sabine Jank, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Franziska Grundmann, Frank Vitinius, Martina de Zwaan, Anna Bertram, Yesim Erim
Introduction: Non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication is regarded as an important factor for graft rejection and loss after successful renal transplantation. Yet, results on prevalence and relationship with psychosocial parameters are heterogeneous. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association of immunosuppressive medication non-adherence and psychosocial factors. Methods: In 330 adult renal transplant recipients (≥12 months posttransplantation), health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, social support, and subjective medication experiences were assessed, and their associations with patient-reported non-adherence was evaluated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Brenda L Beagan, Erin Fredericks
BACKGROUND: Gender parity is frequently raised as an equity issue in occupational therapy, with strategies proposed to recruit more men. PURPOSE: This article explores whether this is a legitimate equity concern. KEY ISSUES: Most employment is gender segregated; when gender balances change, the field either re-genders feminine or creates gender-segregated internal divisions. Men avoid feminized jobs because they pay less and hold less social status...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Janneke P Bil, Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Arjan Hogewoning, Fernando Dias Goncalves Lima, Henry J C de Vries, Udi Davidovich
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV infections, but is not yet implemented in the Netherlands. As the attitudes of health-care professionals toward PrEP can influence future PrEP implementation, we studied PrEP knowledge and beliefs and their association with PrEP acceptability among professionals in clinics for sexually transmitted infection (STI professionals) and HIV treatment centers (HIV specialists). In addition, we examined preferred regimens, attitudes toward providing PrEP to key populations and to reimbursement of PrEP costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Billy Millwee, Kevin Quinn, Norbert Goldfield
Medicaid can improve beneficiary health and help sustain its own future by embracing payment for outcomes. Good precedents exist from states such as Florida, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Medicaid outcome measures include preventable admissions, readmissions, emergency department visits, and inpatient complications; early elective deliveries; infant and child mortality; patient-reported outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence; and reduction in low-value care. Criteria to prioritize initiatives include potential savings, availability of established models, impact on health status, and Medicaid's ability to effect change...
April 2018: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Akiko Fuse
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the needs for and barriers to success of underrepresented students in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field and to determine factors linked to student persistence and academic achievement. METHOD: An online survey was completed by 126 undergraduates pursuing graduate studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders. Data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. RESULTS: Survey responses indicated that financial matters exerted the most influence on students' preparation for and number of choices for graduate-school applications...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Lisbeth Amarilis Hurtado, José E Calzada, Chystrie A Rigg, Milagros Castillo, Luis Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: Malaria has historically been entrenched in indigenous populations of the República de Panamá. This scenario occurs despite the fact that successful methods for malaria elimination were developed during the creation of the Panamá Canal. Today, most malaria cases in the República de Panamá affect the Gunas, an indigenous group, which mainly live in autonomous regions of eastern Panamá. Over recent decades several malaria outbreaks have affected the Gunas, and one hypothesis is that such outbreaks could have been exacerbated by climate change, especially by anomalous weather patterns driven by the EL Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Zhi-Dong Zhao, Peng-Cui Li, Xiao-Chun Wei
Up to now, surgical treatment of recurrent lateral patellar dislocation mainly includes: medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, tibial tubercle osteotomy, trochleoplasty, lateral retinacular release, derotation osteotomy and so on . Clinical reports show that: the use of a single or combined with several methods have achieved ideal short to mid-term clinical outcomes. However, there is no consolidate criterion concerning the choices of different kinds of surgical ways for the treatment of individual recurrent lateral patellar dislocation...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Lawrence O Gostin
It is staggering to observe the new normal in America: 37.9 percent of adults are obese, and 70.7 percent are either obese or overweight. One out of every five minors is obese. The real tragedy, of course, is the disability, suffering, and early death that devastates families and communities. But all of society pays, with the annual medical cost estimated at $147 billion. The causal pathways are complex, but if we drill down, sugar is a deeply consequential pathway to obesity, and the single greatest dietary source is sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Nick Heather
The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Charmaine Wright, Caren Steinway, Sophia Jan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transitioning adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions can be complex. Expert recommendations support a transition process that starts in early adolescence, provides continuous guidance and support and allows for care opportunities with patients and caregivers, with the patient alone and between paediatric and adult providers. As most of the guidance is focused on individual patients, providers and clinical programmes, much less is known about how health systems as a whole might support effective transitions of care...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Frank H Lawler, Frank R Wilson, G Keith Smith, Lynn V Mitchell
Background: Healthcare reimbursement, which has traditionally been based on the quantity of services delivered, is currently moving toward value-based reimbursement-a system that addresses the quantity, quality, and cost of services. One such arrangement has been the evolution of bundled payments for a specific procedure or for an episode of care, paid prospectively or through post-hoc reconciliation. Objective: To evaluate the impact of instituting bundled payments that incorporate facility charges, physician fees, and all ancillary charges by the State of Oklahoma HealthChoice public employee insurance plan...
December 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
Tia Powell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The anticipated number of persons with dementia continues to grow, and the US has insufficiently planned to provide and pay for care for this large population. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of significant clinical trials aiming to prevent or cure dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have not demonstrated success. Because of the lack of efficacious treatments, and the fact that brain changes associated with dementia may begin decades before symptoms, we can predict that efforts to cure or prevent dementia will not succeed in time for millions of people in the baby boomer generation...
February 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
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