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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448854/the-combined-use-of-analytical-tools-for-exploring-tetanus-toxin-and-tetanus-toxoid-structures
#1
Caroline Bayart, Sébastien Peronin, Elisa Jean, Joseph Paladino, Philippe Talaga, Marc Le Borgne
Aldehyde detoxification is a process used to convert toxin into toxoid for vaccine applications. In the case of tetanus toxin (TT), formaldehyde is used to obtain the tetanus toxoid (TTd), which is used either for the tetanus vaccine or as carrier protein in conjugate vaccines. Several studies have already been conducted to better understand the exact mechanism of this detoxification. Those studies led to the identification of a number of formaldehyde-induced modifications on lab scale TTd samples. To obtain greater insights of the changes induced by formaldehyde, we used three industrial TTd batches to identify repeatable modifications in the detoxification process...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442440/impact-of-dose-and-surface-features-on-plasmatic-and-liver-concentrations-of-biodegradable-polymeric-nanocapsules
#2
Líliam Teixeira Oliveira, Mônica Auxiliadora de Paula, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Giani Martins Garcia, Luan Silvestro Bianchini Silva, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Carina Silva de Paula, José Mário Carneiro Vilela, Margareth Spangler Andrade, Gwenaelle Pound-Lana, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira
The effect of polymeric nanocapsule dose on plasmatic and liver concentrations 20min after intravenous administration in mice was evaluated. Nanocapsules were prepared with different polymers, namely, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA), polyethylene glycol-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA-PEG), and PLA with chitosan (PLA-Cs) and compared with a nanoemulsion. These formulations were labelled with a phthalocyanine dye for fluorescent detection. The nanostructures had narrow size distributions upon separation by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation with static and dynamic light scattering detection, with average hydrodynamic diameters in the 130-300nm range, negative zeta potentials, except PLA-Cs nanocapsules, which had a positive zeta potential...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434162/isolation-of-astrocytes-displaying-myofibroblast-properties-and-present-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#3
Nicolas Vedrenne, Vincent Sarrazy, Laurence Richard, Nelly Bordeau, Serge Battu, Fabrice Billet, Alexis Desmoulière
A wide heterogeneity of lesions can affect the central nervous system (CNS). In all situations where neurons are damaged, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a common reactive astrocytosis is present. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was used to sort astrocyte subpopulations. After SdFFF elution, cells, prepared from rat newborn cortex, were cultured and analyzed by immunocytofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle (SM) actin (a specific marker for myofibroblasts) expression...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433590/low-dose-out-of-field-radiotherapy-part-3-qualitative-and-quantitative-impact-of-scattered-out-of-field-radiation-on-mda-mb-231-cell-lines
#4
K Zaleska, W M Suchorska, A Kowalik, M Kruszyna, W Jackowiak, A Skrobala, M Skorska, J Malicki
PURPOSE: Patients who undergo external beam radiotherapy are at risk of developing second tumours due to scattered radiation outside the path of the primary beam. The aim of this study was to experimentally determine the in vitro radiobiological effects of scattered radiation in cells located outside the primary photon beam and to compare this to the effects that occur in cells inside the primary beam. The comparison was performed by assessing cell viability, DNA damage, and apoptosis...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415375/nonlinear-monte-carlo-model-of-superdiffusive-shock-acceleration-with-magnetic-field-amplification
#5
Andrei M Bykov, Donald C Ellison, Sergei M Osipov
Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403214/antibody-independent-capture-of-circulating-tumor-cells-of-non-epithelial-origin-with-the-apostream%C3%A2-system
#6
Priya Balasubramanian, Robert J Kinders, Shivaani Kummar, Vishal Gupta, David Hasegawa, Anoop Menachery, Scott M Lawrence, Lihua Wang, Katherine Ferry-Galow, Darren Davis, Ralph E Parchment, Joseph E Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly employed for research and clinical monitoring of cancer, though most current methods do not permit the isolation of non-epithelial tumor cells. Furthermore, CTCs isolated with antibody-dependent methods are not suitable for downstream experimental uses, including in vitro culturing and implantation in vivo. In the present study, we describe the development, validation, and transfer across laboratories of a new antibody-independent device for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples of patients with various cancer diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400065/semi-preparative-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation-a-closer-look-at-channel-dimensions-and-separation-performance
#7
Carmen R M Bria, Patrick W Skelly, James R Morse, Raymond E Schaak, S Kim Ratanathanawongs Williams
The design and performance of a semi-preparative asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (SP-AF4) channel are investigated with the objective of better understanding and exploiting the relationship between channel dimensions, sample loading, and resolution. Most size-based separations of nanometer and submicrometer particles are currently limited to analytical scale quantities (<100μg). However, there is a strong need to fractionate and collect larger quantities so that fundamental properties of the more narrowly dispersed fractions can be studied using additional characterization methods and for subsequent applications...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397851/structural-and-magnetic-properties-of-multi-core-nanoparticles-analysed-using-a-generalised-numerical-inversion-method
#8
P Bender, L K Bogart, O Posth, W Szczerba, S E Rogers, A Castro, L Nilsson, L J Zeng, A Sugunan, J Sommertune, A Fornara, D González-Alonso, L Fernández Barquín, C Johansson
The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic multi-core particles were determined by numerical inversion of small angle scattering and isothermal magnetisation data. The investigated particles consist of iron oxide nanoparticle cores (9 nm) embedded in poly(styrene) spheres (160 nm). A thorough physical characterisation of the particles included transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Their structure was ultimately disclosed by an indirect Fourier transform of static light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering data of the colloidal dispersion...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388164/pair-mobility-functions-for-rigid-spheres-in-concentrated-colloidal-dispersions-stresslet-and-straining-motion-couplings
#9
Yu Su, James W Swan, Roseanna N Zia
Accurate modeling of particle interactions arising from hydrodynamic, entropic, and other microscopic forces is essential to understanding and predicting particle motion and suspension behavior in complex and biological fluids. The long-range nature of hydrodynamic interactions can be particularly challenging to capture. In dilute dispersions, pair-level interactions are sufficient and can be modeled in detail by analytical relations derived by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [Phys...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365074/ultraviolet-b-radiation-mobilizes-uranium-from-uranium-dissolved-organic-carbon-complexes-in-aquatic-systems-demonstrated-by-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#10
Sachin Vilas Nehete, Terje Christensen, Brit Salbu, Hans-Christian Teien
Humic substances have a tendency to form complexes with metal ions in aquatic medium, impacting the metal mobility, decreasing bioavailability and toxicity. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation exposure degrades the humic substance, changes their molecular weight distribution and their metal binding capacity in aquatic medium. In this study, we experimented the effect of UV-B radiation on the uranium complexed with fulvic acids and humic acids in a soft water system at different pH, uranium concentrations and radiant exposure...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352171/the-influence-of-surface-charge-on-serum-protein-interaction-and-cellular-uptake-studies-with-dendritic-polyglycerols-and-dendritic-polyglycerol-coated-gold-nanoparticles
#11
Tony Bewersdorff, Jonathan Vonnemann, Asiye Kanik, Rainer Haag, Andrea Haase
Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained huge interest in the medical field, in particular for drug delivery purposes. However, binding of proteins often leads to fast NP uptake and rapid clearance, thereby hampering medical applications. Thus, it is essential to determine and control the bio-nano interface. This study investigated the serum protein interactions of dendritic polyglycerols (dPGs), which are promising drug delivery candidates by means of two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in combination with mass spectrometry...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339192/a-novel-exposure-system-termed-navetta-for-in-vitro-laminar-flow-electrodeposition-of-nanoaerosol-and-evaluation-of-immune-effects-in-human-lung-reporter-cells
#12
Evelien Frijns, Sandra Verstraelen, Linda Corinna Stoehr, Jo van Laer, An Jacobs, Jan Peters, Kristof Tirez, Matthew Boyles, Mark Geppert, Pierre Madl, Inge Nelissen, Albert Duschl, Martin Himly
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cells exposed at the ALI. Electrostatic field assistance is applied to improve NP deposition efficiency. As proof-of-principle, cell viability and immune responses after short-term exposure to nano-copper oxide (CuO)-aerosol were determined...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315484/probing-fast-ribozyme-reactions-under-biological-conditions-with-rapid-quench-flow-kinetics
#13
Jamie L Bingaman, Kyle J Messina, Philip C Bevilacqua
Reaction kinetics on the millisecond timescale pervade the protein and RNA fields. To study such reactions, investigators often perturb the system with abiological solution conditions or substrates in order to slow the rate to timescales accessible by hand mixing; however, such perturbations can change the rate-limiting step and obscure key folding and chemical steps that are found under biological conditions. Mechanical methods for collecting data on the millisecond timescale, which allow these perturbations to be avoided, have been developed over the last few decades...
March 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290585/size-and-property-bimodality-in-magnetic-nanoparticle-dispersions-single-domain-particles-vs-strongly-coupled-nanoclusters
#14
E Wetterskog, A Castro, L Zeng, S Petronis, D Heinke, E Olsson, L Nilsson, N Gehrke, P Svedlindh
The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters...
March 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290362/study-on-external-factors-affecting-egg-yolk-plasma-by-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#15
Haiyang Dou, Xiaoyue Zhang, Aixia Zhang, Jaeyeong Choi, Jing Wang, Shigang Shen, Wenhui Zhang, Yueqiu Li, Liang Ding, Seungho Lee
In this work, the ability of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-vis, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) (AF4-UV-MALS-QELS) for monitoring aggregation of components of egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The effect of external factors (i.e., pH, storage conditions, freezing and heat treatments) on the egg yolk plasma was studied. The results reveal that the aggregation mechanism of components of egg yolk plasma during heat and freezing treatment is different...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288312/evaluation-of-thermally-modified-calcium-rich-attapulgite-as-a-low-cost-substrate-for-rapid-phosphorus-removal-in-constructed-wetlands
#16
Hongbin Yin, Xiaowei Yan, Xiaohong Gu
The cost-effective and geographically available substrates are vital for the design of constructed wetlands (CWs), especially the saturated subsurface flow CWs, which are deemed as an efficient way to remove the inlet-lake phosphorus concentrations. In this study, phosphorus removal of thermally-treated calcium-rich attapulgite (TCAP) with varied particle sizes (0.2-0.5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 1-2 mm) was assessed using batch and long-term column experiments to evaluate its feasibility as a CWs substrate. The phosphorus-bound mechanism in TCAP was identified in various initial phosphorus concentrations...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272897/magnetic-switching-in-granular-fept-layers-promoted-by-near-field-laser-enhancement
#17
Patrick W Granitzka, Emmanuelle Jal, Loïc Le Guyader, Matteo Savoini, Daniel J Higley, Tianmin Liu, Zhao Chen, Tyler Chase, Hendrik Ohldag, Georgi L Dakovski, William F Schlotter, Sebastian Carron, Matthias C Hoffman, Alexander X Gray, Padraic Shafer, Elke Arenholz, Olav Hellwig, Virat Mehta, Yukiko K Takahashi, Jian Wang, Eric E Fullerton, Joachim Stöhr, Alexander H Reid, Hermann A Dürr
Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale in magnetic materials is a topic of intense research in view of potential applications in next-generation high-density magnetic recording. Laser-assisted switching provides a pathway for overcoming the material constraints of high-anisotropy and high-packing density media, though much about the dynamics of the switching process remains unexplored. We use ultrafast small-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser to probe the magnetic switching dynamics of FePt nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix following excitation by an optical femtosecond laser pulse...
March 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269446/current-distribution-in-tissues-with-conducted-electrical-weapons-operated-in-drive-stun-mode
#18
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave
INTRODUCTION: The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227692/current-distribution-in-tissues-with-conducted-electrical-weapons-operated-in-drive-stun-mode
#19
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave, Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave, Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave
INTRODUCTION: The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211739/microscopic-description-of-the-granular-fluidity-field-in-nonlocal-flow-modeling
#20
Qiong Zhang, Ken Kamrin
A recent granular rheology based on an implicit "granular fluidity" field has been shown to quantitatively predict many nonlocal phenomena. However, the physical nature of the field has not been identified. Here, the granular fluidity is found to be a kinematic variable given by the velocity fluctuation and packing fraction. This is verified with many discrete element simulations, which show that the operational fluidity definition, solutions of the fluidity model, and the proposed microscopic formula all agree...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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