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field flow fractionation

Wei Z Wang
: Both adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) have been demonstrated to have regenerative properties with therapeutic potential for numerous diseases through local or topical applications. However, it is unclear whether ASC or SVF can be delivered systemically through an intra-arterial infusion. The purpose of this study was to examine the microcirculatory response in vivo on local intraarterial infusion of autogenic ASCs or SVF in a vascular pedicle isolated rat cremaster microcirculation model...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Catia Contado, Roberto Argazzi, Vincenzo Amendola
Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPRMAX), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Stephan Holzschuh, Kathrin Kaeß, Guilherme Volpe Bossa, Christiane Decker, Alfred Fahr, Sylvio May
Liposomal delivery constitutes a promising approach for i.v. administration of mTHPC because lipid membranes can host these drug molecules. This study investigates the transfer and release of temoporfin (mTHPC) to plasma proteins and stability of various liposomal formulations. To this end, we employed traces of radioactive markers and studied the effects of fatty acid chain length and the degree of saturation in the lipophilic tail, addition of cholesterol, and PEGylation of the membrane surface and different drug-to-lipid ratios...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Xiaojing Fu, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso, Ruben Juanes
We study the evolution of binary mixtures far from equilibrium, and show that the interplay between phase separation and hydrodynamic instability can arrest the Ostwald ripening process characteristic of nonflowing mixtures. We describe a model binary system in a Hele-Shaw cell using a phase-field approach with explicit dependence of both phase fraction and mass concentration. When the viscosity contrast between phases is large (as is the case for gas and liquid phases), an imposed background flow leads to viscous fingering, phase branching, and pinch off...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Wei Li, Yingpeng Guo, Aixiang Zhang, Huaigu Chen
Sharp eyespot on wheat is caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group D subgroup I (AG-DI) and is an economically important stem-base disease of wheat in temperate regions worldwide. However, the understanding about the field population structure of R. cerealis is limited. In this study, the genetic structure of four wheat-infecting populations in China was investigated using six microsatellite markers characterized from the transcriptome data of R. cerealis AG-DI. A total of 173 unique genotypes were identified among 235 fungal isolates...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
Dalila Vescovi, Stefan Luding
Simple homogeneous shear flows of frictionless, deformable particles are studied by particle simulations at large shear rates and for differently soft, deformable particles. Particle stiffness sets a time-scale that can be used to scale the physical quantities; thus the dimensionless shear rate, i.e. the inertial number I (inversely proportional to pressure), can alternatively be expressed as inversely proportional to the square root of particle stiffness. Asymptotic scaling relations for the field variables pressure, shear stress and granular temperature are inferred from simulations in both fluid and solid regimes, corresponding to unjammed and jammed conditions...
September 26, 2016: Soft Matter
Monica Mattarozzi, Michele Suman, Claudia Cascio, Davide Calestani, Stefan Weigel, Anna Undas, Ruud Peters
Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information...
October 3, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Katri Eskelin, Mirka Lampi, Florian Meier, Evelin Moldenhauer, Dennis H Bamford, Hanna M Oksanen
Detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization of viruses requires viral preparations of high quantity and purity. The optimization of virus production and purification is an essential, but laborious and time-consuming process. Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is an attractive alternative method for virus purification because it is a rapid and gentle separation method that should preserve viral infectivity. Here we optimized the AF4 conditions to be used for purification of a model virus, bacteriophage PRD1, from various types of starting materials...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kelvin J Richards
Viruses are known to impact blooms of phytoplankton in the ocean, in some cases causing the bloom to crash. Here, using a population model that includes viral infection, we investigate the conditions under which the presence of a virus significantly impacts the population dynamics. A major focus is how spatial variability influences the spread of an epidemic in a stirring and mixing field. The combination of viral infection and diffusion can cause waves of the epidemic to sweep through the domain, with the epidemic lasting much longer than in the homogeneous case...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Richard d'Arcy, Arianna Gennari, Roberto Donno, Nicola Tirelli
Families of amphiphilic oxidation-responsive polymers (poly(ethylene glycol)-polysulfides) with different architectures (linear, 4, 6, and 8-armed stars and 10, 15, and 20-armed combs) and compositions (variable ethylene sulfide/propylene sulfide ratio) are prepared. In water, all the polymers assemble in spherical micelles, with critical micellar concentrations <0.01 mg mL(-1) for all the branched polymers. Triple-detection gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) with dynamic and static light scattering detection, respectively, show an increasing compaction of the polymeric coil and a strong reduction of the aggregation number with increasing degree of branching...
September 27, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Aljosha-Rakim Jochem, Genesis Ngwa Ankah, Lars-Arne Meyer, Stephan Elsenberg, Christoph Johann, Tobias Kraus
Flow field-flow fractionation is a powerful method for the analysis of nanoparticle size distributions, but its widespread use has been hampered by large analyte losses, especially of metal nanoparticles. Here, we report on the colloidal mechanisms underlying the losses. We systematically studied gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) during asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) by systematic variation of the particle properties and the eluent composition. Recoveries of AuNPs (core diameter 12 nm) stabilized by citrate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different ionic strengths were determined...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Raluca G Chelu, Kevin W Wanambiro, Albert Hsiao, Laurens E Swart, Teun Voogd, Allard T van den Hoven, Matthijs van Kranenburg, Adriaan Coenen, Sara Boccalini, Piotr A Wielopolski, Mika W Vogel, Gabriel P Krestin, Shreyas S Vasanawala, Ricardo P J Budde, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Koen Nieman
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated a cloud-based platform for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) four-dimensional (4D) flow imaging, with fully integrated correction for eddy currents, Maxwell phase effects, and gradient field non-linearity, to quantify forward flow, regurgitation, and peak systolic velocity over the pulmonary artery. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 52 adult patients during one-year period from July 2014. The 4D flow and planar (2D) phase-contrast (PC) were acquired during same scanning session, but 4D flow was scanned after injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent...
October 2016: European Journal of Radiology
J Omar, A Boix, G Kerckhove, C von Holst
Titanium dioxide has various applications in consumer products and is also used as an additive in food and feeding stuffs. For the characterisation of this product, including the determination of nanoparticles, there is a strong need for the availability of corresponding methods of analysis. In this work, an optimisation process for the characterisation of polydisperse coated TiO2 nanoparticles is presented. As a first step, probe ultrasonication was optimised using a central composite design in which the amplitude and time were the selected variables to disperse, i...
September 21, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Chad Tang, James W Welsh, Patricia de Groot, Erminia Massarelli, Joe Y Chang, Kenneth R Hess, Sreyashi Basu, Michael A Curran, Maria E Cabanillas, Vivek Subbiah, Siqing Fu, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Daniel Karp, Daniel R Gomez, Adi Diab, Ritsuko Komaki, Padmanee Sharma, Aung Naing, David S Hong
PURPOSE: Little prospective data is available on clinical outcomes and immune correlates from combination radiation and immunotherapy. We conducted a phase I trial (NCT02239900) testing stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) with ipilimumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: SABR was given either concurrently (1 day after the first dose) or sequentially (1 week after the second dose) with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses) to 5 treatment groups: concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; and sequential 60 Gy (in 10 fractions) to lung or liver...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jeong-Yub Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Nam Kim, Jong Hwa Kwon, Myung-Jin Park
PURPOSE: To define the impact of radiofrequency (RF) under in vitro experimental Alzheimer's disease conditions, we investigated the effect of RF radiation on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell survival rate was measured by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. Cell cycle distribution, cell death, and ROS production were analyzed using flow cytometry. Expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blot...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jin Yong Kim, Heung Bin Lim, Myeong Hee Moon
Metalloproteins (metal-binding proteins) refer to proteins containing metal ion cofactors. The importance of these proteins has increased owing to their involvement in many biological processes. Here, we introduce an analytical platform based on online coupling of miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (mAF4) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for size separation of proteins followed by the detection of metals associated with plasma metalloproteins. Not only did the mild separation of mAF4 get carried out in a biological buffer solution to minimize disruption of the metal-complex structure but free metal ions and salts from complicated biological samples were also removed during separation by crossflow...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
T Matthias, P Jeremias, S Neidhöfer, A Lerner
Microbial transglutaminase (mTg) is capable of cross-linking numerous molecules. It is a family member of human tissue transglutaminase (tTg), and is involved in CD. Despite declarations of the safety of mTg for industrial use, direct evidence for immunogenicity of the enzyme is lacking. The serological activity of mTg, tTg, gliadin complexed mTg (mTg neo-epitope) and gliadin complexed tTg (tTg neo-epitope) were studied in 95 pediatric celiac patients (CD), 99 normal children (NC), 79 normal adults (NA) and 45 children with nonspecific abdominal pain (AP)...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Carlos Urey, Victor U Weiss, Andreas Gondikas, Frank von der Kammer, Thilo Hofmann, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Günter Allmaier, György Marko-Varga, Roland Andersson
For drug delivery, characterization of liposomes regarding size, particle number concentrations, occurrence of low-sized liposome artefacts and drug encapsulation are of importance to understand their pharmacodynamic properties. In our study, we aimed to demonstrate the applicability of nano Electrospray Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analyser (nES GEMMA) as a suitable technique for analyzing these parameters. We measured number-based particle concentrations, identified differences in size between nominally identical liposomal samples, and detected the presence of low-diameter material which yielded bimodal particle size distributions...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
John M Pettibone, Jingyu Liu
To probe the transformation pathways of metallic nanomaterials, measurement tools capable of detecting and characterizing the broad distribution of products with limited perturbation are required. Here, we demonstrate the detection of transformation products resulting from 40 kDa PVP-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reacted in aerated, sulfide-containing water and EPA moderately hard reconstituted water standard. Using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, silver mass preservation in primary AgNP populations during sulfidation was observed under all reaction conditions examined...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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