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field flow fractionation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641183/size-partitioning-and-mixing-behavior-of-trace-metals-and-dissolved-organic-matter-in-a-south-china-estuary
#1
Wenhao Wang, Min Chen, Laodong Guo, Wen-Xiong Wang
The Jiulong River estuary, located in the southeastern China, suffered from metal pollution due to industrial effluent releases. Mixing of effluent and estuarine water may have significantly affected the size distribution of trace metals and their environmental fate. In the present study, colloidal size distribution of organic matter and selected metals were quantified using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ICP-MS. We demonstrated a dominance of dissolved metals in the 1-10kDa fraction, and metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Mn were mostly regulated by terrestrial fulvic acid...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638090/a-change-in-the-aggregation-pathway-of-bovine-serum-albumin-in-the-presence-of-arginine-and-its-derivatives
#2
Vera A Borzova, Kira A Markossian, Sergey Yu Kleymenov, Boris I Kurganov
Chemical chaperones including arginine and its derivatives are widely used by biochemists working on the design of agents, which are able to efficiently suppress protein aggregation. To elucidate the mechanisms of anti-aggregation activity of chemical chaperones, methods based on registration of the increment in light scattering intensity must be supplemented with methods for direct detection of the portion of aggregated protein (γagg). For this purpose asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation was used in the present work...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623354/tomographic-particle-image-velocimetry-using-smartphones-and-colored-shadows
#3
Andres A Aguirre-Pablo, Meshal K Alarfaj, Er Qiang Li, J F Hernández-Sánchez, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
We demonstrate the viability of using four low-cost smartphone cameras to perform Tomographic PIV. We use colored shadows to imprint two or three different time-steps on the same image. The back-lighting is accomplished with three sets of differently-colored pulsed LEDs. Each set of Red, Green & Blue LEDs is shone on a diffuser screen facing each of the cameras. We thereby record the RGB-colored shadows of opaque suspended particles, rather than the conventionally used scattered light. We subsequently separate the RGB color channels, to represent the separate times, with preprocessing to minimize noise and cross-talk...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618486/role-of-particle-size-in-the-kinematic-properties-of-silo-flow
#4
Diego Gella, Diego Maza, Iker Zuriguel
We experimentally analyze the effect that particle size has on the mass flow rate of a quasi two-dimensional silo discharged by gravity. In a previous work, Janda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 248001 (2012)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.248001] introduced a new expression for the mass flow rate based on a detailed experimental analysis of the flow for 1-mm diameter beads. Here, we aim to extend these results by using particles of larger sizes and a variable that was not explicitly included in the proposed expression...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603959/characterization-of-complex-polymer-self-assemblies-and-large-aggregates-by-multidetector-thermal-field-flow-fractionation
#5
Upenyu L Muza, Guilaume Greyling, Harald Pasch
Micelles prepared from amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have found numerous applications in pharmaceutical, electronics, environmental, cosmetics, and hygiene industries. These micelles, whether in the pure or mixed micelle form, often exist as multiple morphologies (spherical, cylindrical, worm, or vesicular) in equilibrium with each other. However, none of the current column-based fractionation techniques or any microscopic technique are capable of a successful separation, identification, and quantitation of these complex self-assemblies with regards to morphology, size, molar mass, and chemical composition in one experiment...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600540/electric-field-assisted-3d-fibrous-bioceramic-based-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-regeneration-fabrication-characterization-and-in-vitro-cellular-activities
#6
Minseong Kim, Hui-Suk Yun, Geun Hyung Kim
Nano/microfibrous structure can induce high cellular activities because of the topological similarity of the extracellular matrix, and thus, are widely used in various tissue regenerative materials. However, the fabrication of a bioceramic (high weight percent)-based 3D microfibrous structure is extremely difficult because of the low process-ability of bioceramics. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) microfibrous structure can induce more realistic cellular behavior when compared to that of 2D fibrous structure...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573002/image-based-modelling-of-lateral-magma-flow-the-basement-sill-antarctica
#7
Nick Petford, Seyed Mirhadizadeh
The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1-10(4) Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 10(2) Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558343/interconnectivity-imaged-in-three-dimensions-nano-particulate-silica-hydrogel-structure-revealed-using-electron-tomography
#8
C Hamngren Blomqvist, T Gebäck, A Altskär, A-M Hermansson, S Gustafsson, N Lorén, E Olsson
We have used Electron Tomography (ET) to reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of particulate hydrogels, a material category common in e.g. controlled release, food science, battery and biomedical applications. A full understanding of the transport properties of these gels requires knowledge about the pore structure and in particular the interconnectivity in three dimensions, since the transport takes the path of lowest resistance. The image series for ET were recorded using High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM)...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555495/capping-of-mn-doped-zns-quantum-dots-with-dhla-for-their-stabilization-in-aqueous-media-determination-of-nanoparticle-number-concentration-and-surface-ligand-density
#9
Marta Garcia-Cortes, Emma Sotelo-Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Arguelles, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Jose Manuel Costa-Fernandez, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
Colloidal Mn2+-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized, surface modified and thoroughly characterized using a pool of complementary techniques. Cap exchange of the native L-cysteine coating of the QDs with dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) ligands is proposed as a strategy to produce nanocrystals with a strong phosphorescent-type emission and improved aqueous stability. Moreover, such stable DHLA coating can facilitate further bioconjugation of these QDs to biomolecules using established reagents such as cross-linker molecules...
May 30, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554024/dispersion-and-solubility-of-in-tl-ta-and-nb-in-the-aquatic-environment-and-intertidal-sediments-of-the-scheldt-estuary-flanders-belgium
#10
Karel Folens, Gijs Du Laing
Certain specialty elements are indispensable in modern technologies for their particular properties. Yet, potential risks associated to the release of these elements at any stage, remains unknown. Therefore, the dispersion of indium (In), thallium (Tl), tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) in the aquatic environment of the Scheldt estuary (Flanders, Belgium) was studied. Maximum concentrations in intertidal sediments of 101 ± 15 μg kg(-1) for In, 481 ± 37 μg kg(-1) for Tl, 88 ± 19 μg kg(-1) for Ta and 1162 ± 4 μg kg(-1) for Nb appeared on the sampling location closest to the river mouth, i...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553114/ravuconazole-self-emulsifying-delivery-system-in-vitro-activity-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-amastigotes-and-in-vivo-toxicity
#11
Pollyanna Álvaro Spósito, Ana Lia Mazzeti, Caroline de Oliveira Faria, Julio A Urbina, Gwenaelle Pound-Lana, Maria Terezinha Bahia, Vanessa Furtado Mosqueira
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) are lipid-based anhydrous formulations composed of an isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactants usually presented in gelatin capsules. Ravuconazole (Biopharmaceutics Classification System [BCS] Class II) is a poorly water-soluble drug, and a SEDDS type IIIA was designed to deliver it in a predissolved state, improving dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids. After emulsification, the droplets had mean hydrodynamic diameters <250 nm, zeta potential values in the range of -45 mV to -57 mV, and showed no signs of ravuconazole precipitation...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551020/co-elution-effects-can-influence-molar-mass-determination-of-large-macromolecules-with-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-coupled-to-multiangle-light-scattering
#12
Daysi Perez-Rea, Claudia Zielke, Lars Nilsson
Starch and hence, amylopectin is an important biomacromolecule in both the human diet as well as in technical applications. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods for its characterization are needed. A suitable method for analyzing macromolecules with ultra-high molar mass, branched structure and high polydispersity is asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. In this paper we illustrate how co-elution of low quantities of very large analytes in AF4 may cause disturbances in the MALS data which, in turn, causes an overestimation of the size...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540209/myocardial-blood-flow-quantification-for-evaluation-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-computed-tomography
#13
REVIEW
Filippo Cademartiri, Sara Seitun, Alberto Clemente, Ludovico La Grutta, Patrizia Toia, Giuseppe Runza, Massimo Midiri, Erica Maffei
During the last decade coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the preeminent non-invasive imaging modality to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) with high accuracy. However, CTA has a limited value in assessing the hemodynamic significance of a given stenosis due to a modest specificity and positive predictive value. In recent years, different CT techniques for detecting myocardial ischemia have emerged, such as CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536716/on-chip-hydrodynamic-chromatography-of-dna-through-centimeters-long-glass-nanocapillaries
#14
Lian Duan, Levent Yobas
This study demonstrates hydrodynamic chromatography of DNA fragments in a microchip. The microchip contains a highly regular array of nanofluidic channels (nanocapillaries) that are essential for resolving DNA in this chromatography mode. The nanocapillaries are self-enclosed robust structures built inside a doped glass layer on silicon using low-resolution photolithography and standard semiconductor processing techniques. Additionally, the unique nanocapillaries feature a cylindrical inner radius of 600 nm maintained over a length scale of 5 cm...
May 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533222/fractionated-radiation-therapy-stimulates-anti-tumor-immunity-mediated-by-both-resident-and-infiltrating-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-when-combined-with-pd1-blockade
#15
Simon J Dovedi, Eleanor J Cheadle, Amy Popple, Edmund Poon, Michelle Morrow, Ross Stewart, Erik Yusko, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Harlan Robins, Robert W Wilkinson, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy Illidge
Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. RT is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of RT induced immune responses are unknown. <p>Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated RT (5 x 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR)-repertoire...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513151/acoustophoretic-mobility-and-its-role-in-optimizing-acoustofluidic-separations
#16
Philip Stephen Williams, Michel Martin, Mauricio Hoyos
In the separation sciences, sample species are separated according to their physicochemical properties, the nature of the selective field, and, if present, the properties of the medium in which they are dissolved or suspended. Separations may be carried out on a continuous basis in microfluidic devices or split-flow thin channel (SPLITT) devices by selectively transporting species in a direction transverse to the direction of flow of the suspending fluid. Separation is achieved in the so-called transport mode according to relative differences in mobility of the species under the influence of the applied field...
June 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508088/characterization-of-the-molar-mass-distribution-of-macromolecules-in-beer-for-different-mashing-processes-using-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-af4-coupled-with-multiple-detectors
#17
Jaeyeong Choi, Claudia Zielke, Lars Nilsson, Seungho Lee
The macromolecular composition of beer is largely determined by the brewing and the mashing process. It is known that the physico-chemical properties of proteinaceous and polysaccharide molecules are closely related to the mechanism of foam stability. Three types of "American pale ale" style beer were prepared using different mashing protocols. The foam stability of the beers was assessed using the Derek Rudin standard method. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with ultraviolet (UV), multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors was used to separate the macromolecules present in the beers and the molar mass (M) and molar mass distributions (MD) were determined...
May 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507763/investigation-of-cloud-point-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-a-soil-matrix
#18
Hind El Hadri, Vincent A Hackley
The characterization of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in environmental samples is necessary to assess their behavior, fate and potential toxicity. Several techniques are available, but the limit of detection (LOD) is often too high for environmentally relevant concentrations. Therefore, pre-concentration of MNPs is an important component in the sample preparation step, in order to apply analytical tools with a LOD higher than the ng kg(-1) level. The objective of this study was to explore cloud point extraction (CPE) as a viable method to pre-concentrate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), as a model MNP, spiked into a soil extract matrix...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505830/modeling-and-statistical-analysis-of-non-gaussian-random-fields-with-heavy-tailed-distributions
#19
Mohsen Ghasemi Nezhadhaghighi, Abbas Nakhlband
In this paper, we investigate and develop an alternative approach to the numerical analysis and characterization of random fluctuations with the heavy-tailed probability distribution function (PDF), such as turbulent heat flow and solar flare fluctuations. We identify the heavy-tailed random fluctuations based on the scaling properties of the tail exponent of the PDF, power-law growth of qth order correlation function, and the self-similar properties of the contour lines in two-dimensional random fields. Moreover, this work leads to a substitution for the fractional Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation that works in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499597/effect-of-cationic-monomer-content-on-polyacrylamide-copolymers-by-frit-inlet-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation-multi-angle-light-scattering
#20
Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Kim, Woonjin Choi, Myeong Hee Moon
In this study, ultrahigh-molecular-weight (MW) (>10(7)Da) cationic polyacrylamides (C-PAMs), which are water-soluble polymers used in waste water treatment, were characterized using frit-inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive detection. C-PAMs copolymerized with acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC) were prepared by varying the feed amount of cationic monomer, polymerization method (solution vs. emulsion), and degree of branching...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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