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field flow fractionation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540209/myocardial-blood-flow-quantification-for-evaluation-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-computed-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Filippo Cademartiri, Sara Seitun, Alberto Clemente, Ludovico La Grutta, Patrizia Toia, Giuseppe Runza, Massimo Midiri, Erica Maffei
During the last decade coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the preeminent non-invasive imaging modality to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) with high accuracy. However, CTA has a limited value in assessing the hemodynamic significance of a given stenosis due to a modest specificity and positive predictive value. In recent years, different CT techniques for detecting myocardial ischemia have emerged, such as CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536716/on-chip-hydrodynamic-chromatography-of-dna-through-centimeters-long-glass-nanocapillaries
#2
Lian Duan, Levent Yobas
This study demonstrates hydrodynamic chromatography of DNA fragments in a microchip. The microchip contains a highly regular array of nanofluidic channels (nanocapillaries) that are essential for resolving DNA in this chromatography mode. The nanocapillaries are self-enclosed robust structures built inside a doped glass layer on silicon using low-resolution photolithography and standard semiconductor processing techniques. Additionally, the unique nanocapillaries feature a cylindrical inner radius of 600 nm maintained over a length scale of 5 cm...
May 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533222/fractionated-radiation-therapy-stimulates-anti-tumor-immunity-mediated-by-both-resident-and-infiltrating-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-when-combined-with-pd1-blockade
#3
Simon J Dovedi, Eleanor J Cheadle, Amy Popple, Edmund Poon, Michelle Morrow, Ross Stewart, Erik Yusko, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Harlan Robins, Robert W Wilkinson, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy Illidge
Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. RT is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of RT induced immune responses are unknown. <p>Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated RT (5 x 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR)-repertoire...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513151/acoustophoretic-mobility-and-its-role-in-optimizing-acoustofluidic-separations
#4
Philip Stephen Williams, Michel Martin, Mauricio Hoyos
In the separation sciences, sample species are separated according to their physicochemical properties, the nature of the selective field, and, if present, the properties of the medium in which they are dissolved or suspended. Separations may be carried out on a continuous basis in microfluidic devices or split-flow thin channel (SPLITT) devices by selectively transporting species in a direction transverse to the direction of flow of the suspending fluid. Separation is achieved in the so-called transport mode according to relative differences in mobility of the species under the influence of the applied field...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508088/characterization-of-the-molar-mass-distribution-of-macromolecules-in-beer-for-different-mashing-processes-using-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-af4-coupled-with-multiple-detectors
#5
Jaeyeong Choi, Claudia Zielke, Lars Nilsson, Seungho Lee
The macromolecular composition of beer is largely determined by the brewing and the mashing process. It is known that the physico-chemical properties of proteinaceous and polysaccharide molecules are closely related to the mechanism of foam stability. Three types of "American pale ale" style beer were prepared using different mashing protocols. The foam stability of the beers was assessed using the Derek Rudin standard method. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with ultraviolet (UV), multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors was used to separate the macromolecules present in the beers and the molar mass (M) and molar mass distributions (MD) were determined...
May 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507763/investigation-of-cloud-point-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-a-soil-matrix
#6
Hind El Hadri, Vincent A Hackley
The characterization of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in environmental samples is necessary to assess their behavior, fate and potential toxicity. Several techniques are available, but the limit of detection (LOD) is often too high for environmentally relevant concentrations. Therefore, pre-concentration of MNPs is an important component in the sample preparation step, in order to apply analytical tools with a LOD higher than the ng kg(-1) level. The objective of this study was to explore cloud point extraction (CPE) as a viable method to pre-concentrate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), as a model MNP, spiked into a soil extract matrix...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505830/modeling-and-statistical-analysis-of-non-gaussian-random-fields-with-heavy-tailed-distributions
#7
Mohsen Ghasemi Nezhadhaghighi, Abbas Nakhlband
In this paper, we investigate and develop an alternative approach to the numerical analysis and characterization of random fluctuations with the heavy-tailed probability distribution function (PDF), such as turbulent heat flow and solar flare fluctuations. We identify the heavy-tailed random fluctuations based on the scaling properties of the tail exponent of the PDF, power-law growth of qth order correlation function, and the self-similar properties of the contour lines in two-dimensional random fields. Moreover, this work leads to a substitution for the fractional Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation that works in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499597/effect-of-cationic-monomer-content-on-polyacrylamide-copolymers-by-frit-inlet-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation-multi-angle-light-scattering
#8
Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Kim, Woonjin Choi, Myeong Hee Moon
In this study, ultrahigh-molecular-weight (MW) (>10(7)Da) cationic polyacrylamides (C-PAMs), which are water-soluble polymers used in waste water treatment, were characterized using frit-inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive detection. C-PAMs copolymerized with acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC) were prepared by varying the feed amount of cationic monomer, polymerization method (solution vs. emulsion), and degree of branching...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493276/analytical-characterization-of-the-hydrolysis-of-barley-malt-macromolecules-during-enzymatic-degradation-over-time-using-af4-mals-ri
#9
Heinrich Rübsam, Thomas Becker, Martina Gastl
The changes on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and particle size distribution (PSD) during hydrolysis of barley malt in isothermal mashing procedures were determined using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index (AF4/MALS/RI). Mash/trials were focused on amylolytic starch degradation. Therefore, temperatures (65, 70, and 75 °C) were selected according to α- and β-amylases range of activity. Samples were produced by triplicate, tracking amylolytic processes over time periods from 10 to 90 min in each mash/trial...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489347/measurement-of-the-density-of-engineered-silver-nanoparticles-using-centrifugal-fff-tem-and-single-particle-icp-ms
#10
Soheyl Tadjiki, Manuel David Montaño, Shoeleh Assemi, Angela Barber, James Ranville, Ronald Beckett
A methodology has been developed to measure nanoparticle mass and density, by combining centrifugal field-flow fractionation (CeFFF; more commonly called sedimentation FFF or SdFFF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particle effective mass obtained from CeFFF retention data and particle size obtained from the TEM images were used to calculate the nanoparticle density. The method was initially applied to measure the density of monodispersed polystyrene latex nanoparticles. Measured densities for latex nanoparticles of 160-300 nm in diameter were in the range of 1041-1063 kg m(-3) with standard deviations of 0...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486140/improving-the-understanding-of-fullerene-nc60-aggregate-structures-fractal-dimension-characterization-by-static-light-scattering-coupled-to-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#11
Julien Gigault, Bruno Grassl
Fullerene (C60) aggregation mechanisms in aqueous media require considerable attention in the near future due to the heavy use and application of fullerene-based products within the context of nanotechnology. Such intensive development will result in the release of massive amounts of C60 in aqueous environmental systems in the aggregate form (nC60). In that sense, the aggregation mechanisms need to be fully determined to better evaluate the environmental fate and behavior of C60. To fulfil these needs, the aim of this work was to extensively characterize the aggregation mechanisms of fullerene aggregates in aqueous media by asymmetrical flow field fractionation (AF4) coupled to static light scattering (SLS)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484916/monoolein-aqueous-dispersions-as-a-delivery-system-for-quercetin
#12
Rita Cortesi, Enrica Cappellozza, Markus Drechsler, Catia Contado, Anna Baldisserotto, Paolo Mariani, Federica Carducci, Alessandra Pecorelli, Elisabetta Esposito, Giuseppe Valacchi
This study describes the preparation, characterization and in vitro release of monoolein aqueous dispersions (MAD) encapsulating quercetin (QT). As emulsifier, sodium cholate was employed at two different concentrations, namely 0.15% and 0.25% with respect to the total weight of the formulation. Cryogenic Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysis indicated that MAD015 are a mixture of vesicles and cubic structures, whilst MAD025 are mainly characterized by unilamellar vesicular structures. Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) showed a MAD size higher than 300 nm that over 100 days from analysis reduces up to 200 nm...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474724/interaction-of-silver-nanoparticles-with-metallothionein-and-ceruloplasmin-impact-on-metal-substitution-by-ag-i-corona-formation-and-enzymatic-activity
#13
Wei Liu, Isabelle A M Worms, Nathalie Herlin-Boime, Delphine Truffier-Boutry, Isabelle Michaud-Soret, Elisabeth Mintz, Claude Vidaud, Françoise Rollin-Genetet
The release of Ag(i) from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) unintentionally spread in the environment is suspected to impair some key biological functions. In comparison with AgNO3, in-depth investigations were carried out into the interactions between citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm) and two metalloproteins, intracellular metallothionein 1 (MT1) and plasmatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), both involved in metal homeostasis. These were chosen for their physiological relevance and the diversity of their various native metals bound because of thiol groups and/or their structural differences...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473335/evaluation-of-autologous-skeletal-muscle-derived-factors-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#14
M Yoshikawa, T Nakasa, M Ishikawa, N Adachi, M Ochi
OBJECTIVES: Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aimed at the repair and regeneration of various tissues. To this end, cytokines (CKs), growth factors (GFs), and stem/progenitor cells have been applied in this field. However, obtaining and preparing these candidates requires invasive, costly, and time-consuming procedures. We hypothesised that skeletal muscle could be a favorable candidate tissue for the concept of a point-of-care approach. The purpose of this study was to characterize and confirm the biological potential of skeletal muscle supernatant for use in regenerative medicine...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448854/the-combined-use-of-analytical-tools-for-exploring-tetanus-toxin-and-tetanus-toxoid-structures
#15
Caroline Bayart, Sébastien Peronin, Elisa Jean, Joseph Paladino, Philippe Talaga, Marc Le Borgne
Aldehyde detoxification is a process used to convert toxin into toxoid for vaccine applications. In the case of tetanus toxin (TT), formaldehyde is used to obtain the tetanus toxoid (TTd), which is used either for the tetanus vaccine or as carrier protein in conjugate vaccines. Several studies have already been conducted to better understand the exact mechanism of this detoxification. Those studies led to the identification of a number of formaldehyde-induced modifications on lab scale TTd samples. To obtain greater insights of the changes induced by formaldehyde, we used three industrial TTd batches to identify repeatable modifications in the detoxification process...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442440/impact-of-dose-and-surface-features-on-plasmatic-and-liver-concentrations-of-biodegradable-polymeric-nanocapsules
#16
Líliam Teixeira Oliveira, Mônica Auxiliadora de Paula, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Giani Martins Garcia, Luan Silvestro Bianchini Silva, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Carina Silva de Paula, José Mário Carneiro Vilela, Margareth Spangler Andrade, Gwenaelle Pound-Lana, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira
The effect of polymeric nanocapsule dose on plasmatic and liver concentrations 20min after intravenous administration in mice was evaluated. Nanocapsules were prepared with different polymers, namely, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA), polyethylene glycol-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA-PEG), and PLA with chitosan (PLA-Cs) and compared with a nanoemulsion. These formulations were labelled with a phthalocyanine dye for fluorescent detection. The nanostructures had narrow size distributions upon separation by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation with static and dynamic light scattering detection, with average hydrodynamic diameters in the 130-300nm range, negative zeta potentials, except PLA-Cs nanocapsules, which had a positive zeta potential...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434162/isolation-of-astrocytes-displaying-myofibroblast-properties-and-present-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#17
Nicolas Vedrenne, Vincent Sarrazy, Laurence Richard, Nelly Bordeau, Serge Battu, Fabrice Billet, Alexis Desmoulière
A wide heterogeneity of lesions can affect the central nervous system (CNS). In all situations where neurons are damaged, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a common reactive astrocytosis is present. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was used to sort astrocyte subpopulations. After SdFFF elution, cells, prepared from rat newborn cortex, were cultured and analyzed by immunocytofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle (SM) actin (a specific marker for myofibroblasts) expression...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433590/low-dose-out-of-field-radiotherapy-part-3-qualitative-and-quantitative-impact-of-scattered-out-of-field-radiation-on-mda-mb-231-cell-lines
#18
K Zaleska, W M Suchorska, A Kowalik, M Kruszyna, W Jackowiak, A Skrobala, M Skorska, J Malicki
PURPOSE: Patients who undergo external beam radiotherapy are at risk of developing second tumours due to scattered radiation outside the path of the primary beam. The aim of this study was to experimentally determine the in vitro radiobiological effects of scattered radiation in cells located outside the primary photon beam and to compare this to the effects that occur in cells inside the primary beam. The comparison was performed by assessing cell viability, DNA damage, and apoptosis...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415375/nonlinear-monte-carlo-model-of-superdiffusive-shock-acceleration-with-magnetic-field-amplification
#19
Andrei M Bykov, Donald C Ellison, Sergei M Osipov
Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403214/antibody-independent-capture-of-circulating-tumor-cells-of-non-epithelial-origin-with-the-apostream%C3%A2-system
#20
Priya Balasubramanian, Robert J Kinders, Shivaani Kummar, Vishal Gupta, David Hasegawa, Anoop Menachery, Scott M Lawrence, Lihua Wang, Katherine Ferry-Galow, Darren Davis, Ralph E Parchment, Joseph E Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly employed for research and clinical monitoring of cancer, though most current methods do not permit the isolation of non-epithelial tumor cells. Furthermore, CTCs isolated with antibody-dependent methods are not suitable for downstream experimental uses, including in vitro culturing and implantation in vivo. In the present study, we describe the development, validation, and transfer across laboratories of a new antibody-independent device for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples of patients with various cancer diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
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