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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782945/advances-in-the-slow-freezing-cryopreservation-of-microencapsulated-cells
#2
REVIEW
H Gurruchaga, L Saenz Del Burgo, R M Hernandez, G Orive, C Selden, B Fuller, J Ciriza, J L Pedraz
Over the past few decades, the use of cell microencapsulation technology has been promoted for a wide range of applications as sustained drug delivery systems or as cells containing biosystems for regenerative medicine. However, difficulty in their preservation and storage has limited their availability to healthcare centers. Because the preservation in cryogenic temperatures poses many biological and biophysical challenges and that the technology has not been well understood, the slow cooling cryopreservation, which is the most used technique worldwide, has not given full measure of its full potential application yet...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782901/basal-cell-carcinoma-part-ii-contemporary-approaches-to-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#3
REVIEW
Michael C Cameron, Erica Lee, Brian Hibler, Cerrene N Giordano, Christopher A Barker, Shoko Mori, Miguel Cordova, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
As the most common human cancer worldwide and continuing to increase in incidence, basal cell carcinoma is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Continued advances in research have refined both our insight and approach to this seemingly ubiquitous disease. This 2-part continuing medical education article will provide a comprehensive and contemporary review of basal cell carcinoma. Part II of this series will present both standard of care and newly developed approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this disease...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782900/basal-cell-carcinoma-part-1
#4
REVIEW
Michael C Cameron, Erica Lee, Brian Hibler, Christopher A Barker, Shoko Mori, Miguel Cordova, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
As the most common human cancer worldwide and continuing to increase in incidence, basal cell carcinoma is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Continued advances in research have refined both our insight and approach to this seemingly ubiquitous disease. This 2-part continuing medical education article will provide a comprehensive and contemporary review of basal cell carcinoma. Part I of this series will describe our current understanding of this disease in regards to epidemiology, cost, clinical and histopathologic presentations, carcinogenesis, natural history, and disease associations...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782834/high-throughput-dissection-of-aav-host-interactions-the-fast-and-the-curious
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Herrmann, Dirk Grimm
Over fifty years after its initial description, Adeno-associated virus (AAV) remains a most exciting but also most elusive study object in basic or applied virology. On the one hand, its simple structure not only facilitates investigations into virus biology, but combined with the availability of numerous natural AAV variants with distinct infection efficiency and specificity also makes AAV a preferred substrate for engineering of gene delivery vectors. On the other hand, it is striking to witness a recent flurry of reports that highlight and partially close persistent gaps in our understanding of AAV virus and vector biology...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782705/wild-gwas-association-mapping-in-natural-populations
#6
Anna W Santure, Dany Garant
The increasing affordability of sequencing and genotyping technologies has transformed the field of molecular ecology in recent decades. By correlating marker variants with trait variation using association analysis, large-scale genotyping and phenotyping of individuals from wild populations has enabled the identification of genomic regions that contribute to phenotypic differences among individuals. Such 'gene mapping' studies are enabling us to better predict evolutionary potential and the ability of populations to adapt to challenges, such as changing environment...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782658/recent-advances-on-black-phosphorus-for-energy-storage-catalysis-and-sensor-applications
#7
REVIEW
Hanwen Liu, Kui Hu, Dafeng Yan, Ru Chen, Yuqin Zou, Hongbo Liu, Shuangyin Wang
As a new type of 2D semiconductor, black phosphorus (BP) possesses high charge-carrier mobility and theoretical capacity, thickness-dependent bandgap, and anisotropic structure, which has attracted tremendous attention since early 2014. To explore its full application in all aspects, studies based on BP nanostructures are swiftly expanding from the electronic field to energy storage and even biochemistry. The mechanism and application of BP in Li-/Na-ion battery anodes, oxygen evolution reaction/hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis, photocatalytic hydrogen production, and selective sensors are summarized...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782582/surfaces-from-the-visual-past-recovering-high-resolution-terrain-data-from-historic-aerial-imagery-for-multitemporal-landscape-analysis
#8
Christopher Sevara, Geert Verhoeven, Michael Doneus, Erich Draganits
Historic aerial images are invaluable sources of aid to archaeological research. Often collected with large-format photogrammetric quality cameras, these images are potential archives of multidimensional data that can be used to recover information about historic landscapes that have been lost to modern development. However, a lack of camera information for many historic images coupled with physical degradation of their media has often made it difficult to compute geometrically rigorous 3D content from such imagery...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782386/a-systematic-review-of-biodegradable-biliary-stents-promising-biocompatibility-without-stent-removal
#9
Antti Siiki, Juhani Sand, Johanna Laukkarinen
Biodegradable self-expanding stents are an emerging alternative to standard biliary stents as the development of endoscopic insertion devices advances. The aim was to systematically review the existing literature on biodegradable biliary stents. In-vivo studies on the use of biodegradable stents in the biliary duct were systematically reviewed from 1990 to 2017. Despite extensive research on the biocompatibility of stents, the experience so far on their clinical use is limited. A few favorable reports have recently been presented on endoscopically and percutaneously inserted self-expanding biodegradable polydioxanone stents in benign biliary strictures...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782345/precision-surgery-for-obesity
#10
Zhiyong Dong, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Enan Simms-Walker, Cunchuan Wang
Precision medicine is targeted towards improving the effectiveness of treatment, reducing the side effects of drugs and reducing medical costs. The application of precision surgery for obesity is a new concept that involves 2 stages: the first stage is to attain a precise obesity surgery, and the second stage is to achieve individualized obese gene therapy. In this article, we discuss the value of precision surgery for obesity, its stages and its future application to improve obesity surgery. Due to recent advancements in medical technologies, genetics, surgical and clinical research; precision surgery for obesity will lead the future of obesity surgery...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782334/inhibitors-of-the-hiv-1-capsid-a-target-of-opportunity
#11
Stephanie K Carnes, Jonathan H Sheehan, Christopher Aiken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances in the discovery of chemical inhibitors targeting the HIV capsid and research on their mechanisms of action. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV infection is critically dependent on functions of the viral capsid. Numerous studies have reported the identification of a variety of compounds that bind to the capsid protein; some of these inhibit reverse transcription and nuclear entry, steps required for infection. Other capsid-targeting compounds appear to act by perturbing capsid assembly, resulting in noninfectious progeny virions...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#12
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782003/collection-and-extraction-of-occupational-air-samples-for-analysis-of-fungal-dna
#13
Angela R Lemons, William G Lindsley, Brett J Green
Traditional methods of identifying fungal exposures in occupational environments, such as culture and microscopy-based approaches, have several limitations that have resulted in the exclusion of many species. Advances in the field over the last two decades have led occupational health researchers to turn to molecular-based approaches for identifying fungal hazards. These methods have resulted in the detection of many species within indoor and occupational environments that have not been detected using traditional methods...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781806/the-need-for-understanding-and-engaging-the-patient-as-consumer-of-products-developed-by-neural-engineering
#14
Jennifer French, J Luis Lujan, Dawn Bardot, Emily Lauren Graczyk, Allison Hess-Dunning, Ronald J Triolo, Megan Moynahan, Winny Tan, Adeline Zbrzeski
Neural Engineering is a discipline at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, and clinical care. Recent major efforts by government and industry aimed at bringing forth personalized therapies, increasing the potential of the neural engineering industry for future growth, eg. the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative and Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) Common Fund Program, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) and Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) Programs, and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectric Medicines Initiative...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781776/empathy-present-and-future
#15
Judith Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#16
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781625/vertically-emitting-indium-phosphide-nanowire-lasers
#17
Wei-Zong Xu, Fang-Fang Ren, Dimitars Jevtics, Antonio Hurtado, Li Li, Qian Gao, Jiandong Ye, Fan Wang, Benoit Guilhabert, Lan Fu, Hai Lu, Rong Zhang, Hark Hoe Tan, Martin Dawson, Chennupati Jagadish
Semiconductor nanowire (NW) lasers have attracted considerable research effort given their excellent promise for nanoscale photonic sources. However, NW lasers currently exhibit poor directionality and high threshold gain, issues critically limiting their prospects for on-chip light sources with extremely reduced footprint and efficient power consumption. Here, we propose a new design and experimentally demonstrate a vertically emitting indium phosphide (InP) NW laser structure showing high emission directionality and reduced energy requirements for operation...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781452/research-biopsies-an-integrative-review-of-the-experiences-of-patients-with-cancer
#18
Elizabeth Abraham, Kathryn Post, Laura Spring, Giuliana Malvarosa, Elizabeth Tripp, Jeffrey M Peppercorn, Aditya Bardia, Karleen Habin
BACKGROUND: Research biopsies (RBs) are essential to understanding tumor biology and mechanisms of resistance and to advancing precision medicine. However, RBs have associated risks and may not benefit the patient. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize and synthesize the current literature on the experience, attitudes, and understanding of patients with cancer related to RBs. METHODS: Articles from January 2010 to February 2017 were retrieved via a search of MEDLINE®...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781395/judicialization-2-0-understanding-right-to-health-litigation-in-real-time
#19
João Biehl, Mariana P Socal, Varun Gauri, Debora Diniz, Marcelo Medeiros, Gabriela Rondon, Joseph J Amon
Over the past two decades, debate over the whys, the hows, and the effects of the ever-expanding phenomenon of right-to-health litigation ('judicialization') throughout Latin America have been marked by polarised arguments and limited information. In contrast to claims of judicialization as a positive or negative trend, less attention has been paid to ways to better understand the phenomenon in real time. In this article, we propose a new approach-Judicialization 2.0-that recognises judicialization as an integral part of democratic life...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781356/combating-the-hiv-reservoirs
#20
Guido van Marle, Deirdre L Church, Frank van der Meer, M John Gill
Impressive advances have been made in the treatment and management of HIV-1 infected individuals. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has turned HIV-1 infection from an almost invariable deadly infectious disease, to a lifelong manageable infectious disease. However, a cure or vaccine has not been forthcoming. A major problem in HIV-1 infection is the persistent and latently infected cellular and tissue reservoirs. One of these reservoirs is the Gut Associated Lymphoid tissue (GALT), which has been the research focus of our group...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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