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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441673/gateways-to-the-laboratory-how-an-md-phd-program-increased-the-number-of-minority-physician-scientists
#1
Ruth Gotian, Jemella C Raymore, Shauna-Kay Rhooms, Laura Liberman, Olaf S Andersen
Traditional underrepresented minority (URM) groups (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans) remain underrepresented among physician-scientists. To address the dearth of URM physician-scientists, in 1993 the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program developed a pipeline program, Gateways to the Laboratory (Gateways), which focuses on increasing the breadth and depth of the URM physician-scientist pipeline by offering an all-encompassing summer research training program which mirrors the life of a physician-scientist...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441410/creating-and-parameterizing-patient-specific-deep-brain-stimulation-pathway-activation-models-using-the-hyperdirect-pathway-as-an-example
#2
Kabilar Gunalan, Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Bryan Howell, Yuval Duchin, Scott F Lempka, Remi Patriat, Guillermo Sapiro, Noam Harel, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. OBJECTIVE: Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441369/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-oncology
#3
Daniel Jeong, Aarti Patel, Christopher J Francois, Kenneth L Gage, Michael G Fradley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an important diagnostic modality in the management of cardiovascular-related dysfunction in oncological diseases. Advances in imaging techniques have enhanced the detection and evaluation of cardiac masses; meanwhile, innovative applications have created a growing role for cardiac MRI for the management of cardiotoxicity caused by cancer therapies. METHODS: An overview is provided of the clinical indications and technical considerations of cardiac MRI...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441270/improving-quality-through-clinical-registries-in-urology
#4
Mark D Tyson, Daniel A Barocas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlight the use of clinical registries for quality improvement and research purposes in urology. We focus on national and regional clinical database registries, such as the National Surgical Quality Improvement Programme, the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement collaborative and the American Urological Association Quality Registry programme. RECENT FINDINGS: It is widely known that claims-based and institutional databases are limited in their capacity to provide granular, real-time data for quality improvement purposes...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441218/research-on-the-pa-profession-the-medical-model-shifts
#5
Richard W Dehn, Christine M Everett, Roderick S Hooker
Physician assistant (PA)-focused research arose in response to the idea that an assistant to the busy physician could improve healthcare delivery. The process of answering questions about the profession has involved multiple approaches and various scholarly disciplines. In the course of this undertaking, what emerged were three stages of examination of PA behavior. The bibliographic span from this period contains about 2,400 studies that advance some notion of PA benefit to society. On the 50th anniversary of the PA profession, a question arises as to what research has shown...
May 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#6
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441113/research-with-american-indian-and-alaska-native-populations-measurement-matters
#7
Melissa L Walls, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell, Allison Barlow, Michelle Sarche
Research is an important tool in addressing myriad American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health disparities; however, tensions exist between common empirical measurement approaches that facilitate cross-cultural comparisons and measurement specificity that may be more valid locally and/or culturally appropriate. The tremendous diversity of AIAN communities, small population sizes of distinct AIAN cultural groups, and varying cultural contexts and worldviews should influence measurement decisions in health research...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441039/high-throughput-processing-to-preserve-viable-cells-a-precision-medicine-initiative-cohort-program-workshop
#8
Rebekah S Rasooly, Daniel R Gossett, Marianne K Henderson, Allison Hubel, Stephen N Thibodeau
Conventionally, biobanks supporting clinical research studies have preserved serum, plasma, urine, saliva, a variety of tissue types, and stool. With the emergence of increasingly sophisticated technologies for analyzing single cells, there is growing interest in preserving viable blood cells for future functional studies. The new All of Us Research Program (formerly the Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program) biobank plans to house samples from a million or more individuals as part of a cohort with rich phenotypic data and longitudinal follow-up ( www...
April 25, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440993/-training-of-institutional-research-networks-as-a-strategy-of-improvement
#9
María Eugenia Galván-Plata, Eduardo Almeida-Gutiérrez, Fabio Abdel Salamanca-Gómez
The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) through the Coordinación de Investigación en Salud (Health Research Council) has promoted a strong link between the generation of scientific knowledge and the clinical care through the program Redes Institucionales de Investigación (Institutional Research Network Program), whose main aim is to promote and generate collaborative research between clinical, basic, epidemiologic, educational, economic and health services researchers, seeking direct benefits for patients, as well as to generate a positive impact on institutional processes...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440958/readiness-for-hospital-discharge-a-concept-analysis
#10
Eileen Catherine Galvin, Teresa Wills, Alice Coffey
AIM: To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. BACKGROUND: No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature, therefore a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up to date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440957/the-role-of-high-throughput-screening-in-ecotoxicology-and-engineered-nanomaterials
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Barrick, Amélie Châtel, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The field of environmental toxicology developed as a result of growing concerns about anthropogenic influences on the environment and how to ameliorate ecological impact. Many governmental bodies are beginning to emphasize prevention rather than mitigation when addressing novel products, leading to more of a focus on identifying potential toxicity prior to release. With the exponential advances in their development and sale, novel metamaterials and biotechnology are set to dramatically outpace the capabilities of current testing strategies...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440895/the-relationship-between-rate-of-algometer-application-and-pain-pressure-threshold-in-the-assessment-of-myofascial-trigger-point-sensitivity
#12
L D Linde, D A Kumbhare, M Joshi, J Z Srbely
BACKGROUND: Pressure algometry is a commonly employed technique in the assessment of both regional and widespread musculoskeletal pain. Despite its acceptance amongst clinicians and scientists, the relationship between rate of pressure application (RoA) and pain pressure threshold (PPT) remains poorly understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that a strong, positive, linear relationship exists between the RoA and the PPT within the infraspinatus of young healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty-three (n=33) participants were randomly recruited from the local university community...
April 25, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440681/discovery-and-preclinical-development-of-dasabuvir-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-infection
#13
Mohamed El Kassas, Tamer Elbaz, Enas Hafez, Mohamed Naguib Wifi, Gamal Esmat
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Positively, the introduction of new directly-acting antivirals (DAAs) have led to dramatic improvements in response rates to antiviral therapy. Furthermore, newer generations of DAAs have demonstrated better safety profiles as well as efficacy than older generations. Current treatment recommendations are based on different combinations of DAAs. Current combination therapies rely on agents that target the different steps of viral replication by using different molecules from various DAAs families...
April 25, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440589/prime-movers-advanced-practice-professionals-in-the-role-of-stroke-coordinator
#14
Nicholas A Rattray, Teresa M Damush, Cherie Luckhurst, Catherine J Bauer-Martinez, Barbara J Homoya, Edward J Miech
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following a stroke quality improvement clustered randomized trial and a national acute ischemic stroke (AIS) directive in the Veterans Health Administration in 2011, this comparative case study examined the role of advanced practice professionals (APPs) in quality improvement activities among stroke teams. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted at 11 Veterans Affairs medical centers annually over a 3-year period. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interviews from clinical providers through a mixed-methods, data matrix approach linking APPs (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) with Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs and a group organization measure...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440379/high-voltage-positive-electrode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#15
REVIEW
Wangda Li, Bohang Song, Arumugam Manthiram
The ever-growing demand for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries in portable electronics and electric vehicles has spurred intensive research efforts over the past decade. The key to sustaining the progress in Li-ion batteries lies in the quest for safe, low-cost positive electrode (cathode) materials with desirable energy and power capabilities. One approach to boost the energy and power densities of batteries is to increase the output voltage while maintaining a high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate, and long service life...
April 25, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440342/significant-variation-between-snp-based-hla-imputations-in-diverse-populations-the-last-mile-is-the-hardest
#16
D J Pappas, A Lizee, V Paunic, K R Beutner, A Motyer, D Vukcevic, S Leslie, J Biesiada, J Meller, K D Taylor, X Zheng, L P Zhao, P-A Gourraud, J A Hollenbach, S J Mack, M Maiers
Four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation methods (e-HLA, HIBAG, HLA*IMP:02 and MAGPrediction) were trained using 1000 Genomes SNP and HLA genotypes and assessed for their ability to accurately impute molecular HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 genotypes in the Human Genome Diversity Project cell panel. Imputation concordance was high (>89%) across all methods for both HLA-A and HLA-C, but HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 proved generally difficult to impute. Overall, <27.8% of subjects were correctly imputed for all HLA loci by any method...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440249/innovations-in-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#17
Sudarshan Kumar Khokhar, Ganesh Pillay, Esha Agarwal, Manish Mahabir
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440124/perspectives-on-advance-care-planning-among-patients-recently-requiring-non-invasive-ventilation-for-acute-respiratory-failure-a-qualitative-study-using-thematic-analysis
#18
Tracy A Smith, Rebecca T Disler, Christine R Jenkins, Jane M Ingham, Patricia M Davidson
BACKGROUND: Patients requiring non-invasive ventilation for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure exacerbations may have a poor prognosis underscoring the importance of advance care planning. AIM: We aimed to describe attitudes to, and experiences of, discussing the future among patients recently treated with non-invasive ventilation. DESIGN: Qualitative research using thematic analysis...
June 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439980/nanophotonic-trapping-precise-manipulation-and-measurement-of-biomolecular-arrays
#19
REVIEW
James E Baker, Ryan P Badman, Michelle D Wang
Optical trapping is a powerful and widely used laboratory technique in the biological and materials sciences that enables rapid manipulation and measurement at the nanometer scale. However, expanding the analytical throughput of this technique beyond the serial capabilities of established single-trap microscope-based optical tweezers remains a current goal in the field. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have been leveraged to create innovative optical trapping methods that increase the number of available optical traps and permit parallel manipulation and measurement of arrays of optically trapped targets...
April 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439795/age-based-disparities-in-the-use-of-total-thyroidectomy-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#20
I V Shevchyk, B A Cobian, S R Martinez
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients may be less likely than younger patients to receive indicated therapy. We hypothesized that older patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) would be less likely to receive total thyroidectomy (TT) than their younger counterparts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were queried for adult patients diagnosed with PTC from 2000 through 2009. Patients were categorized according to whether they received a TT or less than a total thyroidectomy (<TT)...
April 24, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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