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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346139/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy-state-of-the-art
#1
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345994/work-as-an-inclusive-part-of-population-health-inequities-research-and-prevention
#2
Emily Quinn Ahonen, Kaori Fujishiro, Thomas Cunningham, Michael Flynn
Despite its inclusion in models of social and ecological determinants of health, work has not been explored in most health inequity research in the United States. Leaving work out of public health inequities research creates a blind spot in our understanding of how inequities are created and impedes our progress toward health equity. We first describe why work is vital to our understanding of observed societal-level health inequities. Next, we outline challenges to incorporating work in the study of health inequities, including (1) the complexity of work as a concept; (2) work's overlap with socioeconomic position, race, ethnicity, and gender; (3) the development of a parallel line of inquiry into occupational health inequities; and (4) the dearth of precise data with which to explore the relationships between work and health status...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345985/cyp3a-activity-and-rivaroxaban-serum-concentrations-in-russian-patients-with-deep-vein-thrombosis
#3
Dmitriy Alexeyevich Sychev, Arshak Vardanyan, Aleksandr Rozhkov, Edita Hachatryan, Ani Badanyan, Valery Smirnov, Anna Ananichuk, Natalya Denisenko
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is metabolized in the liver via CYP3A4, the cytochrome involved in the metabolism of nearly 50% of all medications. Thus, its effective concentration depends on multiple pharmacologic parameters. METHODS: The primary goal of our research was to study the correlation between the CYP3A family activity and the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant therapy with rivaroxaban in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thirty one patients with DVT aged 21-83 years, 18 men and 13 women, received rivaroxaban (Xarelto) 30 mg/day for 21 days after diagnosis and 20 mg/day for the follow-up period of 6 months...
January 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#4
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345632/brain-machine-interfaces-for-controlling-lower-limb-powered-robotic-systems
#5
Yongtian He, David Eguren, José M Azorín, Robert Grossman, Trieu Phat Luu, Jose Luis Pepe Contreras-Vidal
Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345580/multi-potent-natural-scaffolds-targeting-amyloid-cascade-in-search-of-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutics
#6
Sandipan Chakraborty
Alzheimer's disease (AD) once considered a rare disorder emerges as a major health concern in recent times. The disease pathogenesis is very complex and yet to be understood completely. However, "Amyloid Cascade" is the central event in disease pathogenesis. Several proteins of the amyloid cascade are currently being considered as potential targets for AD therapeutics discovery. Many potential compounds are in clinical trials, but till now there is no known cure for the disease. Recent years have witnessed remarkable research interest in search of novel concepts in drug designing for AD...
January 16, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345547/are-current-physical-match-performance-metrics-in-elite-soccer-fit-for-purpose-or-is-the-adoption-of-an-integrated-approach-needed
#7
Paul S Bradley, Jack D Ade
Time-motion analysis is a valuable data-collection technique used to quantify the physical match performance of elite soccer players. For over 40 years researchers have adopted a 'traditional' approach when evaluating match demands by simply reporting the distance covered or time spent along a motion continuum of walking through to sprinting. This methodology quantifies physical metrics in isolation without integrating other factors and this ultimately leads to a one-dimensional insight into match performance...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345375/understanding-the-regulation-of-apobec3-expression-current-evidence-and-much-to-learn
#8
REVIEW
Daniela Angela Covino, Maria Cristina Gauzzi, Laura Fantuzzi
The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytosine deaminases plays crucial roles in innate immunity through the ability of restricting viral replication by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. The antiviral function of these proteins was first discovered when research in the field of HIV infection revealed that one member of the family, namely APOBEC3G, restricts HIV infection in T lymphocytes and that the viral infectivity factor protein drives the proteosomal degradation of this enzyme, thus overriding its antiviral function...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345160/inherited-forms-of-bladder-cancer-a-review-of-lynch-syndrome-and-other-inherited-conditions
#9
Aaron Phelan, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi, Shaobo Zhang, Maria R Raspollini, Monica Cheng, Hristos Z Kaimakliotis, Michael O Koch, Liang Cheng
Environmental factors that play a role in the urothelial carcinogenesis have been well characterized. Current research is continuously exploring potential heritable forms of bladder cancer. Lynch syndrome is a well-known inheritable disease that increases the risk for a variety of cancers, including urothelial carcinomas. Screening of patients with known Lynch syndrome is important to evaluate for development of new primary tumors. Further study may provide more information on what level of follow-up each patient needs...
January 18, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345149/medical-management-of-brain-metastases-and-leptomeningeal-disease-in-patients-with-breast-carcinoma
#10
Kelsey M Bowman, Priya Kumthekar
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and accounts for the second highest number of cancer-related deaths. With patients surviving longer due to advances in systemic control, the incidence of CNS involvement is increasing; however, the management of CNS metastases has not undergone parallel advancements. The blood-brain barrier limits the efficacy of most systemic chemotherapies, and the utilization of surgery and radiation beyond first-line therapy is limited. We will explore the recent developments in the medical management of breast cancer brain metastasis...
January 18, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345131/photolithography-based-nanopatterning-using-re-entrant-photoresist-profile
#11
Tong Kim, Yei Hwan Jung, Huilong Zhang, Kwangeun Kim, Juhwan Lee, Zhenqiang Ma
Photolithography based on optical mask is widely used in academic research laboratories due to its low-cost, simple mechanism, and ability to pattern in micron sized features on a wafer scale area. Since the resolution is bound by diffraction limits of the light source, nano-scale patterning using photolithography requires short wavelength light source combined with sophisticated optical elements, adding complexity and cost. In this paper, a novel method of sub-wavelength patterning process using conventional i-line mercury lamp is introduced, without the use of such advanced optical tools...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345038/electrocatalytic-activity-of-2d-phosphorene-based-heteroelectrocatalyst-for-photoelectrochemical-cells
#12
Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Aabhash Shrestha, Munkhjargal Bat-Erdene, Md Julker Nine, Cameron James Shearer, Christopher Gibson, Ashley Slattery, Sherif Tawfik, Michael Ford, Sheng Dai, Shizhang Qiao, Joseph George Shapter
Research into efficient synthesis, fundamental properties and potential applications of phosphorene is currently the subject of intense investigation. Herein, solution processed phosphorene or few-layer black phosphorus (FL-BP) sheets are prepared using microwave-exfoliation method and used in photoelectrochemical cells. Based on our experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies, we found that the FL-BP sheets can act as catalytically active sites and show excellent electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction in solar cells...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344971/clear-cell-carcinomas-of-the-ovary-and-kidney-clarity-through-genomics
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer X Ji, Yi Kan Wang, Dawn R Cochrane, David G Huntsman
Clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCOC) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) both feature clear cytoplasm due to the accumulation of cytoplasmic glycogen. Genomic studies have demonstrated several mutational similarities between these two diseases including frequent alterations in the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF and cellular proliferation PI3K/mTOR pathways, as well as a shared hypoxia-like mRNA expression signature. Although many targeted treatment options have been approved for advance stage ccRCC, CCOC patients are still treated with conventional platinum and taxane chemotherapy, to which they are resistant...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344897/modeling-of-interactions-between-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-microenvironment-predicting-clinical-response
#14
Mary E Sehl, Max S Wicha
Mathematical models of cancer stem cells are useful in translational cancer research for facilitating the understanding of tumor growth dynamics and for predicting treatment response and resistance to combined targeted therapies. In this chapter, we describe appealing aspects of different methods used in mathematical oncology and discuss compelling questions in oncology that can be addressed with these modeling techniques. We describe a simplified version of a model of the breast cancer stem cell niche, illustrate the visualization of the model, and apply stochastic simulation to generate full distributions and average trajectories of cell type populations over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344887/phosphoproteomics-based-profiling-of-kinase-activities-in-cancer-cells
#15
Jakob Wirbel, Pedro Cutillas, Julio Saez-Rodriguez
Cellular signaling, predominantly mediated by phosphorylation through protein kinases, is found to be deregulated in most cancers. Accordingly, protein kinases have been subject to intense investigations in cancer research, to understand their role in oncogenesis and to discover new therapeutic targets. Despite great advances, an understanding of kinase dysfunction in cancer is far from complete.A powerful tool to investigate phosphorylation is mass-spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics, which enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylated peptides in a single experiment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344438/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344431/noncoding-rnas-in-wound-healing-a-new-and-vast-frontier
#17
REVIEW
Anna Luan, Michael S Hu, Tripp Leavitt, Elizabeth A Brett, Kevin C Wang, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Significance: Wound healing requires a highly orchestrated coordination of processes that are not yet fully understood. Therefore, available clinical therapies are thus far limited in their efficacy in preventing and treating both chronic wounds and scars. Current gene-based therapeutics is largely based on our understanding of the protein-coding genome and proteins involved in known wound healing pathways. Recent Advances: Noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs have recently been found to be significant modulators of gene expression in diverse cellular pathways...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344382/advanced-therapies-for-the-management-of-adults-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-due-to-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
Daniel L Varela, Mohamed Teleb, Wael El-Mallah
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) secondary to congenital heart disease (CHD) is the third most common cause of PAH, and it is becoming increasingly common as improvements in the management of CHD have led to increased life expectancy for these patients. The medical management of PAH due to CHD (PAH-CHD) is largely the same as what has been used for the treatment of idiopathic PAH, though the body of literature supporting this management decision is very small. There are currently few studies available which specifically focus on the treatment of PAH-CHD...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344287/role-of-mir-483-in-digestive-tract-cancers-from-basic-research-to-clinical-value
#19
REVIEW
Wei Zhou, Wanli Yang, Jiaojiao Ma, Hongwei Zhang, Zeng Li, Lei Zhang, Jinqiang Liu, Zhenyu Han, Hu Wang, Liu Hong
Digestive tract cancers (DTCs) is the most common malignant tumors in the world. Despite surgery and medical technology have witnessed the increasing development and sharp advancement in the past decade, DTCs remain a critical concern with high morbidity and mortality. Since a class of small noncoding RNAs termed miRNAs were identified several years ago, increasing studies have attempted to illustrate the relationship between the specific miRNAs dysregulated expression levels and the diseases phenotypic changes...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343931/effect-of-modified-slow-breathing-exercise-on-perceived-stress-and-basal-cardiovascular-parameters
#20
G Sunil Naik, G S Gaur, G K Pal
Context: Different types of breathing exercises have varied effects on cardiovascular parameters and the stress levels in an individual. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a modified form of isolated alternate nostril, slow breathing exercise on perceived stress, and cardiovascular parameters in young, male volunteers. Settings and Design: This was a randomized control study carried out at Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2014...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
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