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HIV coinfections

Jayme E Locke, Sally Gustafson, Shikha Mehta, Rhiannon D Reed, Brittany Shelton, Paul A MacLennan, Christine Durand, Jon Snyder, Nicholas Salkowski, Allan Massie, Deirdre Sawinski, Dorry L Segev
OBJECTIVE: To determine the survival benefit of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged as a viable option for select HIV-infected patients, concerns have been raised that risks of KT in HIV-infected patients are higher than those in their HIV-negative counterparts. Despite these increased risks, KT may provide survival benefit for the HIV-infected patient with ESRD, yet this important clinical question remains unanswered...
April 26, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Giselle Souza Pinto, Anelise Fernanda Zanolla, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Catarina Bertaso Andreatta Gottschall, Caroline Buss
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection may cause nutrient deficiency and affect the nutritional status.Objetive: To assess nutritional status, and energy and macronutrient intake in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated in a public hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by measurements of weight, height, waist circumference (WC), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), non-dominant hand gripltrength (NDHGS), body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Imane El Dika, James J Harding, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is becoming an important cause of mortality in patients with HIV, attributed to coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and the longer survival advantage these patients are achieving after introducing the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to hepatitis infection, immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection, direct impact of the virus on liver parenchyma, and the use of hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs, all contribute to HCC pathogenesis...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Ana Torrens, Patricia Bartholomay, Silvano Silva, Mohammed Khogali, Kristien Verdonck, Karen Bissell
Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB), as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and favorable TB treatment outcomes...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Gustavo Bergonzoli, Luis G Castellanos, Rodolfo Rodríguez, Lina María Garcia
Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Nora T Oliver, Christine M Hartman, Jennifer R Kramer, Elizabeth Y Chiao
INTRODUCTION: Chronic HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection carries increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Due to anti-inflammatory properties, 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) inhibitors (statins) may be useful adjunctive therapy to reduce liver disease progression. METHODS: Clinical information was extracted from the Veterans Affairs HIV and HCV Clinical Case Registries (1999-2010). HIV-related variables included combination antiretroviral therapy era of diagnosis, CD4 cell count, and percentage time with undetectable HIV viral load...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Qing Wang, Andrea De Luca, Colette Smith, Robert Zangerle, Helen Sambatakou, Fabrice Bonnet, Colette Smit, Philipp Schommers, Alicia Thornton, Juan Berenguer, Lars Peters, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Cristina Mussini, Jose M Miro, Deborah Konopnicki, Jan Fehr, Maria A Campbell, Monique Termote, Heiner C Bucher
Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-defining condition in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Whether chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promote NHL in HIV-infected patients is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether chronic HBV and HCV infection are associated with increased incidence of NHL in HIV-infected patients. Design: Cohort study. Setting: 18 of 33 cohorts from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE)...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1 infected individuals aged 15 to 39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 with immunosuppression and the use of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA)...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Marc Gregory Yu, Jenny Maureen Atun
Tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV-) PTC...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Susmita K Singh, Anna-Maria Andersson, Rada Ellegård, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Marie Larsson, Olle Stendahl, Robert Blomgran
HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Jennifer K Roe, Niclas Thomas, Eliza Gil, Katharine Best, Evdokia Tsaliki, Stephen Morris-Jones, Sian Stafford, Nandi Simpson, Karolina D Witt, Benjamin Chain, Robert F Miller, Adrian Martineau, Mahdad Noursadeghi
BACKGROUND. Novel rapid diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB) are required to overcome the time delays and inadequate sensitivity of current microbiological tests that are critically dependent on sampling the site of disease. Multiparametric blood transcriptomic signatures of TB have been described as potential diagnostic tests. We sought to identify the best transcript candidates as host biomarkers for active TB, extend the evaluation of their specificity by comparison with other infectious diseases, and to test their performance in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
October 11, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Ram S Kaulgud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
L A Enane, E D Lowenthal, T Arscott-Mills, M Matlhare, L S Smallcomb, B Kgwaadira, S E Coffin, A P Steenhoff
SETTING: Nine high-burden public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes among adolescents with TB and compare loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates with that among youth and adult cases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of TB cases registered from 2012 to 2014. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared among adolescents (age 10-19 years), youth (20-24 years) and a systematic sample of adults (⩾25 years)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Maria L Calero-Bernal, Isabel Martin-Garrido, Mikel Donazar-Ezcurra, Andrew H Limper, Eva M Carmona
Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Marina B Klein, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Linda Wittkop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is a common and an important comorbidity in HIV infection. We review current trends in mortality and the potential for early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HCV therapy to improve survival in coinfected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV/HCV coinfection increases risk of death from all causes, and from liver disease and harmful drug use in particular. There is growing evidence for a direct role of HIV in liver fibrogenesis and for cART to decrease the risk of dying from liver disease in coinfected persons...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Helene Ladefoged Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Christian Wejse
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. METHODS: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. RESULTS: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations...
October 7, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
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