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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#1
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530637/cell-penetrating-peptides-selectively-targeting-smad3-inhibit-profibrotic-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#2
Jeong-Han Kang, Mi-Yeon Jung, Xueqian Yin, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Danielle M Hernandez, Edward B Leof
TGF-β is considered a master switch in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. The primary mediators of this activity are the SMAD proteins, particularly SMAD3. In the current study, we have developed a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugate of the HIV TAT protein that is fused to an aminoterminal sequence of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), which was previously shown to bind phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3). We determined that specifically preventing the nuclear import of pSMAD3 using the TAT-SNX9 peptide inhibited profibrotic TGF-β activity in murine cells and human lung fibroblasts as well as in vivo with no demonstrable toxicity...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#4
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#5
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506734/mtor-vegf-pdgfr-and-c-kit-signaling-pathway-activation-in-kaposi-sarcoma
#6
Darcy A Kerr, Satya Vara Prasad Busarla, Devon C Gimbel, Aliyah R Sohani, Rosalynn M Nazarian
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a locally progressive, intermediate-grade vascular neoplasm with no known cure, high recurrence rates and potential for wide dissemination. Low efficacy and high toxicity limit current therapeutic options for advanced disease. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and c-kit signaling pathways has been implicated in KS pathogenesis and may suggest a role for targeted inhibitors. KS cases were retrospectively retrieved (n=274), most (90%) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
May 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506687/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-related-lymphomas-pathology-view-point
#7
REVIEW
Ebru Linke-Serinsöz, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
The contribution of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the HIV epidemic 35 years ago. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of HIV-related malignancies. Nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of malignances observed in HIV infected individuals, and the most common cause of cancer related-deaths...
April 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500742/amino-acids-at-positions-3-168-and-169-are-associated-with-the-ability-of-nef-proteins-from-hiv-1-crf01_ae-to-downmodulate-cd4
#8
Wen-Dong Kuang, Yan-Heng Zhou, Ping Zhong, Chiyu Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang
Several HIV-1 subtypes are co-circulating among various high-risk groups in China, and an increasing prevalence of CRF01_AE was observed among MSM (men who have sex with men) within recent years. Patients infected with CRF01_AE may experience a more rapid disease progression than patients infected with non-CRF01_AE; however, the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. HIV-1 Nef is a multifunctional protein and plays critical roles in viral pathogenesis. Nef downregulates CD4 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) to promote viral transmission and escape from the host immune response...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497113/toward-a-cure-does-host-immunity-play-a-role
#9
Jielin Zhang, Clyde S Crumpacker
Three decades of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS reveal that the human body has developed through evolution a genome immune system embodying epigenetic regulation against pathogenic nucleic acid invasion. In HIV infection, this epigenetic regulation plays a cardinal role in HIV RNA production that silences HIV transcription at a molecular (RNA) level, controls viral load at a cellular (biological) level, and governs the viremic stage of AIDS at the clinical (patient) level. Even though the human genome is largely similar among humans and HIV is a single viral species, human hosts show significant differences in viral RNA levels, ranging from cell to organ to individual and expressed as elite controllers, posttreatment controllers, and patients with AIDS...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489843/-non-cirrhotic-portal-hypertension-due-to-didanosina-a-rare-case
#10
María T Gamero, María Susana Gallardo, Víctor Aguilar, Eduar Bravo, Julissa Guevara, Fernando Mejia
Liver involvement is usually seen in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially in patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C, in alcohol abuse, etc. However, there is a group of patients who develop liver involvement and portal hypertension of unspecified cause. Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is a liver disorder recently described, but potentially serious. It has been reported in HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), specifically didanosine (DDI)...
January 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489788/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-a-patient-with-secondary-acute-lymphosarcoma-leukemia-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-rare-case-report-a-care-compliant-article
#11
Ning Zhao, Lei Liu, Junjie Xu
RATIONALE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, which may lead to blindness. CMV retinitis is not an uncommon infectious disease in patients with immune regulatory abnormalities, for example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, CMV retinitis in a patient with acute lymphosarcoma leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) phase is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A case of CMV retinitis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy as a part of ALL allogeneic HSCT is described including the pathogenesis, clinical signs, and therapy...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487203/mmps-timps-imbalances-in-the-peripheral-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-pilot-study
#12
Yanyan Xing, Nicole Shepherd, Jie Lan, Wei Li, Sushmita Rane, Samir K Gupta, Shanxiang Zhang, Jun Dong, Qigui Yu
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Growing evidence suggests that an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) contributes to the pathogenesis of HAND. In our present study, we examined protein levels and enzymatic activities of MMPs and TIMPs in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HIV-1 patients with or without HAND and HIV-1-negative controls...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474549/haart-in-hiv-aids-treatments-future-trends
#13
Da Yong Lu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Bin Xu, Jian Ding, Ting-Ren Lu, Hong Ying Wu
AIDS (acquired immune deficient syndrome) is a deadly human viral infectious disease caused by HIV (human immune-deficient virus) infection. Almost every AIDS patient losses his/her life before mid 1990s. AIDS was once the 1st disease killer in US (1993). After one decade hard work, antiviral drug cocktails-high active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have been invented for almost all HIV infection treatments. Due to the invention of HAART, 80-90% HIV/AIDS patients still effectively response to HAART for deadly AIDS episode controls and life saving...
May 5, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471947/measuring-and-managing-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv
#14
Sam Nightingale, Alan Winston
: Cognitive impairment remains a frequently reported complaint in HIV-positive patients despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Rates of cognitive impairment in antiretroviral treated HIV-positive cohorts vary and strongly depend on definitions utilized.The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and includes immune activation, neuroinflammation, antiretroviral neurotoxicity, the presence of noninfectious comorbidities such as vascular disease and depression and patient lifestyle factors such as recreational drug use...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471945/metabolic-concerns-in-aging-hiv-infected-persons-from-serum-lipid-phenotype-to-fatty-liver
#15
Giovanni Guaraldi, Amedeo Lonardo, Liliana Maia, Frank J Palella
: Among HIV-infected persons, the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) provides a window through which overall metabolic health can be evaluated. In this review, we summarize clinical data that support the roles of aging and metabolic dysregulation as factors contributing to fatty liver/NAFLD among HIV-infected persons.Age-related metabolic alterations include hepatic anatomic and functional changes, altered homeostasis of gastrointestinal microbiota and anthropometric changes (such as a shift of body fat depots from the subcutaneous to the visceral compartment) that are often associated with the development of insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471941/basic-science-and-pathogenesis-of-ageing-with-hiv-potential-mechanisms-and-biomarkers
#16
Claire Lagathu, Andrea Cossarizza, Véronique Béréziat, Milena Nasi, Jacqueline Capeau, Marcello Pinti
: The increased prevalence of age-related comorbidities and mortality is worrisome in ageing HIV-infected patients. Here, we aim to analyse the different ageing mechanisms with regard to HIV infection. Ageing results from the time-dependent accumulation of random cellular damage. Epigenetic modifications and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate ageing. In antiretroviral treatment-controlled patients, epigenetic clock appears to be advanced, and some haplogroups are associated with HIV infection severity. Telomere shortening is enhanced in HIV-infected patients because of HIV and some nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468838/hiv-1-tat-potently-stabilizes-mdm2-and-enhances-viral-replication
#17
Rameez Raja, Larance Ronsard, Sneh Lata, Shubhendu Trivedi, Akhil C Banerjea
Murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) is known to enhance the transactivation potential of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein by ubiquitinating it. However, the regulation of Mdm2 during HIV-1 infection and its implications on viral replication have not been well studied. Here, we show that the Mdm2 protein level increases during HIV-1 infection and this effect is mediated by HIV-1 Tat protein. Tat appears to stabilise Mdm2 at the post-translational level by inducing its phosphorylation at serine-166 position through AKT...
May 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468596/multiple-viral-infections-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma-a-model-of-viral-cooperation-in-lymphomagenesis
#18
Annunziata Gloghini, Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Riccardo Dolcetti, Italia Bongarzone, Paolo De Paoli, Antonino Carbone
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoid neoplasm mainly associated with HIV infection, presenting as pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial effusions. A defining property of PEL is its consistent association with Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, and, in most cases, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) co-infection. On these grounds, a review of the literature related to viral cooperation and lymphomagenesis can help to understand the complex interplay between KSHV and EBV in PEL pathogenesis...
May 4, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464004/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-associated-with-il-6-levels-and-monocyte-activation-in-hiv-infected-persons
#19
Maura Manion, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Eleanor M P Wilson, Frank Rhame, Erna Kojic, David Gibson, John Hammer, Pragna Patel, John T Brooks, Jason V Baker, Irini Sereti
BACKGROUND: Immune activation plays a key role in HIV pathogenesis. Markers of inflammation have been associated with vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Studies have also demonstrated associations of vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of HIV progression and death. The relationship between persistent inflammation and immune activation during chronic HIV infection and vitamin D deficiency remains unclear. METHODS: Cryopreserved specimens were analyzed from 663 participants at the time of enrollment from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study) from 2004 to 2006...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448764/mechanistic-insights-into-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Lanhui Huang, Hong Shi, Xinli Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the underlying pathogenesis of osteoporosis occurring in patients with lipodystrophy. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched using the following key terms: lipodystrophy, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density. Additional studies were obtained from the bibliographies of reports and reviews above by manual search. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy is a very rare disease characterized by pathologic alterations in the distribution of adipose tissues in association with a diverse range of metabolic derangements such as hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, diabetes and abnormal bone formation...
April 27, 2017: Endocrine Practice
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