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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243498/-cart-intensification-by-the-hiv-1-tat-b-clade-vaccine-progress-to-phase-iii-efficacy-studies
#1
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238427/hiv-associated-nephropathy-in-africa-pathology-clinical-presentation-and-strategy-for-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mohamed H Ahmed, Ahmed O Almobarak, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to progressive decline in renal function known as HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Importantly, individuals of African ancestry are more at risk of developing HIVAN than their European descent counterparts. An in-depth search on Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed was conducted using the terms "HIVAN" and "pathology and clinical presentation", in addition to "prevalence and risk factors for HIVAN", with special emphasis on African countries for any articles published between 1990 and 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237287/early-sites-of-virus-replication-after-oral-sivmac251-infection-of-infant-macaques-implications-for-pathogenesis
#3
Angela Amedee, Bonnie Phillips, Kara Jensen, Spencer Robichaux, Nedra Lacour, Mark Burke, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris
Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them via breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified viral RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 hours after oral SIVmac251 exposure. SIV DNA was detected as early as 48 hours, whereas SIV RNA was typically detected at later time points (72-96 hours)...
December 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233901/immune-mediated-damage-completes-the-parabola-cryptococcus-neoformans-pathogenesis-can-reflect-the-outcome-of-a-weak-or-strong-immune-response
#4
Liise-Anne Pirofski, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17) that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229573/merkel-cell-carcinoma-an-update-and-review-part-ii-current-and-future-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Tiffany L Tello, Kathleen Coggshall, Sue S Yom, Siegrid S Yu
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin associated with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases. It most commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas of Caucasian patients over the age of 65.1,2 The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is thought to be responsible for malignant transformation in approximately 80% of cases in the northern hemisphere,3 while ultraviolet radiation induced DNA damage is implicated in MCV-negative tumors.4 The overall incidence of MCC is low, with approximately 1600 cases diagnosed annually in the United States...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#6
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226013/novel-therapeutic-approach-for-inhibition-of-hiv-1-using-cell-penetrating-peptide-and-bacterial-toxins
#7
Steven Samuels, Zainab Alwan, Marceline Egnin, Jessie Jaynes, Terry D Connell, Gregory C Bernard, Toufic Nashar
Despite advancements in our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis, critical virus components for immunity, vaccines trials, and drugs development, challenges remain in the fight against HIV-1. Of great importance is the inhibitory function of microbicidal cell penetrating peptides and bacterial toxins that interfere with production and neutralize infection of HIV-1 particles. We demonstrate that the neutralizing activity of a cationic 18 amino acids peptide, is similar to a broadly neutralizing human antibody, and inhibits production of two HIV-1 strains in human cell lines...
October 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224373/pharmacotherapy-and-treatment-options-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#8
Steven Menez, Mohamad Hanouneh, Blaithin A McMahon, Derek M Fine, Mohamed G Atta
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide disease with significant mortality and morbidity. There are a multitude of HIV-related kidney diseases including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) most prominently. The risk of developing HIVAN increases with decreasing CD4 count, higher viral load, and based on genetic factors. The mortality rate for those with HIVAN-end stage renal disease (ESRD) remains 2.5-3 times higher than ESRD patient without HIVAN. Areas Covered: The epidemiology of HIVAN, particularly risk assessment will be explored in this review...
December 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219825/ending-the-epidemic-critical-role-of-primary-hiv-infection
#9
H A B Prins, A Verbon, C A B Boucher, C Rokx
Early identification and immediate treatment of individuals newly infected with HIV is important for two reasons: it benefits the long-term health of the infected patient, and it reduces onward HIV transmission. Primary HIV infection (PHI) reflects the period following HIV acquisition during which viraemia bursts until the establishment of a stable plasma HIV-RNA level approximately six months post infection. During this period, patients are particularly contagious and are often unaware of the infection. As a consequence, PHI disproportionally affects onward transmission...
October 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209326/retroviruses-as-myeloid-cell-riders-what-natural-human-siglec-1-knockouts-tell-us-about-pathogenesis
#10
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204904/the-functionality-of-african-specific-variants-in-the-tgfb1-regulatory-region-and-their-potential-role-in-hivan
#11
M Nel, J-M Buys, F C J Botha, N Wearne, S Prince, J M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Transcription of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is regulated by a polymorphic promoter region containing African-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Some of these SNPs have higher frequencies among Southern Africans compared to other African populations and their functionality has only been partially studied. Due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in Africans we hypothesized that functional African TGFB1-promoter SNPs may contribute to HIVAN pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197389/foamy-virus-zoonotic-infections
#12
Delia M Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R Stenbak, Maxine L Linial
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retroviruses, the Spumaretrovirinae. FV are ubiquitous in their natural hosts, which include cows, cats, and nonhuman primates (NHP). FV are transmitted mainly through saliva and appear nonpathogenic by themselves, but they may increase morbidity of other pathogens in coinfections...
December 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189172/cardiovascular-complications-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
Daniela Sofia Martins Pinto, Manuel Joaquim Lopes Vaz da Silva
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and prolonged ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerotic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection...
November 29, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173179/siv-coreceptor-specificity-in-natural-and-non-natural-host-infection-implications-for-cell-targeting-and-differential-outcomes-from-infection
#14
Katherine S Wetzel, Sarah T C Elliott, Ronald G Collman
Pathogenic HIV-1 infection of humans and SIVmac infection of macaques are the result of zoonotic transfer of primate immunodeficiency viruses from their natural hosts into non-natural host species. Natural host infections do not result in pathogenesis despite high levels of virus replication, and evidence suggests that differences in anatomical location and specific subsets of CD4+ T cells infected may underlie distinct outcomes from infection. The coreceptor CCR5 has long been considered the sole pathway for SIV entry and the key determinant of CD4+ cell targeting, but it has also been known that natural hosts express exceedingly low levels of CCR5 despite maintaining high levels of virus replication...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173176/the-siv-envelope-glycoprotein-viral-tropism-and-pathogenesis-novel-insights-from-nonhuman-primate-models-of-aids
#15
Adrienne E Swanstrom, Gregory Q Del Prete, Claire Deleage, Samra E Elser, Andrew A Lackner, James A Hoxie
BACKGROUND: Cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is closely linked to interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with CD4 and chemokine receptor family members, CCR5 and CXCR4. This interaction plays a key role in determining anatomic sites that are infected in vivo and the cascade of early and late events that result in chronic immune activation, immunosuppression and ultimately, AIDS. CD4+ T cells are critical to adaptive immune responses, and their early and rapid infection in gut lamina propria and secondary lymphoid tissues in susceptible hosts likely contributes to viral persistence and progression to disease...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170447/monocyte-derived-exosomes-upon-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-condensate-alter-their-characteristics-and-show-protective-effect-against-cytotoxicity-and-hiv-1-replication
#16
Sanjana Haque, Namita Sinha, Sabina Ranjit, Narasimha M Midde, Fatah Kashanchi, Santosh Kumar
Smoking is known to exacerbate HIV-1 pathogenesis, especially in monocytes, through the oxidative stress pathway. Exosomes are known to alter HIV-1 pathogenesis through inter-cellular communication. However, the role of exosomes in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on the characteristics of monocyte-derived exosomes and their influence on HIV-1 replication. Initially, we demonstrated that CSC reduced total protein and antioxidant capacity in exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected and uninfected macrophages...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165615/human-herpesvirus-8-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-with-interstitial-lung-disease
#17
Marcelo Comerlato Scotta, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Paula Renata Lima Machado, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Maria Célia Cervi, Benedito Antônio Lopes da Fonseca, Fabrizio Motta, Bento Vidal de Moura Negrini
Introduction: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi Sarcoma and interstitial pneumonitis in adults. This study aims to evaluate association between HHV-8 and interstitial lung disease in HIV-infected children. Methods: HIV-infected children with interstitial pneumonitis underwent lung biopsies in a tertiary hospital and were investigated for HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry in lung tissue...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164407/neurological-complications-of-hiv-infection
#18
REVIEW
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163528/the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-in-the-progression-of-hiv-aids-and-development-of-non-aids-defining-fibrotic-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Annette J Theron, Ronald Anderson, Theresa M Rossouw, Helen C Steel
Even after attainment of sustained viral suppression following implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons continue to experience persistent, low-grade, systemic inflammation. Among other mechanisms, this appears to result from ongoing microbial translocation from a damaged gastrointestinal tract. This HIV-related chronic inflammatory response is paralleled by counteracting, but only partially effective, biological anti-inflammatory processes. Paradoxically, however, this anti-inflammatory response not only exacerbates immunosuppression but also predisposes for development of non-AIDS-related, non-communicable disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163506/the-significance-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
Bowen Wang, Wen Kang, Jiahui Zuo, Wenzhen Kang, Yongtao Sun
Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are a widely expressed family that could promote antivirus immunity in the process of pathogens invasion. In a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual, the production of IFN-I can be detected as early as the acute phase and will persist throughout the course of infection. However, sustained stimulation of immune system by IFN-I also contributes greatly to host-mediated immunopathology and diseases progression. Although the protective effects of IFN-I in the acute phase of HIV-1 infection have been observed, more studies recently focus on their detrimental role in the chronic stage...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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