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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028667/impact-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-microbiome-unknown-answers-to-important-questions
#1
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nichole R Klatt, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known on how different antiretroviral (ARV) drugs affect the gut microbiome in HIV infection; and conflicting data exists on the effect of ARV drugs on residual inflammation/immune activation and microbial translocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut microbiome involvement in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV infection is increasingly being recognized. Various studies have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to restore gut health despite effective suppression of plasma HIV viremia...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028666/microbial-translocation-translating-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-to-hiv
#2
Alexandra M Ortiz, Jason M Brenchley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article describes recent advances in understanding the causes and consequences of microbial translocation in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent microbial translocation contributes to aberrant immune activation in immunodeficiency lentiviral infections and thereby, pathogenesis and mortality. Efforts to delineate the circumstances surrounding translocation have benefited from use of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and highlight the overwhelming immunologic diversion caused by translocating microbes...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026923/nonhuman-primate-models-for-studies-of-aids-virus-persistence-during-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Gregory Q Del Prete, Jeffrey D Lifson
Nonhuman primate (NHP) models of AIDS represent a potentially powerful component of the effort to understand in vivo sources of AIDS virus that persist in the setting of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and to develop and evaluate novel strategies for more definitive treatment of HIV infection (i.e., viral eradication "cure", or sustained off-cART remission). Multiple different NHP models are available, each characterized by a particular NHP species, infecting virus, and cART regimen, and each with a distinct capacity to recapitulate different aspects of HIV infection...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026137/opiate-use-inhibits-tlr9-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-possible-role-in-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#4
Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, Bingyu Liang, Fumei Wei, Jiegang Huang, Peijiang Pan, Jinming Su, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Li Ye, Hao Liang
The molecular mechanism of opiate use promoting HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. TLR9 is expressed in many immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, which can recognize viruses and viral products and consequently induce the production of antiviral factors and initiate immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chronic viral infections can overcome and impair TLR9 pathway. We aimed to explore whether opiate use enhances HIV infection through inhibition of TLR9 pathway via a population-based study...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020646/hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae-and-b-differ-in-utilization-of-low-levels-of-ccr5-maraviroc-susceptibility-and-potential-n-glycosylation-sites
#5
Anjali Joshi, Emily K Cox, Melina J Sedano, Erin B Punke, Raphael Tc Lee, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Palvinder Kaur, Oon Tek Ng, Himanshu Garg
HIV subtypes not only predominate in different geographical regions but also differ in key phenotypic characteristics. To determine if genotypic and/or phenotypic differences in the Envelope (Env) glycoprotein can explain subtype related differences, we cloned 37 full length Envs from Subtype B and AE HIV infected individuals from Singapore. Our data demonstrates that CRF01_AE Envs have lower Potential N Glycosylation Sites and higher risk of ×4 development. Phenotypically, CRF01_AE were less infectious than subtype B Envs in cells expressing low levels of CCR5...
October 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020289/a-novel-human-pegivirus-hpgv-2-hhpgv-1-is-tightly-associated-with-hcv-infection-and-hcv-hiv-1-co-infection
#6
Haiying Wang, Zhengwei Wan, Ru Xu, Yujuan Guan, Nalin Zhu, Jianping Li, Zhiwei Xie, Aiqi Lu, Fuchun Zhang, Yongshui Fu, Shixing Tang
Background: HPgV-2 is a novel blood-borne human pegivirus that mainly infects HCV-infected subjects. We have investigated the prevalence of HPgV-2 in China, its association with HCV and HIV-1, and the impact on HCV viral load and liver damage. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with both blood donors and HCV- and HIV-1-infected patients in Guangzhou, China. All subjects were screened for antiHPgV-2 and HPgV-2 RNA. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from electronic medical records...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020237/hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-chest-radiographic-and-high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings
#7
Sujal R Desai, Arjun Nair, Jamie Rylance, Hilda Mujuru, Kusum Nathoo, Grace McHugh, Edith Majonga, John Metcalfe, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
Background: Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with HIV. We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6 to 16 years taking antiretroviral therapy for at least six months in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods: Consecutive participants from a HIV clinic underwent clinical assessment and chest radiography (CXR). Participants with an abnormal CXR (assessed by a clinician) and/or those meeting a clinical case definition for chronic lung disease (CLD) underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#8
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018505/head-and-neck-lymphomas-in-hiv-patients-a-clinical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Natsuki Oishi, José Vicente Bagán, Karla Javier, Enrique Zapater
Introduction  Because of the many HIV-related malignancies, the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus are challenging. Objective  Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck lymphomas in HIV patients from a clinical perspective. Data Synthesis  Although Hodgkin's lymphoma is not an AIDS-defining neoplasm, its prevalence is ten times higher in HIV patients than in the general population...
October 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993637/htlv-1-bzip-factor-suppresses-tdp1-expression-through-inhibition-of-nrf-1-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#10
Yoko Takiuchi, Masayuki Kobayashi, Kohei Tada, Fumie Iwai, Maki Sakurada, Shigeki Hirabayashi, Kayoko Nagata, Kotaro Shirakawa, Keisuke Shindo, Jun-Ichirou Yasunaga, Yasuhiro Murakawa, Vinodh Rajapakse, Yves Pommier, Masao Matsuoka, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We recently reported that abacavir, an anti-HIV-1 drug, potently and selectively kills ATL cells. This effect was attributed to the reduced expression of tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a DNA repair enzyme, in ATL cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the downregulation of TDP1 in ATL cells remains elusive. Here we identified the core promoter of the TDP1 gene, which contains a conserved nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) binding site...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992464/pathogenesis-of-infections-in-hiv-infected-individuals-insights-from-primary-immunodeficiencies
#11
REVIEW
Qian Zhang, Pierre Frange, Stéphane Blanche, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Following infection with almost any given microorganism other than an emerging pathogen, only a minority of individuals develop life-threatening clinical disease, implying that these individuals have some form of immunodeficiency. A growing number of inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies have been deciphered over the last 50 years. HIV infection is probably the best-known acquired immunodeficiency. It emerged about 40 years ago and precipitates various severe infections, the occurrence of which is associated with a fall in circulating CD4(+) T cells...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991189/translational-implication-of-galectin-9-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-viral-infection
#12
REVIEW
Jenn-Haung Lai, Shue-Fen Luo, Mei-Yi Wang, Ling-Jun Ho
The interaction between galectin-9 and its receptor, Tim-3, triggers a series of signaling events that regulate immune responses. The expression of galectin-9 has been shown to be increased in a variety of target cells of many different viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza virus, dengue virus (DENV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This enhanced expression of galectin-9 following viral infection promotes significant changes in the behaviors of the virus-infected cells, and the resulting events tightly correlate with the immunopathogenesis of the viral disease...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990586/immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Michelle N Wykes, Sharon R Lewin
The upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), on immune cells occurs during acute infections, such as malaria, as well as during chronic persistent viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. These pathways are important for preventing immune-driven pathology but can also limit immune-mediated clearance of the infection. The recent success of immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy suggests that targeting these pathways would also be effective for preventing and treating a range of infectious diseases...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#14
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984703/pathophysiology-of-ischaemic-heart-disease
#15
Mamatha O Pocock, Lucy Dorrell, Paola Cicconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: PLWH have an elevated risk of IHD. Although incidence is declining, this condition still represents a major cause of non-AIDS-related mortality. The cause is likely multifactorial: traditional risk factors play an important role and IHD risk might be reduced with greater emphasis on primary prevention. The contribution of specific antiretroviral agents to IHD risk is changing as antiretroviral coverage increases globally and as safer agents have replaced drugs with well-described metabolic toxicities...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984701/hiv-related-cardiovascular-disease-closing-the-gap-in-mortality
#16
Cameron J Holloway, Franck Boccara
: This series of review articles outlines the complex cause of HIV-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) particularly the interactions of viral factors, complications of antiviral therapy such as metabolic derangement, and chronic systemic inflammation. These factors, directly stemming from chronic HIV infection, are important in the pathogenesis of HIV-related CVD. Addressing each issue has likely underpinned the improved morbidity and increased life expectancy enjoyed by patients in the modern era of HIV management...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984642/viral-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-novel-updates-and-a-review-of-the-classics
#17
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize new discoveries in viral pathogenesis and novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: For decades, prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been the standard preventive strategy, but new clinical trials are expected to determine the advantages of preemptive therapy over prophylaxis. Novel anti-CMV agents, such as maribavir and letermovir, are being studied for the treatment of resistant/refractory CMV as alternatives to foscarnet and cidofovir...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975505/an-siv-macaque-model-targeted-to-study-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Lisa M Mangus, Celina M Abreu, Lucio Gama, Kenneth W Witwer, Robert J Adams, M Christine Zink, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of pigtailed macaques is a highly representative and well-characterized animal model for HIV neuropathogenesis studies that provides an excellent opportunity to study and develop prognostic markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for HIV-infected individuals. SIV studies can be performed in a controlled setting that enhances reproducibility and offers high-translational value. Similar to observations in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation are present in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques treated with suppressive ART...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971485/evolution-of-the-serologic-and-virologic-course-of-occult-hbv-infection-in-therapy-experienced-hiv-co-infected-patients
#19
Edina Amponsah-Dacosta, Selokela G Selabe, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
BACKGROUND: We investigated how the natural course of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) may evolve during HIV co-infection and long term HBV-active HAART. METHODS: From a cohort of 181 HIV infected patients who were consecutively recruited over a 5 year period, 28 HBV co-infected patients with sequential sera (n = 98) were identified. Iterative HBV serology and viral loads were determined before and during treatment. The viral HBsAg gene was then serially amplified, directly sequenced and molecularly characterized...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969557/impact-of-high-protein-intake-on-viral-load-and-hematological-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Evgeny Vlad Butorov
BACKGROUND: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses...
October 2, 2017: Current HIV Research
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