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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814519/extracellular-matrix-proteins-mediate-hiv-1-gp120-interactions-with-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7
#1
David Plotnik, Wenjin Guo, Brad Cleveland, Priska von Haller, Jimmy K Eng, Miklos Guttman, Kelly K Lee, James Arthos, Shiu-Lok Hu
Gut-homing α4β7(high) CD4(+) T lymphocytes have been shown to be preferentially targeted by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV), and are implicated in HIV pathogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that HIV envelope protein gp120 binds and signals through α4β7, and that this likely contributes to the infection of α4β7(high) T cells and promotes cell-to-cell virus transmission. Structures within the second variable loop (V2) of gp120, including the tripeptide motif LDV/I, are thought to mediate gp120-α4β7 binding...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#2
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#3
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806866/molecular-screening-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-typing-of-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mcv-from-genital-specimens-between-2012-and-2015
#4
Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Amir Hossein Mohseni, Hossein Keyvani, Narges Ghobadi
Background: The present study is the first comprehensive report of the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in Iran based on the molecular technique for differentiation and typing of the MCV1 and MCV2. Methods: Patients were diagnosed as having tumor-like genital warts less than 5 mm in diameter, and HIV seronegative samples were chosen for this cross-sectional study. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to identify MCV following clinical examination. Typing of the MCV-positive specimens was performed in the SNP A27451G region of MC021L gene...
August 15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803049/modeling-aging-in-hiv-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-to-address-an-emerging-challenge-of-the-post-art-era
#5
REVIEW
Tianyu He, Elizabeth Falwell, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Ivona Pandrea
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved both quality and length of life for subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), delaying or preventing progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the virus induces aging-related changes to the immune system which confound treatment. Additionally, the normal physiologic events that occur during aging lead to deficiencies in immunity which not only exacerbate HIV pathogenesis but also trigger a variety of comorbidities...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796293/il7ra-polymorphisms-are-not-associated-with-aids-progression
#6
Luz María Medrano, José Luis Jiménez, María A Jiménez-Sousa, Amanda Fernández-Rodíguez, Mónica Gutiérrez-Rivas, José María Bellón, José Ramón Blanco, Alexy Inciarte, Mª Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine whether α-chain of the IL-7 Receptor (IL7RA) polymorphisms (rs10491434, rs6897932, and rs987106) are associated with the clinical pattern of AIDS progression in ART-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 673 HIV-infected patients who were classified into three groups according to the clinical pattern of AIDS progression (188 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), 334 moderate progressors (MPs), and 151 rapid progressors (RPs))...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793779/comparative-susceptibility-of-rhesus-macaques-of-indian-and-chinese-origin-to-vaginal-shiv-transmission-as-models-for-hiv-prevention-research
#7
Ronald Veazey, Binhua Ling
Historically, Indian origin rhesus macaques (iRM) have been preferred for SIV/HIV prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment studies, yet their supply is limited. Chinese origin rhesus macaques (cRM) are currently more available yet little is known regarding the relative susceptibility of this subspecies to vaginal transmission of SIV or SHIV. Here we compared the susceptibility of 40 cRM and 21 iRM to a single vaginal challenge with SHIVsf162P. Our results showed cRM have comparable primary SHIV infection as iRM, underscoring their equal importance in studies of HIV transmission and prevention...
August 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769934/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-immune-regulation-how-do-classical-and-non-classical-hla-alleles-modulate-immune-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infections
#8
REVIEW
Nicole B Crux, Shokrollah Elahi
The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8(+) T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766549/-analysis-of-inpatient-care-for-hiv-positive-patients-with-malignant-lymphomas-and-hepatitis-over-5-years-2011-2015-at-the-a-s-loginov-moscow-clinical-research-center-moscow-healthcare-department
#9
A V Pivnik, M V Tumanova, A V Chistyakova, G A Dudina, M G Dubnitskaya, O V Mukhin, E P Sergeeva
The authors give their own data in the first Russian publication on 170 patients with lymphomas and hepatitis concurrent with HIV infection, on the distribution of therapy regimens by nosological entities and the number of deaths. Conventional protocols and programs were used for diagnosis and treatment. All the patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lymphoma was treated according to the conventional programs using rituximab in people without hepatitis B. Aggressive lymphomas, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and plasmablastic lymphoma, were identified in most patients...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763793/virion-incorporation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-facilitates-hiv-1-infection-and-intestinal-homing
#10
Christina Guzzo, David Ichikawa, Chung Park, Damilola Phillips, Qingbo Liu, Peng Zhang, Alice Kwon, Huiyi Miao, Jacky Lu, Catherine Rehm, James Arthos, Claudia Cicala, Myron S Cohen, Anthony S Fauci, John H Kehrl, Paolo Lusso
The intestinal mucosa is a key anatomical site for HIV-1 replication and CD4(+) T cell depletion. Accordingly, in vivo treatment with an antibody to the gut-homing integrin α4β7 was shown to reduce viral transmission, delay disease progression, and induce persistent virus control in macaques challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We show that integrin α4β7 is efficiently incorporated into the envelope of HIV-1 virions. Incorporated α4β7 is functionally active as it binds mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), promoting HIV-1 capture by and infection of MAdCAM-expressing cells, which in turn mediate trans-infection of bystander cells...
May 12, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756985/concomitant-epstein-barr-virus-associated-smooth-muscle-tumor-and-granulomatous-inflammation-of-the-liver
#11
Nhu Thuy Can, James P Grenert, Poonam Vohra
Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity...
July 13, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752495/changing-clinical-phenotypes-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#12
Ned Sacktor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a common cause of cognitive impairment and persists in 15-55% of HIV+ individuals in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. CART is now the primary treatment for HAND, but it is effective in only a subset of patients. In the pre-CART era, HIV-associated dementia was the most common form of HAND. However, in CART-treated patients, the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia has declined substantially, and milder stages of HAND, i.e., ANI and MND predominate...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752134/hiv-infection-of-macrophages-implications-for-pathogenesis-and-cure
#13
Kiera L Clayton, J Victor Garcia, Janice E Clements, Bruce D Walker
Although CD4(+) T cells represent the major reservoir of persistent HIV and SIV infection, accumulating evidence suggests that macrophages also contribute. However, investigations of the role of macrophages are often underrepresented at HIV pathogenesis and cure meetings. This was the impetus for a scientific workshop dedicated to this area of study, held in Cambridge, MA in January 2017. The workshop brought together experts in the fields of HIV/SIV immunology and virology, macrophage biology and immunology, and animal models of HIV/SIV infection to discuss the role of macrophages as a physiologically relevant viral reservoir, and the implications of macrophage infection for HIV pathogenesis and strategies for cure...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749986/the-role-of-the-tissue-factor-and-its-inhibitor-in-the-development-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-people-living-with-hiv
#14
Katarzyna Barska, Wiesława Kwiatkowska, Brygida Knysz, Katarzyna Arczyńska, Maciej Karczewski, Wojciech Witkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in connection with atherosclerosis and thromboembolic complications. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still unclear in this group of patients. Studies on pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population emphasize the role of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, particularly the tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The effect of persistent activation of the immune system on enhanced expression of TF on the surface of monocytes in subjects infected with HIV is known to be correlated with the level of HIV RNA in blood serum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747499/effects-of-the-inner-nuclear-membrane-proteins-sun1-unc-84a-and-sun2-unc-84b-on-the-early-steps-of-hiv-1-infection
#15
Torsten Schaller, Lorenzo Bulli, Darja Pollpeter, Gilberto Betancor, Juliane Kutzner, Luis Apolonia, Nikolas Herold, Robin Burk, Michael H Malim
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and non-dividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study ofHIVand its interaction with the human immune system...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745217/evaluation-of-salivary-melatonin-levels-in-hiv-positive-patients-a-historical-cohort-study-running-title-salivary-melatonin-in-hiv
#17
Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel, Samaneh Vaziri-Amjad, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Lida Samie, Jalal Poorolajal
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects lymphocytes, resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oxidative stress may play an important role in HIV pathogenesis. Melatonin has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary melatonin levels in HIV-positive patients and a healthy control group. METHODS: Forty-nine HIV-positive and 49 healthy subjects were included in this study...
July 25, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736762/confusion-in-the-study-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#18
Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
As a consequence of late presentation for HIV care, a significant proportion of individuals develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incidence, predictors, and models of pathogenesis of IRIS vary in the literature. Here we discuss factors that may contribute to this lack of consensus. We propose that different pathogens drive different types of IRIS and suggest that these clinical conditions should be studied individually and not grouped under the general heading of "IRIS...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729737/direct-binding-to-gabarap-family-members-is-essential-for-hiv-1-nef-plasma-membrane-localization
#19
Alexandra Boeske, Melanie Schwarten, Peixiang Ma, Markus Tusche, Jessica Mötter, Christina Möller, Philipp Neudecker, Silke Hoffmann, Dieter Willbold
HIV-1 Nef is an important pathogenic factor for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. Studies have shown that the association of Nef with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and with endocytic and perinuclear vesicles is essential for most activities of Nef. Using purified recombinant proteins in pull-down assays and by co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that Nef binds directly and specifically to all GABARAP family members, but not to LC3 family members. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments we showed that Nef binds to GABARAP via two surface exposed hydrophobic pockets...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720441/increased-tnf-alpha-and-stnfr2-levels-are-associated-with-high-grade-anal-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-cd4-level
#20
Takeshi Haga, Jimmy T Efird, Sharof Tugizov, Joel M Palefsky
Compared with HIV-negative individuals, HIV-positive individuals have a higher prevalence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the causative agent of anogenital cancer. TNF-alpha is a major proinflammatory cytokine. sTNFR2 is the soluble form of one of its receptors and is strongly expressed on stimulated lymphocytes. To further understand the role of TNF-alpha, sTNFR2 and other cytokines in the pathogenesis in HPV-related neoplasia, the profiles of serum cytokines in high-risk patients were analyzed for association with anal lesion status...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
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