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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720441/increased-tnf-alpha-and-stnfr2-levels-are-associated-with-high-grade-anal-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-cd4-level
#1
Takeshi Haga, Jimmy T Efird, Sharof Tugizov, Joel M Palefsky
Compared with HIV-negative individuals, HIV-positive individuals have a higher prevalence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the causative agent of anogenital cancer. TNF-alpha is a major proinflammatory cytokine. sTNFR2 is the soluble form of one of its receptors and is strongly expressed on stimulated lymphocytes. To further understand the role of TNF-alpha, sTNFR2 and other cytokines in the pathogenesis in HPV-related neoplasia, the profiles of serum cytokines in high-risk patients were analyzed for association with anal lesion status...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705764/a-survey-of-ddx21-activity-during-rev-rre-complex-formation
#2
John A Hammond, Li Zhou, Rajan Lamichhane, Hui-Yi Chu, David P Millar, Larry Gerace, James R Williamson
HIV-1 requires a specialized nuclear export pathway to transport unspliced and partially spliced viral transcripts to the cytoplasm. Central to this pathway is the viral protein Rev, which binds to the Rev response element in stem IIB located on unspliced viral transcripts and subsequently oligomerizes in a cooperative manner. Previous work identified a number of cellular DEAD-box helicases as in vivo binding partners of Rev, and siRNA experiments indicated a functional role for many in the HIV replication cycle...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701422/new-highly-sensitive-real-time-pcr-assay-for-hiv-2-group-a-and-group-b-dna-quantification
#3
Mélanie Bertine, Marie Gueudin, Adeline Mélard, Florence Damond, Diane Descamps, Sophie Matheron, Fidéline Collin, Christine Rouzioux, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel
HIV-2 infection is characterized by a very low replication in most cases and low progression. That necessitates a different approach to patient monitoring than that for HIV-1 infection. Here, a new, highly specific, and sensitive method for HIV-2 DNA quantification has been developed. The new test is based on quantitative real-time PCR, targeting the LTR and Gag regions and using an internal control. Analytical performance was determined in three laboratories and clinical performance on blood samples from 63 patients infected with HIV-2 group A (n=35) or group B (n=28)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701403/monoclonal-antibodies-derived-from-humans-vaccinated-with-the-rv144-hiv-vaccine-containing-the-hvem-binding-domain-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-glycoprotein-d-neutralize-hsv-infection-mediate-adcc-and-protect-mice-from-ocular-challenge-with-hsv-1
#4
Kening Wang, Georgia D Tomaras, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, Kyle Goodman, Phillip W Berman, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayapan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Barton F Haynes, Jeffrey I Cohen
The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD), such that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection as well as antibodies to HSV...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701272/sexually-transmitted-infections-challenges-ahead
#5
REVIEW
Magnus Unemo, Catriona S Bradshaw, Jane S Hocking, Henry J C de Vries, Suzanna C Francis, David Mabey, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Gerard J B Sonder, Jane R Schwebke, Elske Hoornenborg, Rosanna W Peeling, Susan S Philip, Nicola Low, Christopher K Fairley
WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have prioritised five areas that represent particular challenges in STI treatment and control. Chlamydia remains the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in high-income countries despite widespread testing recommendations, sensitive and specific non-invasive testing techniques, and cheap effective therapy...
July 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698276/a-novel-single-cell-fish-flow-assay-identifies-effector-memory-cd4-t-cells-as-a-major-niche-for-hiv-1-transcription-in-hiv-infected-patients
#6
Judith Grau-Expósito, Carla Serra-Peinado, Lucia Miguel, Jordi Navarro, Adrià Curran, Joaquin Burgos, Imma Ocaña, Esteban Ribera, Ariadna Torrella, Bibiana Planas, Rosa Badía, Josep Castellví, Vicenç Falcó, Manuel Crespo, Maria J Buzon
Cells that actively transcribe HIV-1 have been defined as the "active viral reservoir" in HIV-infected individuals. However, important technical limitations have precluded the characterization of this specific viral reservoir during both treated and untreated HIV-1 infections. Here, we used a novel single-cell RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry (FISH-flow) assay that requires only 15 million unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the specific cell subpopulations that transcribe HIV RNA in different subsets of CD4(+) T cells...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694706/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-of-angiogenesis-related-genes-and-their-role-in-hiv-related-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Nonkululeko N Mthembu, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
Alternative splicing of mRNA leads to an increase in proteome biodiversity by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs, coding for multiple protein isoforms of various structural and functional properties from a single primary pre-mRNA transcript. The protein isoforms produced are tightly regulated in normal development but are mostly deregulated in various cancers. In HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, there is an increase in aberrant alternative splicing, resulting in an increase in HIV/AIDS-related cancers, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692539/hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-co-infection-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#8
Kasha P Singh, Megan Crane, Jennifer Audsley, Sharon R Lewin
: HIV infection has a significant impact on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with increased levels of HBV DNA, accelerated progression of liver disease, and increased liver-associated mortality compared with HBV monoinfection. Widespread uptake and early initiation of HBV-active antiretroviral therapy has substantially improved the natural history of HIV-HBV coinfection but the prevalence of liver disease remains elevated in this population. In this paper, we review recent studies examining the natural history and pathogenesis of liver disease and seroconversion in HIV-HBV coinfection in the era of HBV-active antiretroviral therapy and the effects of HIV directly on liver disease...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692538/metabolic-syndrome-and-obesity-are-the-cornerstones-of-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-monoinfected-patients-results-of-the-metafib-study
#9
Maud Lemoine, Karine Lacombe, Jean Philippe Bastard, Manuela Sébire, Laurent Fonquernie, Nadia Valin, Soraya Fellahi, Jacqueline Capeau, Pierre-Marie Girard, Jean-Luc Meynard
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have become a common finding in HIV-infected patients. However, the severity, risk factors and pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this population have been poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: to assess the impact of MetS on liver fibrosis and analyze the association between MetS, liver fibrosis and markers of adipose tissue and macrophage activation. METHODS: In a matched cohort of HIV-1-monoinfected patients with and without MetS, after exclusion of other causes of liver disease, we assessed liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measured levels of serum adipokines, HOMA index and soluble CD163 and CD14 as markers of fat, insulin resistance and macrophage/monocyte activation, respectively...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690189/efavirenz-what-is-known-about-the-cellular-mechanisms-responsible-for-its-adverse-effects
#10
REVIEW
Nadezda Apostolova, Ana Blas-Garcia, Maria J Galindo, Juan V Esplugues
The HIV infection remains an important health problem worldwide. However, due to the efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), it has ceased to be a mortal condition, becoming a chronic disease instead. Efavirenz, the most prescribed non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been a key component of cART since its commercialization in 1998. Though still a drug of choice in many countries, its primacy has been challenged by the arrival of newer antiretroviral agents with better toxicity profiles and treatment adherence...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688086/sequencing-the-biology-of-entry-the-retroviral-env-gene
#11
Ronald Swanstrom, William D Graham, Shuntai Zhou
The surface envelope protein of any virus is major determinant of the host cell that is infected and as a result a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. Retroviruses have a single surface protein named Env. It is a trimer of heterodimers and is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor and mediating fusion between the viral and host membranes. In this review we will discuss the history of the discovery of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env proteins and their receptor specificity, comparing the many differences but having some similarities...
July 9, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685417/the-lymph-node-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Yiannis Dimopoulos, Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas
Lymph nodes play a central role in the development of adaptive immunity against pathogens and particularly the generation of antigen-specific B cell responses in specialized areas called germinal centers (GCs). Lymph node (LN) pathology was recognized as an important consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Investigation into the structural and functional alterations induced by HIV and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has further cemented the central role that lymphoid tissue plays in HIV/SIV pathogenesis...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668191/monoclonal-b-cell-lymphocytosis-in-a-hospital-based-uk-population-and-a-rural-ugandan-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Andy C Rawstron, Aloysius Ssemaganda, Ruth de Tute, Chi Doughty, Darren Newton, Anna Vardi, Paul A S Evans, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Roger G Owen, Tracy Lightfoot, Katie Wakeham, Alex Karabarinde, Gershim Asiki, Robert Newton
BACKGROUND: Reported incidence of B-cell malignancies shows substantial geographical variation, being more common in the Americas and Europe than in Africa. This variation might reflect differences in diagnostic capability, inherited susceptibility, and infectious exposures. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a precursor lesion that can be screened for in apparently healthy people, allowing comparison of prevalence across different populations independently of health-care provision...
July 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664622/subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-low-framingham-risk-hiv-patients
#14
Rafael León, Sergio Reus, Nicolás López, Irene Portilla, José Sánchez-Payá, Livia Giner, Vicente Boix, Esperanza Merino, Diego Torrús, Óscar Moreno, Joaquín Portilla
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex and differences between HIV-infected patients and general population cannot be completely explained by the higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to analyse the association between inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV patients with low Framingham risk score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case-control study. SETTING: outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic in a university hospital...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661459/macrophages-and-phospholipases-at-the-intersection-between-inflammation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Spadaro, Serena Cecchetti, Laura Fantuzzi
Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4⁺ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660234/isolation-of-exosomes-from-semen-for-in-vitro-uptake-and-hiv-1-infection-assays
#16
Marisa N Madison, Jennifer L Welch, Chioma M Okeoma
Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles of endocytic origin. Exosomes are known to carry host and pathogen-derived genomic, proteomic, lipidomic cargos and other extraneous molecules. Exosomes are secreted by diverse cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient neighboring or distal cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes...
April 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659473/the-pace-of-co-receptor-tropism-switch-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-after-recent-infection
#17
Muhammad Shoaib Arif, James Hunter, Ana Rachel Léda, Jean Paulo Lopes Zukurov, Sadia Samer, Michelle Camargo, Juliana Galinskas, Esper Georges Kallás, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Luiz Mario Janini, Maria Cecilia Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
HIV-1 entry into target cells influences several aspects of HIV-1 pathogenesis including viral tropism, HIV-1 transmission and disease progression and response to entry inhibitors. The evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4-using strains in a given human host is still unpredictable. Here we analyzed timing and predictors for co-receptor evolution among recently HIV-1 infected individuals. Proviral DNA was longitudinally evaluated in 66 individuals using Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] Demographics, viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GBV-C and HLA profiles were also evaluated...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659343/the-host-cell-restriction-factor-serinc5-restricts-hiv-1-infectivity-without-altering-the-lipid-composition-and-organization-of-viral-particles
#18
Birthe Trautz, Hannah Wiedemann, Christian L Uumlchtenborg, Virginia Pierini, Jan Kranich, B Aumlrbel Glass, Hans-Georg Kr Aumlusslich, Thomas Brocker, Massimo Pizzato, Alessia Ruggieri, Britta Br Uumlgger, Oliver T Fackler
The host-cell restriction factor SERINC5 potently suppresses the infectivity of HIV-1 particles and is counteracted by the viral pathogenesis factor Nef. However, the molecular mechanism by which SERINC5 restricts HIV-1 particle infectivity is still unclear. Since SERINC proteins have been suggested to facilitate the incorporation of serine during the biosynthesis of membrane lipids and because lipid composition of HIV particles is a major determinant of the particles infectious potential, we tested whether SERINC5-mediated restriction of HIV particle infectivity involves alterations of membrane lipid composition...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650939/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-nonprogressors
#19
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status, and their proliferation ability in 32 long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) along with 35 HIV-1-negative subjects using multicolor flow cytometry...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#20
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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