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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452950/dynamic-fungal-cell-wall-architecture-in-stress-adaptation-and-immune-evasion
#1
REVIEW
Alex Hopke, Alistair J P Brown, Rebecca A Hall, Robert T Wheeler
Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451987/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-ratio-with-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Catalin Tiliscan, Victoria Arama, Raluca Mihailescu, Daniela Munteanu, Diana Gabriela Iacob, Cristina Popescu, Remulus Catana, Anca Negru, Alina Lobodan, Stefan Sorin Arama
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and leptin are adipose tissue hormones that regulate important lipid and glucose metabolic pathways. Our objective was to evaluate the interplay of these hormones described by the adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) in correlation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled consecutive nondiabetic patients with confirmed HIV infection, undergoing stable ART regimens for at least six months...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447279/regulatory-t-cells-in-retroviral-infections
#3
REVIEW
Kim J Hasenkrug, Claire A Chougnet, Ulf Dittmer
Tight regulation of immune responses is not only critical for preventing autoimmune diseases but also for preventing immunopathological damage during infections in which overactive immune responses may be more harmful for the host than the pathogen itself. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in this regulation, which was discovered using the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model. Subsequent FV studies revealed basic biological information about Tregs, including their suppressive activity on effector cells as well as the molecular mechanisms of virus-induced Treg expansion...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443540/targeted-elimination-of-peroxisomes-during-viral-infection-lessons-from-hiv-and-other-viruses
#4
Cheung Pang Wong, Zaikun Xu, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles that are best known for their roles in lipid metabolism. Mounting evidence indicates that they are also important nodes for antiviral signaling. While research over the past few decades has revealed effective viral strategies to block antiviral signalling pathways from the plasma membrane, mitochondria and/or the nucleus, until recently, very little was known about how viruses interfere with peroxisome-based antiviral signaling. In this essay, we review how viruses use a variety of strategies to interfere with peroxisome biogenesis, a phenomenon that has implications for evasion of the host immune system as well as pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438198/the-association-of-c-reactive-protein-with-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-women
#5
Caitlin A Moran, Anandi N Sheth, C C Mehta, David B Hanna, Deborah R Gustafson, Michael W Plankey, Wendy J Mack, Phyllis C Tien, Audrey L French, Elizabeth T Golub, Arshed Quyyumi, Robert C Kaplan, Ighovwerha Ofotokun
OBJECTIVE: HIV is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, CVD risk is often underestimated in HIV-infected women. C-reactive protein (CRP) may improve CVD prediction in this population. We examined the association of baseline plasma CRP with subclinical CVD in women with and without HIV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 572 HIV-infected and 211 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study underwent serial high-resolution B-mode carotid artery ultrasonography between 2004 and 2013 to assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and focal carotid artery plaques...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#6
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432231/noncommunicable-diseases-in-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#7
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429034/tetraspanin-blockage-reduces-exosome-mediated-hiv-1-entry
#8
Brian Sims, Anitra L Farrow, Sparkle D Williams, Anju Bansal, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Qiana L Matthews
HIV-1 is one of the most studied retroviruses. The role of exosomes in HIV-1 entry and pathogenesis are beginning to be appreciated. Exosomes can incorporate host proteins that are also contained in viruses (e.g., tetraspanins).
February 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429030/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-pathological-pain-through-wnt5a-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-aging-mice
#9
Subo Yuan, Yuqiang Shi, Kaiwen Guo, Shao-Jun Tang
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has significantly contributed to the increase of HIV-infected survivors over 50 years of age. Unfortunately, patients are required to stay on long-term HAART, which may be causally related to the development of neurological problems such as chronic pain. Little is known about the contribution of HAART or its therapeutic agents to the pathogenesis of pain during aging. In this study, we determined the effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the development of mechanical allodynia and the potential underlying mechanism in aging mice (15...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425767/proteomic-profiling-of-hiv-infected-t-cells-by-swath-mass-spectrometry
#10
Jason DeBoer, Melinda S Wojtkiewicz, Nicole Haverland, Yan Li, Emma Harwood, Emily Leshen, Joseph W George, Pawel Ciborowski, Michael Belshan
Viral pathogenesis results from changes in host cells due to virus usurpation of the host cell and the innate cellular responses to thwart infection. We measured global changes in protein expression and localization in HIV-1 infected T-cells using subcellular fractionation and the Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) proteomic platform. Eight biological replicates were performed in two independent experimental series. In silico merging of both experiments identified 287 proteins with altered expression (p < ...
February 6, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416066/differentially-expressed-host-long-intergenic-noncoding-rna-and-mrna-in-hiv-1-and-hiv-2-infection
#11
Santanu Biswas, Mohan Haleyurgirisetty, Viswanath Ragupathy, Xue Wang, Sherwin Lee, Indira Hewlett, Krishnakumar Devadas
Non-coding RNAs and mRNAs have been implicated in replication, pathogenesis and host response in HIV infection. However, the impact of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) on HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is not known. In this study, we have analyzed expression profiles of lincRNAs and mRNAs in monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) infected with HIV-1/HIV-2 using microarrays. Our study identified many differentially expressed lincRNAs and mRNAs in MDMs infected with HIV-1/HIV-2 compared to uninfected MDMs. Genes involved in glutathione metabolism and lysine degradation were differentially regulated only in HIV-1 infected MDMs...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415518/the-biology-of-monocytes-and-dendritic-cells-contribution-to-hiv-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Cécile L Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
Myeloid cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ) are key components of the innate immune system contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the development/resolution of immune responses to pathogens. Monocytes and DC, circulating in the blood or infiltrating various lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, are derived from distinct bone marrow precursors and are typically short lived. Conversely, recent studies revealed that subsets of tissue resident MΦ are long-lived as they originate from embryonic/fetal precursors that have the ability to self-renew during the life of an individual...
February 6, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412886/pathology-based-research-in-africa
#13
REVIEW
Maria P Lemos, Terrie E Taylor, Suzanne M McGoldrick, Malcolm E Molyneux, Manoj Menon, Steve Kussick, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, Neil A Martinson, Andrea Stritmatter, Julie Randolph-Habecker
The process of conducting pathology research in Africa can be challenging. But the rewards in terms of knowledge gained, quality of collaborations, and impact on communities affected by infectious disease and cancer are great. This report reviews 3 different research efforts: fatal malaria in Malawi, mucosal immunity to HIV in South Africa, and cancer research in Uganda. What unifies them is the use of pathology-based approaches to answer vital questions, such as physiology, pathogenesis, predictors of clinical course, and diagnostic testing schemes...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411315/inflammation-strikes-again-frailty-and-hiv
#14
REVIEW
Stephanie M Fukui, Damani A Piggott, Kristine M Erlandson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a consequence of antiretroviral therapy, the proportion of older HIV-infected adults is increasing, with a concomitant shift in burden of illness to age-related syndromes and disease. Frailty is an age-related syndrome of increased vulnerability to stress, predictive of major adverse clinical outcomes among HIV-infected and uninfected persons alike. Understanding frailty pathogenesis is critical to developing interventions to improve health outcomes in HIV. Here, we review the current evidence for the relationship between inflammation and frailty in HIV, and the potential for novel, inflammation-targeted interventions...
February 6, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410016/a-coupled-fluorescence-based-assay-for-the-detection-of-protein-arginine-n-methyltransferase-6-prmt6-enzymatic-activity
#15
Jan Kramer, Veronika Désor, Steffen Brunst, Sandra K Wittmann, Jörn Lausen, Jan Heering, Anna Proschak, Ewgenij Proschak
The protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is overexpressed in a variety of different cancer types and plays a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Furthermore, the PRMT6 activity might also influence the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases, whereby it becomes an interesting target for drug development. Previously reported activity assays for PRMT6 activity are either expensive, time-consuming or use radioactive substrates. To overcome these challenges, we developed a coupled fluorescence-based activity assay using recombinant PRMT6 expressed in E...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409855/pdgf-pdgfr-axis-in-the-neural-systems
#16
REVIEW
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T Chivero, Shilpa Buch
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cells types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific types of neurons. Interestingly, PDGF/PDFGR signaling can elicit paradoxical roles in the CNS, depending on the cell type and the activation stimuli and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406442/genetic-risk-of-apol1-and-kidney-disease-in-children-and-young-adults-of-african-ancestry
#17
Kimberly J Reidy, Rebecca Hjorten, Rulan S Parekh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the genetic risk of APOL1 in children and young adults is important given the lifetime risk of hypertension and kidney disease among children of African descent. We review recent epidemiologic and biologic findings on the effects of APOL1 and kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: APOL1 in children and young adults is associated with hypertension, albuminuria and more rapid decline in kidney function and progression to end-stage kidney disease, especially among those with glomerular causes of kidney disease, and those affected by sickle cell disease or HIV...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402305/assessment-of-the-gorilla-gut-virome-in-association-with-natural-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#18
Mirela D'arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D Siqueira, Héctor N Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters, Marcelo A Soares
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O and P. The paradigm of non-pathogenic lentiviral infections has been challenged by observations of naturally infected chimpanzees with SIVcpz associated with a negative impact on their life span and reproduction, CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss and lymphoid tissue destruction...
February 5, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398278/multisystem-multitasking-by-cxcl12-and-its-receptors-cxcr4-and-ackr3
#19
REVIEW
Philip M Murphy, Lauren Heusinkveld
Chemokines are named and best known for their chemotactic cytokine activity in the hematopoietic system; however, their importance extends far beyond leukocytes, cell movement and immunoregulation. CXCL12, the most protean of chemokines, regulates development in multiple systems, including the hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous systems, and regulates diverse cell functions, including differentiation, distribution, activation, immune synapse formation, effector function, proliferation and survival in the immune system alone...
February 1, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391069/aged-chinese-origin-rhesus-macaques-infected-with-siv-develop-marked-viremia-in-absence-of-clinical-disease-inflammation-or-cognitive-impairment
#20
Stephanie J Bissel, Kate Gurnsey, Hank P Jedema, Nicholas F Smith, Guoji Wang, Charles W Bradberry, Clayton A Wiley
BACKGROUND: Damage to the central nervous system during HIV infection can lead to variable neurobehavioral dysfunction termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There is no clear consensus regarding the neuropathological or cellular basis of HAND. We sought to study the potential contribution of aging to the pathogenesis of HAND. Aged (range = 14.7-24.8 year) rhesus macaques of Chinese origin (RM-Ch) (n = 23) were trained to perform cognitive tasks. Macaques were then divided into four groups to assess the impact of SIVmac251 infection (n = 12) and combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) (5 infected; 5 mock-infected) on the execution of these tasks...
February 1, 2018: Retrovirology
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