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HIV pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225803/bacterial-expression-correct-membrane-targeting-and-functional-folding-of-the-hiv-1-membrane-protein-vpu-using-a-periplasmic-signal-peptide
#1
Arpan Deb, William A Johnson, Alexander P Kline, Boston J Scott, Lydia R Meador, Dustin Srinivas, Jose M Martin-Garcia, Katerina Dörner, Chad R Borges, Rajeev Misra, Brenda G Hogue, Petra Fromme, Tsafrir S Mor
Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type-III integral membrane protein encoded by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV- 1). It is expressed in infected host cells and plays several roles in viral progeny escape from infected cells, including down-regulation of CD4 receptors. But key structure/function questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which the Vpu protein contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Here we describe expression of Vpu in bacteria, its purification and characterization. We report the successful expression of PelB-Vpu in Escherichia coli using the leader peptide pectate lyase B (PelB) from Erwinia carotovora...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224433/association-of-hla-alleles-a-b-drb1-and-hiv-1-infection-in-the-han-population-of-hubei-china
#2
Wang-Xia Li, Jia-An Xia, Xia Zhou, Yan Ma, Gang Shen, Feng-Wu Qiu
The HIV susceptibility and resistance alleles in the HLA genes were determined by investigating the distribution characteristics of the HLA alleles (A, B, and DRB1) in HIV-infected individuals of the Han population in Hubei, and by comparing these alleles with HIV-negative individuals from the same area. A cohort of 424 HIV-1 infected individuals were chosen as study subjects, and 836 HIV-negative healthy subjects from the same area served as the control population. HLA-A, B, and DRB1 allele typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) techniques...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224079/altered-structural-brain-changes-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-pediatric-hiv
#3
Santosh K Yadav, Rakesh K Gupta, Ravindra K Garg, Vimala Venkatesh, Pradeep K Gupta, Alok K Singh, Sheema Hashem, Asma Al-Sulaiti, Deepak Kaura, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Mohammad Haris
Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#4
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#5
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209198/distribution-and-fate-of-hiv-1-unintegrated-dna-species-a-comprehensive-update
#6
REVIEW
Faysal Bin Hamid, Jinsun Kim, Cha-Gyun Shin
Reverse transcription of viral RNA and the subsequent integration of reverse transcripts are the classical early events of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Simultaneously, abundant unintegrated DNAs (uDNAs), are formed in cells ubiquitously. The uDNAs either undergo recombination or degradation or persist inactively for long periods in the nucleus as future resources. Among them, 2-LTR circles are considered a dead-end for viral spread. Their contribution to the HIV-1 infection is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the preintegration transcription of the aberrant DNAs and the consequent alterations of cellular factors have already been reported...
February 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208120/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-infection
#7
Marshall J Glesby
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Widely used cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators to determine indications for statin treatment are not well validated for use in the HIV-infecte population. Some experts advocate including HIV infection as an independent risk factor for CVD. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on lipid profiles and the potentially increased risk for cardiovascular events must be taken into account when selecting treatment for HIV-infected individuals...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198713/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-non-progressors-ltnps
#8
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status and their proliferation ability in 32 long term non progressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive cART along with 35 HIV-1 negative subjects using multicolor flowcytometry...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178646/menin-mediates-tat-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-brain-frontal-cortex-of-siv-infected-macaques-and-in-tat-treated-cells
#9
Jun Wang, Yu Zhang, Qiping Xu, Jinhua Qiu, Honghua Zheng, Xiang Ye, Yuhua Xue, Yongmei Yin, Zhou Zhang, Ying Liu, Yanling Hao, Qiang Wei, Wei Wang, Kazuyasu Mori, Shuji Izumo, Ryuji Kubota, Yiming Shao, Hui Qin Xing
The molecular mechanisms involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain poorly understood. It has been recently reported that HIV-1 Tat transactivation requires menin, suggesting that menin may be involved in HAND pathogenesis. But the role of menin is not clear. Here, we found that protein level of menin was increased in simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric virus (SHIV)-SF162.P4 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sm543-3-infected rhesus macaques compared with the controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164548/high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-enhances-hiv-replication-in-newly-infected-primary-t-cells
#10
Quang D Trinh, Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Kazumasa Fuwa, Kazuhide Takada, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Mitsuo Honda, Hiroshi Ushijima, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA-binding protein, has recently been shown to have effects on HIV replication, but the effects are dependent on the cell type and the timing of infection. Using human primary T cells, this study aimed to investigate the role of HMGB1 in HIV-1 replication in newly infected cells. METHODS: Human primary T cells were infected with the HIV-1 LAI (X4) strain and then cultured in the presence of recombinant HMGB1 protein or an anti-HMGB1 antibody at various concentrations...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157548/cd4-regulatory-t-cells-augment-hiv-1-expression-of-polarized-m1-and-m2-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#11
Tanya O Robinson, Mingce Zhang, Christina Ochsenbauer, Lesley E Smythies, Randall Q Cron
Previous in vitro studies have shown that the HIV-1 virus can alter the cytokine/chemokine profile of polarized macrophages which may lead to their increased susceptibility to viral infection. Here, we found that M2 monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) were significantly more permissive to productive infection by R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, including transmitted founder (T/F) viruses, than M1 MDM. Previous in vitro studies by our lab showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress HIV-1 infection in non-Treg CD4 T cells...
January 31, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148791/replication-capacity-of-viruses-from-acute-infection-drives-hiv-1-disease-progression
#12
Philippe Selhorst, Carina Combrinck, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Sherazaan D Ismail, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Miguel Lacerda, Natasha Samsunder, Nigel Garrett, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
Viral genotype has been shown to play an important role in HIV pathogenesis following transmission. However, the viral phenotypic properties that contribute to disease progression remain unclear. Most studies have been limited to the evaluation of Gag function in the context of a recombinant virus backbone. Using this approach, important biological information may be lost making the evaluation of viruses obtained during acute infection, representing the transmitted virus, a more biologically relevant model...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145571/a-significant-productive-in-vivo-infection-of-resting-cells-with-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-in-a-macaque-with-aids
#13
Bapi Pahar, Wendy Lala, Dot Kuebler, David Liu
Identifying the cells that can be infected with HIV in vivo and thus potentially persist as latent reservoirs is of high priority. Here, we report the major infected cells in a chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque that developed AIDS and encephalitis. A majority of the infected cells were detected as non-proliferating resting cells. SIV-infected non-proliferating resting cells were found to be playing an important role in viral pathogenesis, persistence, or reservoir formation.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142265/hiv-1-infection-primes-macrophages-via-stat-signaling-to-promote-enhanced-inflammation-and-viral-replication
#14
K Sofia Appelberg, Mark A Wallet, Jared P Taylor, Melanie N Cash, John W Sleasman, Maureen Goodenow
Macrophages play important roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis as targets for viral replication and mediators of chronic inflammation. Similar to IFNγ-priming, HIV-1 primes macrophages, resulting in hyper-responsiveness to subsequent Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and increased inflammatory cytokine production. However, the specific molecular mechanism of HIV-1-priming and whether cells must be productively infected or if uninfected bystander cells also are primed by HIV-1 remains unclear. To explore these questions, human macrophages were primed by IFNγ or infected with HIV-1 prior to activation by TLR ligands...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139864/role-of-autophagy-in-hiv-infection-and-pathogenesis
#15
R Nardacci, F Ciccosanti, C Marsella, G Ippolito, M Piacentini, G M Fimia
The aim of autophagy is to re-establish homeostasis in response to a variety of stress conditions. By forming double-membrane vesicles, autophagy engulfs damaged or superfluous cytoplasmic material and recycles degradation products for new synthesis or energy production. Of note, the same mechanism is used to capture pathogens and has important implications in both innate and adaptive immunity. To establish a chronic infection, pathogens have therefore evolved multiple mechanisms to evade autophagy-mediated degradation...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137307/dysglycemia-associations-with-adipose-tissue-among-hiv-infected-patients-after-2-years-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-mwanza-a-follow-up-cross-sectional-study
#16
George PrayGod, John Changalucha, Saidi Kapiga, Robert Peck, Jim Todd, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: Data on the burden of dysglycemia among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa are limited. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes among HIV-infected patients who started ART when malnourished 2 to 3 years previously and investigated the association of dysglycemia with body composition. METHODS: Malnourished (body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m(2)) HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial from 2011 to 2013 were followed-up from March to August 2015...
January 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130445/interferon-inducible-ly6e-protein-promotes-hiv-1-infection
#17
Jingyou Yu, Chen Liang, Shan-Lu Liu
LY6E is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored, interferon (IFN)-inducible protein that regulates T lymphocytes proliferation, differentiation and development. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2572886 in LY6-family protein locus has been shown to associate with accelerated progression to AIDS. In this study, we showed that LY6E promotes HIV-1 infection by enhancing viral entry and gene expression. Knockdown of LY6E in human PBMCs, SupT1, and THP-1 cells diminishes HIV-1 replication. Virion-cell and cell-cell fusion experiments revealed that LY6E promotes membrane fusion of the viral entry step...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128006/non-infectious-pulmonary-disorders-in-hiv
#18
Choua Thao, Andrew F Shorr, Christian Woods
Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), non-infectious pulmonary disorders have become common comorbidities in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive population. Clinicians caring for those with HIV disease should be aware of the prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary disorders. A comprehensive understanding is required to diagnosis and manage these syndromes appropriately. Areas covered: This review focuses on the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical feature and diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension...
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113112/interplay-between-hiv-1-innate-sensing-and-restriction-in-mucosal-dendritic-cells-balancing-defense-and-viral-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Nina Hertoghs, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Carla M S Ribeiro
Innate sensing of HIV-1 by dendritic cells (DCs) initiates cell-intrinsic signalling programs that direct virus restriction and antiviral defenses. These responses include the production of type I interferon (IFN) and a large number of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with a broad spectrum of antiviral effector functions. Initial interactions of HIV-1 at the mucosal surfaces with DC-expressed innate immune factors including cGAS, TRIM5α and SAMHD1 are predictive of viraemia, inflammation and disease pathogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107228/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-to-non-aids-events-in-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Marta Fernández, Xavier Barber, Santiago Moreno, José Antonio Iribarren, Joaquín Portilla, Alejandro Peña, Francesc Vidal, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: Recognition of potentially modifiable mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS events (NAEs) might help improve outcomes of HIV-infected individuals. HIV infection has been associated with increased oxidative stress. We assessed the association between F2-isoprostanes and serious NAEs, and whether they improve the predictive performance of inflammation and coagulation biomarkers. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort. Individuals who had an incident serious NAE and two sex and age matched participants with no events were selected...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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