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Meningitis vaccine and TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479800/factors-determining-the-clinical-spectrum-course-and-response-to-treatment-and-complications-in-seronegative-patients-with-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#1
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Sikandar Advani, Ravi Kumar, Chandrajith Prasad, Anupama R Pai
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis remains a major health issue in the community affecting young adults of both genders predominantly from rural background. In India, the disease continues to kill 2 people every 3 min or nearly 1000 daily, according to the Tuberculosis Control Society India. Tuberculosis (TB) of central nervous system (CNS) is the most devastating form of TB. As this disease is associated with very high prevalence in young adults and will ultimately contribute to great workforce loss, we decided to assess the factors deciding the disease and its course in our patients...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454648/the-siglec14-null-allele-is-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-bcg-induced-clinical-and-immunologic-outcomes
#2
Andrew D Graustein, David J Horne, Jerry J Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Heather C Mefford, Glenna J Peterson, Richard D Wells, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Duc Bang, Sarah J Dunstan, Guy E Thwaites, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata, Thomas R Hawn
Humans exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have variable susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) and its outcomes. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are members of the sialic-acid binding lectin family that regulate immune responses to pathogens through inhibitory (Siglec-5) and activating (Siglec-14) domains. The SIGLEC14 coding sequence is deleted in a high proportion of individuals, placing a SIGLEC5-like gene under the expression of the SIGLEC14 promoter (the SIGLEC14 null allele) and causing expression of a Siglec-5 like protein in monocytes and macrophages...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318770/expression-of-cathepsin-s-in-bcg-converts-it-into-a-pro-apoptotic-and-highly-immunogenic-strain
#4
Alice Lau, Vijender Singh, Hafid Soualhine, Zakaria Hmama
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine, introduced almost 100years ago, is the only option to prevent TB disease. It effectively protects newborns from meningeal TB but fails to prevent adult pulmonary TB. TB kills 1.3million people annually in areas where BCG vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, more effective TB vaccines are urgently needed. Others and we have shown that BCG mimics features of virulent M. tuberculosis, in particular attenuation of essential macrophage functions such as phagosome maturation and antigen presentation...
April 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#5
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823900/gene-based-neonatal-immune-priming-potentiates-a-mucosal-adenoviral-vaccine-encoding-mycobacterial-ag85b
#6
Guixiang Dai, Hamada F Rady, Weitao Huang, Judd E Shellito, Carol Mason, Alistair J Ramsay
Tuberculosis remains a major public health hazard worldwide, with neonates and young infants potentially more susceptible to infection than adults. BCG, the only vaccine currently available, provides some protection against tuberculous meningitis in children but variable efficacy in adults, and is not safe to use in immune compromised individuals. A safe and effective vaccine that could be given early in life, and that could also potentiate subsequent booster immunization, would represent a significant advance...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365958/tubercular-meningitis-in-children-clinical-pathological-and-radiological-profile-and-factors-associated-with-mortality
#7
Anil V Israni, Divya A Dave, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh, Puneet K Sahi, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Arpita Shah
CONTEXT: Childhood tuberculosis is a major public health problem in developing countries with tubercular meningitis being a serious complication with high mortality and morbidity. AIM: To study the clinicopathological as well as radiological profile of childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM) cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, observational study including children <14 years of age with TBM admitted in a tertiary care hospital from Western India...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002369/current-status-of-new-tuberculosis-vaccine-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Yu Pang, Aihua Zhao, Chad Cohen, Wanli Kang, Jie Lu, Guozhi Wang, Yanlin Zhao, Suhua Zheng
Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments...
April 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26785624/bcg-vaccination-is-associated-with-decreased-severity-of-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#9
Zahra Hasan, Muhammad Irfan, Javaid A Khan, Shehryar Khaliqdina Jahangir, Muhammad Haris, Mussarat Ashraf, Naseem Salahuddin, Bushra Jamil, Nisar A Rao
Vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is given at birth to protect against tuberculosis (TB) in Pakistan. The country ranks 6th amongst high-burden countries worldwide and has an incidence of 231/100,000 pyopulation. This was a cross-sectional multi-center hospital-based study. TB patients (n=218) with pulmonary (PTB, n=120) or extrapulmonary (ETB, 98) were recruited, and the presence of a BCG vaccination scar was documented. Cases were further classified into minimal, moderate and advanced PTB or less severe (L-ETB) or severe disseminated (D-ETB) disease...
December 2012: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587764/recommendations-for-pediatric-tuberculosis-vaccination-in-italy
#10
REVIEW
Carlotta Montagnani, Susanna Esposito, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini, Nicola Principi, Maurizio de Martino
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated...
March 3, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557138/the-bacterial-and-host-factors-associated-with-extrapulmonary-dissemination-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Dong Yang, Ying Kong
With high morbidity and mortality worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is still an important public health threat. The majority of human TB cases are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although pulmonary TB is the most common presentation, M. tuberculosis can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). The dissemination of bacteria from the initial site of infection to other organs can lead to fatal diseases, such as miliary and meningeal TB. Thoroughly understanding the mechanisms and pathways of dissemination would develop therapies to prevent the lethal prognosis of EPTB (miliary and meningeal TB) and vaccines to promote the development of adaptive immunity...
June 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26313288/-a-case-diagnosed-with-chronic-granulomatous-disease-after-disseminated-infection-following-bcg-vaccination
#12
Güler Delibalta, Murat Seringeç, Oral Öncül
BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a widely used vaccine with the recommendation of World Health Organization to protect children against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and TB meningitis. Severe side effects related to this vaccine mostly manifest in the presence of underlying immunosuppressive disease. In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented. High fever, left axillary lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly have developed in a 3-month 28-day female infant, without a known health problem, following BCG vaccination...
July 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25942359/a-novel-recombinant-bcg-expressing-pro-apoptotic-protein-bax-enhances-th1-protective-immune-responses-in-mice
#13
Guanghua Li, Guoyuan Liu, Na Song, Cong Kong, Qi Huang, Haibo Su, Aixiao Bi, Liulin Luo, Lin Zhu, Ying Xu, Honghai Wang
One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The protective efficacy of bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in adults is highly controversial even though the BCG vaccine has been available for more than 90 years. Because BCG is effective against infantile tuberculosis meningitis and miliary tuberculosis in young children and provides cost-effective prevention from tuberculosis for developing countries, it would be desirable to modify the existing BCG vaccine to provide more comprehensive protection...
August 2015: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25869896/increased-protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-bcg-strains-expressing-virulence-neutral-proteins-of-the-esx-1-secretion-system
#14
Daria Bottai, Wafa Frigui, Simon Clark, Emma Rayner, Andrea Zelmer, Nuria Andreu, Marien I de Jonge, Gregory J Bancroft, Ann Williams, Priscille Brodin, Roland Brosch
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis BCG is presently the only available anti-tuberculosis vaccine used, worldwide. While BCG protects against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculoid meningitis in children, it often fails to protect against adult pulmonary TB. It is thus imperative that new improved anti-TB vaccines are developed. The integration of the ESX-1 secretion system, absent from BCG due to the deletion of region of difference 1 (RD1), into the genome of BCG has been shown to confer to BCG::ESX-1 enhanced protection against TB as compared to BCG...
May 28, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25754313/-spanish-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-tuberculosis-in-pregnant-women-and-neonates-i-epidemiology-and-diagnosis-congenital-tuberculosis
#15
F Baquero-Artigao, M J Mellado Peña, T Del Rosal Rabes, A Noguera Julián, A Goncé Mellgren, M de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M L Navarro Gómez
Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy...
October 2015: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25475539/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccine-adverse-events-in-victoria-australia-analysis-of-reports-to-an-enhanced-passive-surveillance-system
#16
Hazel J Clothier, Laine Hosking, Nigel W Crawford, Melissa Russell, Mee Lee Easton, Julie-Ann Quinn, Jim P Buttery
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is used worldwide, with high efficacy against childhood Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) meningitis and miliary TB. BCG vaccine is considered safe, with serious systematic adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of immunocompetent recipients being rare, although adverse event rates vary between differing BCG strains. In Victoria, Australia, AEFI are reported to SAEFVIC (Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Vaccination In the Community), an enhanced passive surveillance system operational since 2007...
January 2015: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24818967/childhood-tuberculosis-in-northern-viet-nam-a-review-of-103-cases
#17
Robert J Blount, Bao Tran, Leah G Jarlsberg, Ha Phan, Van Thanh Hoang, Nhung Viet Nguyen, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Payam Nahid
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, yet little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of this disease in Viet Nam. OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographics, clinical presentations, radiographic and microbiologic findings, treatment regimens, and outcomes of children admitted with tuberculosis (TB) to a national referral hospital in Viet Nam. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series study of children ≤ 15 years old with bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed TB admitted to a national referral hospital in Ha Noi, Viet Nam from January through December 2007...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24773322/prime-boost-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-with-lentivirus-vectored-and-dna-based-vaccines-expressing-antigens-ag85b-and-rv3425-improves-protective-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-mice
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Xu, Enzhuo Yang, Jianguang Wang, Rui Li, Guanghua Li, Guoyuan Liu, Na Song, Qi Huang, Cong Kong, Honghai Wang
To prevent the global spread of tuberculosis (TB), more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies are urgently needed. As a result of the success of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in protecting children against miliary and meningeal TB, the majority of individuals will have been vaccinated with BCG; hence, boosting BCG-primed immunity will probably be a key component of future vaccine strategies. In this study, we compared the ability of DNA-, protein- and lentiviral vector-based vaccines that express the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost the effects of BCG in the context of immunity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice...
October 2014: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24564340/vaccine-against-tuberculosis-what-s-new
#19
REVIEW
Carlotta Montagnani, Elena Chiappini, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino
BACKGROUND: one of the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goal is to reduce tuberculosis incidence by 2015. However, more of 8.5 million tuberculosis cases have been reported in 2011, with an increase of multidrug-resistant strains. Therefore, the World Health Organization target cannot be reach without the help of a vaccine able to limit the spread of tuberculosis. Nowadays, bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis. It prevents against meningeal and disseminated tuberculosis in children, but its effectiveness against pulmonary form in adolescents and adults is argued...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24192671/multicentric-analysis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-in-turkey
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sevgi Pekcan, Ayşe Tana Aslan, Nural Kiper, Gülnar Uysal, Fuat Gürkan, Türkan Patıroğlu, Mustafa Oztürk, Metehan Ozen, Elif Dağlı, Ulker Doğru, Emine Kocabaş, Ozlem Sarısoy, Abdülkadir Koçak, Nevin Uzuner, Ismail Reisli, Ayşe Bolat, Ayşen Uğuz, Cahit Karakelleoğlu, Ayten Uyan, Mehmet Köse, Güzin Cinel, Nazan Cobanoğlu, Ebru Yalçın, Deniz Doğru, Uğur Ozçelik
Only a few series of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) have been reported in the last 20 years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiological, microbiological, and treatment characteristics of childhood TB. A total of 539 children with childhood TB diagnosed over a 12-year period (1994-2005) in 16 different centers in Turkey participated in the study. The medical records of all childhood TB patients were investigated. A total of 539 children (274 males, 265 females) with childhood TB aged 10 days-17 years participated in the study...
March 2013: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
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