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Vaccine for meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#1
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646924/ciprofloxacin-for-contacts-of-cases-of-meningococcal-meningitis-as-an-epidemic-response-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#2
Matthew E Coldiron, Gabriel Alcoba, Iza Ciglenecki, Matt Hitchings, Ali Djibo, Anne-Laure Page, Celine Langendorf, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are common in the "African meningitis belt." Current response strategies include reactive vaccination campaigns, which are often organized too late to have maximal impact. A novel strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C has been circulating in recent years, and vaccine supplies are limited. An evaluation of chemoprophylaxis with single-dose ciprofloxacin for household contacts of meningitis cases has therefore been recommended. METHODS/DESIGN: A three-arm cluster-randomized trial has been designed for implementation during a meningococcal meningitis epidemic in a health district in Niger in which at least two Health Zones (HZs) have met the weekly epidemic threshold...
June 24, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606106/perceptions-of-measles-pneumonia-and-meningitis-vaccines-among-caregivers-in-shanghai-china-and-the-health-belief-model-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton, Xiaodong Sun, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zhuoying Huang, Irene A Harmsen, Jia Ren, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605414/childhood-deaths-attributable-to-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2006-2014
#4
Godwin Oligbu, Sarah Collins, Carmen L Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Mary Slack, Ray Borrow, Shamez N Ladhani
Background.: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but deaths due to IPD still occur. We aimed to describe children who died of IPD since PCV introduction in England and Wales. Methods.: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales. IPD cases in PCV-eligible children aged <5 years (born since 4 September 2004 and diagnosed between 4 September 2006 and 3 September 2014) were actively followed up by postal questionnaires and, for fatal cases, detailed information was requested prospectively from multiple sources...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604773/surveillance-of-impact-of-pcv-10-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-mozambique-2013-2015
#5
Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Goitom Weldegebriel, Reggis Katsande, Linda de Gouveia, Charlotte Elizabeth Comé, Arlindo Zacarias Cuco, Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli, Cícero Dias, Juliana Caierão, Jason Mwenda Mathiu, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#6
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598805/meningococcal-disease-awareness-and-meningoccocal-vaccination-among-greek-students-planning-to-travel-abroad
#7
Androula Pavli, Panagiotis Katerelos, Helena C Maltezou
Objective Students living in dormitories are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Our aim was to evaluate Greek students planning to study abroad about their level of meningococcal disease awareness and attitudes and practices towards meningococcal vaccination. Methods We studied 231 Greek ERASMUS students using a questionnaire. Results Students had a mean number of 4.1 correct answers out of six questions. In particular 66.5% 79.3%, 72.3% and 82.3% of them answered correctly about the etiology, transmission, epidemiology and treatment of meningococcal disease, respectively...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592578/bacterial-meningitis-in-finland-1995-2014-a-population-based-observational-study
#8
Aleksandra Polkowska, Maija Toropainen, Jukka Ollgren, Outi Lyytikäinen, J Pekka Nuorti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study. METHODS: A case was defined as isolation of S...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584980/heat-killed-yeast-as-a-pan-fungal-vaccine
#9
Marife Martinez, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
Fungal infections continue to rise worldwide. Antifungal therapy has long been a mainstay for the treatment of these infections, but often can fail for a number of reasons. These include acquired or innate drug resistance of the causative agent, poor drug penetration into the affected tissues, lack of cidal activity of the drug and drug toxicities that limit therapy. In some instances, such as coccidioidal meningitis, therapy is life-long. In addition, few new antifungal drugs are under development. In light of this information a preventative vaccine is highly desirable...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579230/comparative-incidence-dynamics-and-serotypes-of-meningitis-bacteremic-pneumonia-and-other-ipd-in-young-children-in-the-pcv-era-insights-from-israeli-surveillance-studies
#10
Shalom Ben-Shimol, Noga Givon-Lavi, Galia Grisaru-Soen, Orli Megged, David Greenberg, Ron Dagan
INTRODUCTION: Widespread introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) impacted on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, IPD reduction may not be similar in all outcomes within IPD. We assessed PCV7/PCV13 impact on pneumococcal meningitis, bacteremic pneumonia (BP) and other (non-meningitis, non-pneumonia) IPD episodes in children <5years in Israel. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, active nationwide surveillance. All pneumococcal invasive episodes with positive blood/CSF cultures, July 2000 through June 2016, were included...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570694/trends-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-afghanistan-from-the-disease-early-warning-system-2009-2015
#11
Abram L Wagner, Mohammad Y Mubarak, Laura E Johnson, Julia M Porth, Jenna E Yousif, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan's public health system was neglected during decades of military and civil conflict, and trends in infectious disease occurrence remain poorly characterized. This study examines cyclical and long-term trends of six vaccine-preventable diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, typhoid, measles, and acute viral hepatitis. METHODS: Using weekly data collected between 2009 and 2015 through Afghanistan's Disease Early Warning System, we calculated monthly case counts, and fit a Poisson regression with a Fourier transformation for seasonal cycles and dummy variables for year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558983/enhancing-global-vaccine-pharmacovigilance-proof-of-concept-study-on-aseptic-meningitis-and-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-following-measles-mumps-containing-vaccination
#12
Silvia Perez-Vilar, Daniel Weibel, Miriam Sturkenboom, Steven Black, Christine Maure, Jose Luis Castro, Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Caitlin N Dodd, Silvana A Romio, Maria de Ridder, Swabra Nakato, Helvert Felipe Molina-León, Varalakshmi Elango, Patrick L F Zuber
New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are now being introduced without prior record of utilization in countries with robust pharmacovigilance systems. To address this deficit, our objective was to demonstrate feasibility of an international hospital-based network for the assessment of potential epidemiological associations between serious and rare adverse events and vaccines in any setting. This was done through a proof-of-concept evaluation of the risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and aseptic meningitis (AM) following administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-containing vaccines using the self-controlled risk interval method in the primary analysis...
May 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557635/adolescent-vaccines-latest-recommendations-addressing-barriers-and-improving-vaccine-rates
#13
Kathleen C Rose
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the Tdap, HPV, and meningitis vaccines be administered to youth beginning between the ages of 11 and 12. The school nurse, knowledgeable about vaccine schedules and the rationale for the schedules, is in a unique position to advocate for all adolescent vaccines and their timely administration through addressing parent-guardian concerns and supporting other healthcare providers in completing the adolescent vaccines. This article reviews current recommendations for adolescent vaccinations and the actions needed to improve vaccination rates with a focus on Human Papillomavirus vaccine, the vaccine with the lowest completion rates among this age group...
May 1, 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545721/impact-of-menafrivac-in-nine-countries-of-the-african-meningitis-belt-2010-15-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data
#14
Caroline L Trotter, Clément Lingani, Katya Fernandez, Laura V Cooper, André Bita, Carol Tevi-Benissan, Olivier Ronveaux, Marie-Pierre Préziosi, James M Stuart
BACKGROUND: In preparation for the introduction of MenAfriVac, a meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine developed for the African meningitis belt, an enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established. We analysed surveillance data on suspected and confirmed cases of meningitis to quantify vaccine impact. METHODS: We compiled and analysed surveillance data for nine countries in the meningitis belt (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo) collected and curated by the WHO Inter-country Support Team between 2005 and 2015...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528009/identification-of-novel-haemophilus-parasuis-serovar-5-vaccine-candidates-using-an-immunoproteomic-approach
#15
Gang Li, Fang Xie, Jianjun Li, Jiao Liu, Dapeng Li, Yanhe Zhang, Paul R Langford, Yanwen Li, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is the aetiological agent of Glässer's disease, which is responsible for cases of fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. No vaccine is known that provides cross-protection against all serovars. The identification of novel immunoprotective antigens would undoubtedly contribute to the development of efficient subunit vaccines. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was used to analyze secreted proteins of H. parasuis and six proteins with high immunogenicity were identified...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522212/bioengineering-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-vaccine-platform
#16
REVIEW
Matthias J H Gerritzen, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Leo van der Pol, Michiel Stork
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. The major advantages of adding heterologous proteins to the OMV are that the antigens retain their native conformation, the ability of targeting specific immune responses, and a single production process suffices for many vaccines...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513815/epidemiology-of-paediatric-meningitis-in-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-after-the-implementation-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccination
#17
Fidèle S Touré, Samson Kouame, Honoré Tia, Pacôme Monemo, Amadou Cissé, Bamourou Diané, Sören L Becker, Chantal Akoua-Koffi
Infectious meningitis accounts for enormous morbidity worldwide, but there is a paucity of data on its regional epidemiology in resource-constrained settings of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we present a study on the aetiology of paediatric meningitis in central Côte d'Ivoire. Between June 2012 and December 2013, all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples drawn at the University Teaching Hospital Bouaké were examined for the presence of bacterial and fungal pathogens. A causative agent was detected in 31 out of 833 CSF specimens (3...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506425/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-germany-from-2004-2005-to-2014-2015
#18
Julia Schmitz, Mark van der Linden, Adnan Al-Lahham, Natalia Levina, Mathias W Pletz, Matthias Imöhl
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. 21,764 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates from Germany, isolated in the epidemiological seasons from 2004/05 to 2014/15 were analyzed at the German National Reference Centre for Streptococci (GNRCS) for their levofloxacin resistance by micro broth dilution method...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504487/haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-meningitis-is-there-a-re-emergence-24-years-of-experience-in-a-children-s-hospital
#19
Angela Gentile, Ana C Martínez, María Del V Juarez, María F Lución, Candela Burgo, María P Della Latta, Solana Rapapor, Viviana Romanin, Marisa Turco
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) used to be the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children younger than 5 years old. Following the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the immunization schedule (1998), its incidence reduced significantly but it has increased over the last years. The objectives of this study included describing the characteristics and analyzing the epidemic curve of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) meningitis by comparing the pre- and postimmunization periods...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495657/outer-membrane-vesicles-extracted-from-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-x-for-prevention-of-meningococcal-disease-in-africa
#20
Reinaldo Acevedo, Caridad Zayas, Gunnstein Norheim, Sonsire Fernández, Barbara Cedré, Yisabel Aranguren, Maribel Cuello, Yaimara Rodriguez, Humberto González, Aleida Mandiarote, Marylin Pérez, Maritza Hernández, Mabel Hernández-Cedeño, Domingo González, Sverre-Henning Brorson, Einar Rosenqvist, Lisbeth Naess, Gro Tunheim, Daniel Cardoso, Luis García
Meningococcal disease is caused mainly by serogroups A, B, C, Y, W of N. meningitidis. However, numerous cases of meningitis caused by serogroup X N. meningitidis (MenX) have recently been reported in several African countries. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against this pathogen and most of the MenX cases have been caused by meningococci from clonal complex (c.c) 181. Detergent extracted meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccines have previously shown to be safe and effective against epidemics of serogroup B meningococcal disease in all age groups...
May 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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