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Vaccine for meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325425/meningitis-vaccination-knowledge-and-awareness-among-ymsm-in-chicago
#1
Gregory Phillips, Amy K Johnson, Christian N Adames, Brian Mustanski
Serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) outbreaks in men who have sex with men (MSM) have been occurring with greater frequency in urban areas across the United States. An effective vaccine for IMD is available and is recommended for MSM in outbreak settings. Particular subgroups of MSM have been disproportionately represented in outbreaks, specifically young, Black, and HIV-positive MSM. As little is known about the knowledge, awareness, and vaccination status of young MSM, we sought to describe this and explore racial/ethnic differences...
January 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290234/bacterial-meningitis-antibiotic-treatment
#2
R Cohen, J Raymond, L Hees, D Pinquier, E Grimprel, C Levy
The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289561/haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-seroprevalence-and-current-epidemiology-in-england-and-wales
#3
Sarah Collins, David Litt, Rachael Almond, Jamie Findlow, Ezra Linley, Mary Ramsay, Ray Borrow, Shamez Ladhani
Introduction The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom resulted in a rapid decline in invasive Hib disease across all age groups. However, a resurgence in 2000-2002 prompted the introduction of additional control measures, including a routine 12-month booster in 2006. Here we describe results from a national serosurvey in children eligible for the 12-month booster and recent H. influenzae epidemiology in England and Wales. Methods A national serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-polyribosyl-phosphate (anti-PRP) IgG antibodies in 1,000 residual samples from children up to 8 years of age in 2013-14...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284248/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-i-epidemiology
#4
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261797/correction-identifying-optimal-vaccination-strategies-for-serogroup-a-neisseria-meningitidis-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#5
Sara Tartof, Amanda Cohn, Félix Tarbangdo, Mamoudou H Djingarey, Nancy Messonnier, Thomas A Clark, Jean Ludovic Kambou, Ryan Novak, Fabien V K Diomandé, Isaïe Medah, Michael L Jackson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063605.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258705/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-under-16%C3%A2-years-of-age-incomplete-rebound-in-incidence-after-the-maximum-effect-of-pcv13-in-2012-13-in-germany
#6
Raphael Weinberger, Rüdiger von Kries, Mark van der Linden, Thorsten Rieck, Anette Siedler, Gerhard Falkenhorst
OBJECTIVE: To identify a potential nadir of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) in infancy on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children under 16 in Germany. METHODS: Active surveillance on IPD based on two independent data sources with capture-recapture correction for underreporting. Annual incidence rates by age group, serotypes, site of infection, and relative incidence reduction compared to pre-vaccination period (1997-2001) at nadir and for the most recent season are reported...
December 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240724/large-outbreak-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-c-nigeria-december-2016-june-2017
#7
Chimeremma Nnadi, John Oladejo, Sebastian Yennan, Adesola Ogunleye, Chidinma Agbai, Lawal Bakare, Mohammed Abdulaziz, Amina Mohammed, Mary Stephens, Kyadindi Sumaili, Olivier Ronveaux, Helen Maguire, Debra Karch, Mahmood Dalhat, Martin Antonio, Andre Bita, Ifeanyi Okudo, Patrick Nguku, Ryan Novak, Omotayo Bolu, Faisal Shuaib, Chikwe Ihekweazu
On February 16, 2017, the Ministry of Health in Zamfara State, in northwestern Nigeria, notified the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) of an increased number of suspected cerebrospinal meningitis (meningitis) cases reported from four local government areas (LGAs). Meningitis cases were subsequently also reported from Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, and Sokoto states, all of which share borders with Zamfara State, and from Yobe State in northeastern Nigeria. On April 3, 2017, NCDC activated an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to coordinate rapid development and implementation of a national meningitis emergency outbreak response plan...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233576/changing-epidemiology-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-children
#9
REVIEW
David F Butler, Angela L Myers
Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. The epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease is shifting. It is imperative that clinicians recognize the changing epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns for H influenzae to optimize care in hospital and ambulatory settings...
December 9, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228283/interaction-of-neisseria-meningitidis-group-x-n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase-with-its-donor-substrate
#10
Shonoi A Ming, Ebony Cottman-Thomas, Natalee C Black, Yi Chen, Vamsee Veeramachineni, Dwight C Peterson, Xi Chen, Lauren M Tedaldi, Gerd K Wagner, Chao Cai, Robert J Linhardt, Willie F Vann
Neisseria meningitidis Group X is an emerging cause of bacterial meningitis in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The capsular polysaccharide of Group X is a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine α(1-4) phosphate and is a vaccine target for prevention of disease associated with this meningococcal serogroup. We have demonstrated previously that the formation of the polymer is catalyzed by a phosphotransferase which transfers N- acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to the 4- hydroxyl of the N-acetylglucosamine on the non-reducing end of the growing chain...
December 8, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228220/the-burden-of-presumed-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Villa Watch, Jimmy Aipit, Tina Kote-Yarong, Allanie Rero, John W Bolnga, Elvin Lufele, Moses Laman
Background: In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. Methods: As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death...
December 8, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216183/presentation-of-life-threatening-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease-in-malawian-children-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Calman A MacLennan, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, James J Gilchrist, Paul Pensulo, Wilson L Mandala, Grace Mwimaniwa, Meraby Banda, Julia Kenny, Lorna K Wilson, Amos Phiri, Jenny M MacLennan, Elizabeth M Molyneux, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen M Graham
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211624/vaccine-prevention-of-meningococcal-disease-in-africa-major-advances-remaining-challenges
#13
Mustapha M Mustapha, Lee H Harrison
Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210350/rotavirus-vaccine-will-improve-child-survival-by-more-than-just-preventing-diarrhea-evidence-from-bangladesh
#14
Senjuti Saha, Mathuram Santosham, Manzoor Hussain, Robert E Black, Samir K Saha
Despite the high burden of rotavirus diarrhea, uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Asia remains low. This primarily stems from a perception of rotavirus as a non-life-threatening pathogen amidst a background of competing health priorities and limited resources. In the largest pediatric hospital of Bangladesh, where there is a fierce competition for beds, we found that between November 2015 and October 2016, 12% of 23,064 admissions were due to gastrointestinal infections, 54% of which were caused by rotavirus. One in four cases requiring hospitalization, or 5,879 cases, was refused because of unavailability of beds...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203546/use-of-proteins-identified-through-a-functional-genomic-screen-to-develop-a-protein-subunit-vaccine-that-provides-significant-protection-against-virulent-streptococcus-suis-in-pigs
#15
Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving, Tracy L Nicholson, Jinhong Wang, Sarah E Peters, Lucy Weinert, Roy Chaudhuri, David J Seilly, Paul R Langford, Andrew Rycroft, Brendan W Wren, Duncan J Maskell, Alexander W Tucker
Streptococcus suis is a bacterium commonly carried in the respiratory tract that is also one of the most important invasive pathogens of swine, commonly causing meningitis, arthritis, and septicemia. Due to the existence of many serotypes and a wide range of immune evasion capabilities efficacious vaccines are not readily available. The selection of S. suis protein candidates for inclusion in a vaccine was accomplished by identifying fitness genes through a functional genomics screen and selecting conserved predicted surface-associated proteins...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203286/an-opportunity-for-improvement-in-trauma-care-8-week-booster-vaccination-adherence-among-patients-after-trauma-splenectomy
#16
Aaron R Alvarado, Kahdi Udobi, Stepheny Berry, Jaynell Assmann, Tracy McDonald, Robert D Winfield
BACKGROUND: Splenectomies are common after abdominal trauma, and measures must be taken to prevent infection, namely, the administration of available conjugate vaccinations against encapsulated organisms. While initial immunization is frequently completed prior to discharge, the Advisory Council on Immunization Practices recommends administration of an 8-week vaccination booster against S. pneumoniae, and compliance with this practice is unknown. We hypothesized that patients undergoing splenectomy for trauma would not routinely receive the recommended immunization and subsequent booster...
December 1, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203096/meningococcal-disease-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-review
#17
REVIEW
Rodrigo Siqueira Batista, Andréia Patrícia Gomes, Jorge Luiz Dutra Gazineo, Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel, Luiz Alberto Santana, Lisa Oliveira, Mauro Geller
Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197599/meningococcal-carriage-within-households-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#18
Nicole E Basta, Abdoulaye Berthe, Mahamadou Keita, Uma Onwuchekwa, Boubou Tamboura, Awa Traore, Musa Hassan-King, Olivier Manigart, Maria Nascimento, James M Stuart, Caroline Trotter, Jayne Blake, Anthony D Carr, Stephen J Gray, Lynne S Newbold, Yangqing Deng, Julian Wolfson, M Elizabeth Halloran, Brian Greenwood, Ray Borrow, Samba O Sow
OBJECTIVES: Carriers of Neisseria meningitidis are a key source of transmission. In the African meningitis belt, where risk of meningococcal disease is highest, a greater understanding of meningococcal carriage dynamics is needed. METHODS: We randomly selected an age-stratified sample of 400 residents from 116 households in Bamako, Mali, and collected pharyngeal swabs in May 2010. A month later, we enrolled all 202 residents of 20 of these households (6 with known carriers) and collected swabs monthly for 6 months prior to MenAfriVac vaccine introduction and returned 10 months later to collect swabs monthly for 3 months...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194010/impact-of-serogroup-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-for-africa
#19
James M Stuart
The introduction of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt has been a remarkable success. Meningitis due to the serogroup A meningococcus, previously responsible for most epidemics, has fallen by 99% in vaccinated countries. Success must, however, not distract from the continuing burden of meningitis in this region of Africa. The number of all meningitis epidemics at health district level has fallen by 60% following vaccination, but epidemics due to other meningococcal serogroups continue and may be increasing...
December 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191180/white-affluent-educated-parents-are-least-likely-to-choose-hpv-vaccination-for-their-children-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-national-immunization-study-teen
#20
Echo L Warner, Qian Ding, Lisa M Pappas, Kevin Henry, Deanna Kepka
BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is below national goals in the United States. Research is needed to inform strategically designed interventions that target sociodemographic groups with underutilization of HPV vaccination. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the National Immunization Survey-Teen 2013 measured association of sociodemographic factors (e.g., ethnicity/race, insurance) with HPV vaccination among females and males ages 13-17 (N = 18,959)...
December 1, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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