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Vaccine for meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789506/design-and-efficacy-of-nanogels-formulations-for-intranasal-administration
#1
REVIEW
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788414/the-contribution-of-genetic-variation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-the-clinical-manifestation-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#2
Amelieke J H Cremers, Fredrick M Mobegi, Christa van der Gaast-de Jongh, Michelle van Weert, Fred J van Opzeeland, Minna Vehkala, Mirjam J Knol, Hester J Bootsma, Niko Välimäki, Nicholas J Croucher, Jacques F Meis, Stephen Bentley, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Jukka Corander, Aldert L Zomer, Gerben Ferwerda, Marien I de Jonge
Background: Different clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) have thus far mainly been explained by patient characteristics. Here we studied the contribution of pneumococcal genetic variation to IPD phenotype. Methods: The index cohort consisted of 349 patients admitted to two Dutch hospitals between 2000-2011 with pneumococcal bacteraemia. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify pneumococcal lineages, genes and allelic variants associated with 23 clinical IPD phenotypes...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784468/vaccines-and-the-risk-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#3
Yong Chen, Fubao Ma, Yuanling Xu, Xuhua Chu, Jinlin Zhang
BACKGROUND: It is important to examine the risk of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study between January 2011 and December 2015. Four controls per case were matched for age, gender, address. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. The analyses were conducted with the use of conditional logistic regression...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784466/knowledge-gaps-persist-and-hinder-progress-in-eliminating-mumps
#4
REVIEW
R Ramanathan, E A Voigt, R B Kennedy, G A Poland
Mumps, a common childhood disease in the pre-vaccine era that causes swelling of the parotid salivary glands, can lead to orchitis, viral meningitis, and sensorineural deafness. While the incidence of disease decreased dramatically after the vaccine was added to standard vaccination schedules, the disease has made a substantial resurgence in recent years. As a result, it becomes critical to examine the factors involved in recurring outbreaks. Although low and incomplete vaccination coverage may be a key reason, it does not fully explain the issue due to the high rate of occurrence in populations with high vaccination coverage rates...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780431/mathematical-modelling-of-bacterial-meningitis-transmission-dynamics-with-control-measures
#5
Joshua Kiddy K Asamoah, Farai Nyabadza, Baba Seidu, Mehar Chand, Hemen Dutta
Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium ℰ 0 , when the effective reproduction number ℛ VT ≤ 1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium ℰ 1 , when ℛ VT > 1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at ℛ VT = 1...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772848/increased-vaccination-coverage-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-the-district-of-palermo-as-a-result-of-a-public-health-strategy-to-counteract-an-epidemic-panic
#6
Claudio Costantino, Vincenzo Restivo, Gianmarco Ventura, Claudio D'Angelo, Maria Angela Randazzo, Nicolò Casuccio, Mario Palermo, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Vitale
During the summer of 2016 four cases of invasive meningococcal disease in rapid succession among young adults in the district of Palermo, Italy, resulting in one death, were widely reported by local and national mass media. The resultant 'epidemic panic' among the general population overloaded the vaccination units of the Palermo district over the following months. Strategies implemented by the Sicilian and local public health authorities to counteract 'meningitis fear' included the following: (a) extension of active and free-of-charge anti-meningococcal tetravalent vaccination from age class 12⁻18 to 12⁻30 years old; (b) implementation of vaccination units during normal clinic hours in rooms tailored for vaccine administration; (c) development of informative institutional tools and timely communication throughout local mass media to reassure the general population...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#7
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752131/effectiveness-of-the-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-vaccine-against-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-the-netherlands-2003-16-a-case-control-study
#8
Susana Monge, Susan Jm Hahné, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth Am Sanders, Arie van der Ende, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: In 2016, an increase in invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease was reported in the Netherlands in children younger than 5 years, which coincided with the introduction of the hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated polio virus/Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) from 2011 onwards. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the hexavalent vaccine to assess whether this increase could be explained by decreasing effectiveness...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751133/the-threat-of-meningococcal-disease-during-the-hajj-and-umrah-mass-gatherings-a-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Saber Yezli
The Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings represent many of the risk factors for meningococcal disease and have historically been associated with both local and international outbreaks of the disease. The implementation of strict preventative measures including mandatory meningococcal vaccination with the quadrivalent (A,C,Y,W) vaccine has prevented pilgrimage-associated meningococcal outbreaks and significantly reduced the incidence of the disease at these events. However, meningococcal disease remains an important public health threat at the Hajj and Umrah due in part to the evolving nature of the disease, characterized with diverse and varying geographic trends, fluctuations in incidence and shifts in serogroups and genotypes...
May 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750768/dynamics-of-severe-and-non-severe-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-young-children-in-israel-following-pcv7-pcv13-introduction
#10
Daniel Glikman, Ron Dagan, Galia Barkai, Diana Averbuch, Alex Guri, Noga Givon-Lavi, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) resulted in a substantial reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. However, impact on non-severe IPD (mostly occult bacteremia) has not yet been fully elucidated.We assessed severe and non-severe IPD (SIPD and NSIPD, respectively) rate dynamics in children <5 years in Israel before and after PCV7/PCV13 implementation. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, nationwide surveillance...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742644/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-neonates-prior-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-south-africa-2003-2008
#11
Krishnee Moodley, Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia, Cheryl Cohen, Susan Meiring, Sarona M Lengand, Linda De Gouveia, Claire von Mollendorf, Penny Crowther-Gibson, Vanessa Quan, Brian Eley, Gary Reubenson, Trusha Nana, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developing countries is poorly described. We provide a baseline description of neonatal IPD in South Africa, prior to implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009. METHODS: Data from children (age ≤ 2 years) with IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile specimen) from January 2003 - December 2008 were extracted from a national laboratory-based surveillance database...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740727/the-first-case-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-small-vessel-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#12
REVIEW
Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer, Patrick Liang
To present an unrecognized vascular complication of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy administered for superficial bladder carcinoma. We also review the potential mimickers for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) as well as complications of intravesical BCG therapy. An 89-year-old Caucasian man with a history of relapsing high-grade bladder carcinoma treated with intravesical BCG presented with recurring episodes of right upper limb paresthesia with clumsiness and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed multiple predominantly left-sided frontotemporal micronodular peri-vascular lesions...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735685/acquisition-of-virulence-genes-by-a-carrier-strain-gave-rise-to-the-ongoing-epidemics-of-meningococcal-disease-in-west-africa
#13
Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Vegard Eldholm, Jon Bohlin, Kennedy Uadiale, Stephen Obaro, Dominique A Caugant
In the African meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa comprising 22 countries from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east, large epidemics of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis have occurred periodically. After gradual introduction from 2010 of mass vaccination with a monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A epidemics have been eliminated. Starting in 2013, the northwestern part of Nigeria has been affected by yearly outbreaks of meningitis caused by a novel strain of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC)...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730518/prevalence-of-gbs-serotype-iii-and-identification-of-a-st-17-like-genotype-from-neonates-with-invasive-diseases-in-guangzhou-china
#14
Junyan Liu, Ruiru Xu, Huamin Zhong, Yukui Zhong, Yongqiang Xie, Lin Li, Bing Li, Dingqiang Chen, Zhenbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to understand the surveillance of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) serotype and genotype which help developing specific vaccine for GBS infection. METHODS: The GBS serotype was determined by strep-B-Latex rapid agglutination method and multiplex PCR assay based on the differences among serotypes. Alleles and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were determined using the GBS MLST Web site. RESULTS: Four GBS serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, and V) were identified, with serotype III which was intimately associated with purulent meningitis and sepsis, as the dominance...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727446/development-of-experimental-gbs-vaccine-for-mucosal-immunization
#15
T Gupalova, G Leontieva, T Kramskaya, K Grabovskaya, E Bormotova, D Korjevski, A Suvorov
Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen as it is the leading cause of neonatal deaths due to sepsis, meningitis or bacterial pneumonia. Although the development of an effective and safe GBS vaccine is on the agenda of many research labs, there is no GBS vaccine on the market yet. In the present study we attempted to engineer a live vaccine strain based on Bac, a surface protein of GBS, incorporated into a surface fimbrial protein of probiotic Enterococcus. The resulting strain induced specific systemic and local immune responses in mice and provided protection against GBS when administered via the intranasal, oral or intravaginal immunization routes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723081/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-revaccination-and-catch-up-strategies-with-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv23-in-older-adults-in-japan
#16
Yiling Jiang, Xiaoqin Yang, Kazuko Taniguchi, Tanaz Petigara, Machiko Abe
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the National Immunization Program (NIP) includes PPV23 as the primary vaccination for adults and catch-up cohorts. The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases recommends revaccination for older adults who received primary vaccination ≥5 years earlier. The cost-effectiveness of adding revaccination and/or continuing catch-up vaccination in the NIP was evaluated from the public payer perspective in Japan. METHODS: The Markov model included five health states: no pneumococcal disease, invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP), post-meningitis sequelae, and death...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721239/meningitis-spondylodiscitis-pneumonia-and-septic-shock-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-a-previously-healthy-woman-with-isolated-igg2-igg3-iga-deficiency-and-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance
#17
Shahin Gaini, David Gudnason, Bjarni Á Steig, Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen
A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X-ray confirmed left lobar pneumonia. Two years later she was diagnosed with a pneumococcal pneumonia in her left lung with septic shock. An immune deficiency screen revealed slightly reduced IgA levels, low IgG2 levels, low IgG3 levels and high IgG1 levels...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695781/the-bexsero-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-vaccine-antigen-nhba-is-a-high-affinity-chondroitin-sulfate-binding-protein
#18
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Evgeny A Semchenko, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes life threatening meningitis and septicemia. Neisseria Heparin Binding Antigen (NHBA) is an outer membrane protein that binds heparin and heparan sulfate and DNA. This protein is one of the four antigens in the meningococcal serogroup B vaccine Bexsero. In the current study, we sought to define the full glycan-binding repertoire of NHBA to better understand its role in meningococcal pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. Glycan array analysis revealed binding to 28 structures by recombinant NHBA...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688492/adverse-events-in-vaccinations-for-travelers-a-1-year-prospective-survey-in-a-travel-clinic-in-germany
#19
Günther Slesak, Ralf Fleck, Helmut Scherbaum, Gunnar Blumenstock, Johannes Schäfer
Background: The study goal was to assess and compare adverse events (AE) of current vaccinations for travelers under 'real-life conditions'. Methods: A prospective observational online questionnaire study was performed from May 2015 till April 2016 in a travel clinic in Germany. Online questionnaire links were sent 1 week after the first vaccination date. Severity was rated on a scale from 1 to 5 (minor to very severe AE). Results: Of 1357 vaccinees 781 (57...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686670/alum-toll-like-receptor-7-adjuvant-enhances-the-expansion-of-memory-b-cell-compartment-within-the-draining-lymph-node
#20
Hoa Thi My Vo, Barbara Christiane Baudner, Stefano Sammicheli, Matteo Iannacone, Ugo D'Oro, Diego Piccioli
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions and, with the exception of water sanitization, no other action has had such a major effect in mortality reduction. Combined with other approaches, such as clean water, better hygiene, and health education, vaccination contributed to prevent millions of cases of deaths among children under 5 years of age. New or improved vaccines are needed to fight some vaccine-preventable diseases that are still a threat for the public health globally, as reported also in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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