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Vaccine for meningitis

Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Clio A Andreae, Richard B Sessions, Mumtaz Virji, Darryl J Hill
Neisseria meningitidis is an antigenically and genetically variable Gram-negative bacterium and a causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. Meningococci encode many outer membrane proteins, including Opa, Opc, Msf, fHbp and NadA, identified as being involved in colonisation of the host and evasion of the immune response. Although vaccines are available for the prevention of some types of meningococcal disease, none currently offer universal protection. We have used sequences within the Neisseria PubMLST database to determine the variability of msf and opc in 6,500 isolates...
2018: PloS One
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
A Koïvogui, A Carbunar, L-M Imounga, C Laruade, S Laube
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the vaccination coverage (VC) rate in persons aged from 9 months to 18 years and to describe it according to the predictive factors of good vaccination status. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and etiological study. METHODS: The study involved 1332 persons aged below 18 years and members of 521 representative households in French Guiana. VC was estimated by the proportion of people with complete immunization for 13 vaccines (four mandatory, seven recommended, and two specific)...
March 8, 2018: Public Health
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
March 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Anita Jeyakumar, Rodolpho E Bégué, Yu Jiang, Brian J McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines for vaccination of cochlear implant (CI) recipients have been promulgated and updated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to mitigate bacterial meningitis risk. The objective of this study was to survey current CI specialists on: 1) knowledge of current CDC CI recipient immunization recommendations, and 2) impediments to implementation of those guidelines. METHODS: A survey to assess knowledge of the CI recipient vaccination guidelines was administered to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery (AAO-HNS), the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACIA), and the American Neurotology Society (ANS)...
March 9, 2018: Laryngoscope
Shunming Li, Guoming Wen, Xuelian Cao, Dan Guo, Zhenjiang Yao, Chuan'an Wu, Xiaohua Ye
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of GBS colonized in mothers and their infants so as to provide implication for vaccine strategies and confirm vertical transmission. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 1815 mother-neonate pairs. All GBS isolates from pregnant women and her infants were tested for serotypes, multilocus sequence types and virulence genes...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Jingjing Yuan, Li Shen, Jing Wu, Xinran Zou, Jiaqi Gu, Jianguo Chen, Lingxiang Mao
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Viral proteins play a crucial role in EV-A71 infection. Many recent studies have discussed the structure and function of EV-A71 proteins, and the findings reported will definitely aid the development of vaccines and therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Uri Obolski, José Lourenço, Craig Thompson, Robin Thompson, Andrea Gori, Sunetra Gupta
The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health concern, being responsible for more than 1.5 million deaths annually through pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Available vaccines target only a subset of serotypes, so vaccination is often accompanied by a rise in the frequency of nonvaccine serotypes. Epidemiological studies suggest that such a change in serotype frequencies is often coupled with an increase of antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes. Building on previous multilocus models for bacterial pathogen population structure, we have developed a theoretical framework incorporating variation of serotype and antibiotic resistance to examine how their associations may be affected by vaccination...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bahaa Abu Raya, Manish Sadarangani
Invasive meningococcal disease causes meningitis and septicemia worldwide with highest rates of disease occurring in children <2 years of age, and in particular young infants. Vaccination during pregnancy has been a successful strategy for prevention of other infections in young infants, most notably tetanus, pertussis and influenza. However, few studies of meningococcal vaccines in pregnancy have been undertaken, and none include the most commonly used current vaccines to prevent disease by capsular groups A, B, C, W and Y...
February 27, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joan L Robinson
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is serious, often resulting in fulminant sepsis or meningitis. IMD in Canada is primarily attributable to serogroups B and C. There are routine programs for serogroup C vaccine at 12 months of age, with some jurisdictions routinely providing additional earlier doses. Adolescents routinely receive a booster dose of serogroup C vaccine or of a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W and Y) vaccine. Serogroup B vaccines are not recommended for routine use pending further data on the efficacy and duration of protection from the available vaccine...
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Haro Kaoru, Ryota Igarashi, Takayuki Hoshina, Masumi Kojiro, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: The necessity of lumbar puncture for the differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children with febrile status epilepticus (FSE) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the diagnostic necessity of lumbar puncture for children with FSE after the introduction of bacterial conjugate vaccines into the infant immunization program. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study was performed in children aged 6 to 60 months who were admitted to the pediatric ward at Kitakyushu General Hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 for seizures with fever...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
M Nour, A Alaidarous
Bacterial meningitis poses enormous healthcare challenges due to a high mortality, morbidity and sequelae. Neisseria (N.) meningitidis, Haemophilus (H.) influenzae, Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae and S. agalactiae remain among the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis in children. The objective of this study was the simultaneous detection of these pathogens in suspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and compare PCR results with standard diagnostics currently used in clinical practice...
February 15, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Concetta Paola Pelullo, Francesco Napolitano, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice about invasive meningococcal disease and the relative vaccine for adolescent in Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2017 among a sample of 771 adolescents in the geographic area of Naples (Italy). A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect demographics, knowledge about meningitis and preventive measures, perceived risk for contracting meningitis, attitude towards the utility of meningococcal vaccine, and adolescents' willingness to receive a meningococcal vaccine...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ting-Yu Angela Liao, Alice Lau, Joseph Sunil, Vesa Hytönen, Zakaria Hmama
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease and the only available vaccine M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is safe and effective for protection against children's severe TB meningitis and some forms of disseminated TB, but fails to protect against pulmonary TB, which is the most prevalent form of the disease. Promising strategies to improve BCG currently rely either on its transformation with genes encoding immunodominant M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens and/or complementation with genes encoding co-factors that would stimulate antigen presenting cells...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Diego A Díaz-Dinamarca, José I Jerias, Daniel A Soto, Jorge A Soto, Natalia V Díaz, Yessica Y Leyton, Rodrigo A Villegas, Alexis M Kalergis, Abel E Vásquez
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and a common pathogen in livestock and aquaculture industries around the world. Conjugate polysaccharide and protein-based vaccines are under development. The surface immunogenic protein (SIP) is a conserved protein in all GBS serotypes and has been shown to be a good target for vaccine development. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells has been shown to be useful in the development of vaccines, and the protein purification is a factor affecting their immunogenicity...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Hanh D Vo, Diana F Florescu, Cindy R Brown, Heather E Chambers, David F Mercer, Luciano M Vargas, Wendy J Grant, Alan N Langnas, Ruben E Quiros-Tejeira
Children undergoing LSBPTx are at increased risk of IPI due to splenectomy. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of IPI in pediatric LSBPTx recipients. Between 2008 and 2016, 122 LSBPTx children at our center were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients had 12 episodes of IPI; the median age at first infection was 3.5 years (range: 1.5-7.1 years). The median time from transplant to first infection was 3 years (range: 0.8-5.8 years). Clinical presentation included as follows: pneumonia (n = 1), bacteremia/sepsis (n = 7), pneumonia with sepsis (n = 1), meningitis with sepsis (n = 2), pneumonia and meningitis with sepsis (n = 1)...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Gianmarco Ventura, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Nicolò Casuccio, Claudio D'Angelo, Paola Stefanelli, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Vitale
Following two invasive meningococcal disease cases among twenties, general population overloaded vaccination Units of the Palermo's District during summer 2016. Sicilian Health Authorities adopted several public health strategies including: a) active meningococcal vaccination free of charge for people from 18 up to 30 years of age, b) information in crowded places and rapid communication by media. An increase in anti-meningococcal vaccination doses administered (+868%) as well as in anti-dTp and HPV vaccination (+41% and +8%, respectively) due to a further catch-up was observed...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Tsuguto Fujimoto
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and CV-A6 are the major causative agents of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). These viruses belong to the species Enterovirus A of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can also cause aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis and/or paralysis. EV-A71 is one of the main infectious agents related to severe encephalitis. Between 1997 and 2013, East and Southeast Asia experienced large encephalitis outbreaks caused by EV-A71 infections, which ranged from severe to lethal...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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