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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129451/cost-effectiveness-of-maternal-gbs-immunization-in-low-income-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Louise B Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Jennifer R Verani, Anushua Sinha
BACKGROUND: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. METHODS: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122409/understanding-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-suis-a-veterinary-medical-and-economic-challenge
#2
REVIEW
B Haas, D Grenier
Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide and causes considerable economic losses in the swine industry. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic agent, mainly in Asia. In pigs and humans, S. suis can cause septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, and meningitis with irreversible sequelae. Identification and characterization of the virulence factors produced by S. suis are major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of S. suis infections and has therefore opened promising avenues for vaccine development against this pathogen...
November 6, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116892/lessons-from-the-meningitis-vaccine-project
#3
F Marc LaForce, Mamoudou Djingarey, Simonetta Viviani, Marie-Pierre Preziosi
From 2001 to 2017 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a Gates Foundation funded partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO), successfully developed, tested, licensed, and introduced an affordable new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(®), in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccine was well received, and from 2010 to 2016, over 260 million Africans have received a dose of the vaccine in campaigns largely directed at 1-29-year olds. The public health impact has been dramatic with the elimination of Group A meningococcal infections wherever the vaccine has been used at public health scale...
November 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106586/immunization-with-a-latch-peptide-provides-serotype-independent-protection-against-group-b-streptococcus-infection-in-mice
#4
Shun-Mei Lin, A-Yeung Jang, Yong Zhi, Shuang Gao, Sangyong Lim, Jae Hyang Lim, Joon Young Song, Paul M Sullam, Joon Heang Rhee, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases as well as of severe infections in the elderly. The GBS serine rich repeat glycoprotein, Srr1, acts as a critical virulent factor by facilitating GBS invasion into the central nervous system through interaction with the fibrinogen A chain. In this study, we found that Srr1 is highly conserved in GBS clinical isolates (86.7%). Following immunization with different Srr1 truncated peptides, we demonstrated that only mice immunized with Srr1 truncates containing the latch domain were protected against GBS meningitis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102832/postneonatal-mortality-impacts-following-grants-from-the-gavi-vaccine-alliance-an-econometric-analysis-from-2000-to-2014
#5
R J Kolesar, M Audibert
We completed a retrospective multivariate panel study to evaluate the effect of Gavi Vaccine Alliance grants on vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) postneonatal mortality. We separately tested a composite VPD mortality rate and five vaccine-preventable mortality rates: pertussis, meningitis, measles, diarrhea, and pneumonia (lower-respiratory infection) as dependent variables. All 77 countries eligible for Gavi assistance from 2000 to 2014 were included in the study. To isolate the effect of Gavi funding in our primary model, we controlled for known and likely predictors of child mortality...
November 2, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098104/late-onset-streptococcus-agalactiae-meningitis-following-early-onset-septicemia-a-preventable-disease
#6
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, King Woon So, Alexander K C Leung
We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095907/bacterial-meningitis-epidemiology-and-return-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-a-cases-in-burkina-faso-in-the-five-years-following-menafrivac-mass-vaccination-campaign
#7
Alpha Oumar Diallo, Heidi M Soeters, Issaka Yameogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Flavien Aké, Clément Lingani, Xin Wang, Andre Bita, Amadou Fall, Lassana Sangaré, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Brice Bicaba, Ryan T Novak
BACKGROUND: Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction. METHODS: We examined Burkina Faso's aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095719/novel-and-preclinical-treatment-strategies-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#8
Jan P Bewersdorf, Denis Grandgirard, Uwe Koedel, Stephen L Leib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent form of bacterial meningitis in Europe and the United States. Although early antimicrobial and adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone have helped to improve disease outcome in adults, mortality and morbidity rates remain unsatisfactorily high, emphasizing the need for additional treatment options. Promising targets for adjuvant therapy have been identified recently and will be the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain disease in pneumococcal meningitis is caused by direct bacterial toxicity and excessive meningeal inflammation...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081071/herpes-zoster-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-children-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#9
Naohiro Itoh, Kouji Motokura, Akira Kumakura, Daisuke Hata, Atsuko Hata
We encountered two cases of Herpes zoster (HZ) meningitis, a rarely occurring complication of HZ, in previously healthy children. One patient treated with i.v. acyclovir (ACV, 31 mg/kg/day) did not recover. His symptoms were relieved somewhat by increased ACV dosage, but it caused transient renal dysfunction. Another patient treated with i.v. ACV (30 mg/kg/day) recovered. Treatment for HZ meningitis in immunocompetent children has not been established. In a literature review, 80% of 20 patients were treated with the usual dose of ACV 15-30 mg/kg/day...
October 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073137/integration-of-enteric-fever-surveillance-into-the-who-coordinated-invasive-bacterial-vaccine-preventable-diseases-ib-vpd-platform-a-low-cost-approach-to-track-an-increasingly-important-disease
#10
Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Mohammad J Uddin, Shampa Saha, Rajib C Das, Abdullah H Baqui, Mathuram Santosham, Robert E Black, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. METHODOLOGIES: The IB-VPD surveillance system uses WHO definitions to enroll 2-59 month children hospitalized with possible pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068749/combined-effect-of-pcv10-and-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination-on-meningitis-mortality-among-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-brazil
#11
Ana Luiza Bierrenbach, Ruth Minamisava, Airlane Pereira Alencar, Gizelton Pereira Alencar, Ana Lucia Andrade
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in March 2010, scheduled at 2, 4, and 6 months, with a booster at 12-15 months of age. The meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MCC) was introduced in November 2010, scheduled at 3 and 5 months, with a booster dose at 12-15 months of age and no catch-up for older age groups. In this interrupted time-series analysis study, we used Brazilian mortality data from 2005 to 2015 for children under five years of age (excluding data from the state of Bahia) to assess the combined impact of these vaccines on the overall burden of meningitis mortality among children aged 0-23 months and 2-4 years, as defined using meningitis and meningococcemia specific International Classification of Diseases - tenth revision codes...
October 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064356/expansion-of-vaccination-services-and-strengthening-vaccine-preventable-diseases-surveillance-in-haiti-2010-2016
#12
Rania A Tohme, Jeannot Francois, Kathleen F Cavallaro, Gilson Paluku, Idrissa Yalcouye, Ernsley Jackson, Tracie Wright, Paul Adrien, Mark A Katz, Terri B Hyde, Pape Faye, Francine Kimanuka, Vance Dietz, John Vertefeuille, David Lowrance, Benjamin Dahl, Roopal Patel
Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053888/epidemiological-patterns-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-lithuania-and-clinical-features-in-adults-in-the-light-of-the-high-incidence-in-recent-years-a-retrospective-study
#13
Daiva Radzišauskienė, Kęstutis Žagminas, Loreta Ašoklienė, Arminas Jasionis, Rūta Mameniškienė, Arvydas Ambrozaitis, Ligita Jančorienė, Dalius Jatužis, Iveta Petraitytė, Evelina Mockienė
BACKGROUND: Lithuania is one of the countries with the highest incidence of TBE in Europe. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE in Lithuania, and characterize clinical features in adults in the light of the high incidence in recent years. METHODS: Surveillance data available on the website of the Center for Communicable Diseases and AIDS of Lithuania were used to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE. The retrospective study included 712 patients hospitalized in the Center for Infectious Diseases and the Center for Neurology of Vilnius University in the years 2005-2014...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049009/seroepidemiology-of-coxsackievirus-b5-in-infants-and-children-in-jiangsu-province-china
#14
Fan Gao, Lianlian Bian, Xiaotian Hao, Yalin Hu, Xin Yao, Shiyang Sun, Pan Chen, Ce Yang, Ruixiao Du, Jingxin Li, Fengcai Zhu, Qunying Mao, Zhenglun Liang
Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) is associated with various human diseases such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, paralysis, herpangina, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, there is currently no effective vaccine against CV-B5.The seroepidemiologic characteristics of CV-B5 remained unknown. A cohort study was carried out in 176 participants aged 6-35 months from January 2012 to January 2014. The serum samples were collected and tested for CV-B5 neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) four times during these two years...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049002/cost-effectiveness-of-the-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccine-for-infants-in-mainland-china
#15
Guijun Ning, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of childhood pneumonia, meningitis and other vaccine-preventable diseases in mainland China from a societal perspective and to provide information about the addition of the Hib vaccine to Chinese immunization programs. METHODS: A decision tree and the Markov model were used to estimate the costs and effectiveness of the Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for a birth cohort of 100,000 children in 2016...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048988/developmental-strategy-for-a-new-group-a-meningococcalconjugate-vaccine-menafrivac-r
#16
Prasad S Kulkarni, Suresh S Jadhav, F Marc LaForce
Until recently, periodic Group A meningococcal meningitis outbreaks were a major public health problem in the sub-Saharan Africa. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO) and PATH, a Seattle-based NGO, and the Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd (SIIPL) initiated discussions aimed at establishing a collaborationto develop a Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for this unmet medical need. Over the next 8 years the partnership made countless strategic decisions about product characteristics, raw materials, potential target populations, geographic prioritization and affordability of the vaccine to name a few...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046666/molecular-serotype-specific-identification-of-non-type-b-haemophilus-influenzae-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#17
Chika Takano, Mitsuko Seki, Dong Wook Kim, Paul E Kilgore, Kazumasa Fuwa, Koji Takahashi, Toshiaki Inazaki, Satoshi Hayakawa
Over the past four decades, the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in children has decreased due to widespread vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib). The incidence of invasive diseases due to H. influenzae types not included in the vaccines, however, has increased. At present, there are a limited number of diagnostics available to detect non-type b H. influenzae. To address this issue, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method for detecting serotypes of H. influenzae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045606/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-group-b-streptococcus-meningitis-in-infants-and-newborns-study-of-848-cases-in-france-from-2001-2014
#18
Anne-Sophie Romain, Robert Cohen, Céline Plainvert, Caroline Joubrel, Stéphane Béchet, Amélie Perret, Asmaa Tazi, Claire Poyart, Corinne Levy
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease is the leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis despite women receiving an intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) during labor. We aimed to describe GBS meningitis in children less than 1 year old in France during 2001-2014. Methods: Clinical and biological data of GBS meningitis gathered by ACTIV/GPIP and the French National Reference Center for Streptococci were analyzed. The cases were classified by age: 0 to 6 days old (early-onset disease [EOD]), newborns and infants 7 to 89 days old (late-onset disease [LOD]: LOD1, 7-26 days; LOD2, 27-89 days to 3 months) and infants 3 months to 1 year old (infant disease [ID])...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
October 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024352/characterization-of-the-conjugation-pattern-in-large-polysaccharide-protein-conjugates-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Stefano Giuntini, Evita Balducci, Linda Cerofolini, Enrico Ravera, Marco Fragai, Francesco Berti, Claudio Luchinat
Carbohydrate-based vaccines are among the safest and most effective vaccines and represent potent tools for prevention of life-threatening bacterial infectious diseases, like meningitis and pneumonia. The chemical conjugation of a weak antigen to protein as a source of T-cell epitopes generates a glycoconjugate vaccine that results more immunogenic. Several methods have been used so far to characterize the resulting polysaccharide-protein conjugates. However, a reduced number of methodologies has been proposed for measuring the degree of saccharide conjugation at the possible protein sites...
October 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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